This page relates to the year 1985 Gregorian Calendrier.
- March 12th: American-Soviet talks on the space weapons, the intercontinental and intermediate missiles, with Geneva.
- November 19th: Meet between Ronald Reagan and Mikhaïl Gorbatchev with Geneva, which starts the rupture of the arms race.
- September 1st: The wreck of the Titanic is found by Robert D. Ballard.
- September 22nd: Signature of the Agreements of Plaza in New York between the United States, France, the the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan, for a management concerted of foreign exchange rates in order to cause a drop in the dollar (which had reached 10,6 francs French).
- January 1st:
- Swiss Coming into effect in of the ordinance of the July 4th 1984 regulating the documentary evidence of the origin of the goods as regards Foreign trade.
- Jacques Delors, president of the European commission.
- February: The Greenland, Danish autonomous province anxious to protect its marine resources, withdraws the EEC.
- March 26th: Agreements of Brussels, preparing the entry of the Spain in the EEC.
- April 17th: Paris proposes with the EEC the launching of the project Eureka.
- April 20th: Renewal “for 20 years” of the Warsaw Pact.
- May 29th: Drama of Heysel. Riot mortal at the stage of the Heysel to Brussels at the time of the finale of the Cut of Europe of Football: 38 died and 200 wounded.
- June 14th: The Flight 847 of the TWA, connecting Athens to Rome, is diverted by members of the Hezbollah. The operation will find a outcome later only two weeks, after multiple adventures.
- June: The Spain and the Portugal sign their adhesion with the EEC.
- Spain: Carlos Solchaga, Minister for the economy, practices a program of total privatizations.
- Portugal: Dissolution of the Parliament caused by the rupture enters the PS and the centrists.
- October: Victoire of the centrists to legislative to the Portugal.
- November 6th: Aníbal Cavaco Silva (social democrat), Prime Minister of Portugal (fine in 1995).
- December 27th: Attack S Palestinian mortals with Rome and Vienna against the company El Al: 19 died and 115 wounded.
General strike of the women in Iceland.
- Social conflicts in Spain due to the precariousness of employment and the inequalities.
- Portugal: 16% the illiterate ones among the elderly of more than 15 years. (21% for the women, 12% for the men).
See also: 1985 in France
See also: 1985 in Switzerland
- March 5th: Failure and end of long the strike of the minors to the the United Kingdom (more than one year).
- November 15th: Anglo-Irish Summit of Hillsborough, at the end which agreements are signed which recognize a right to watch in Ireland of the South on the businesses of the Ulster and found an intergovernmental council discussing the problems and the political future of the province.
- September 12th: The the United Kingdom expels 31 Soviet “diplomats”, the Soviet Union of the same counterpart.
- Riots of Birmingham.
- “Release” of the job market in the United Kingdom.
- the incidence of poverty is of 5% in the middle of the Années 1980 in the United Kingdom.
- March 30th: Arrest of the specialist in the bleaching of the funds of the Maffia, Giuseppe Calò.
- June 23rd: Francesco Cossiga, president of the Republic (fine in 1992).
- June: Failure of the communist referendum of initiative aiming at removing the law which limits the flexible salary scale.
- October 7th: Palestinian terrorists divert the Italian steamer Achille Lauro and kill an American passenger before taking refuge in an Egyptian port. A negotiation italo-Egyptian woman results in promising a return in safety to these terrorists in the country of their choice in exchange of the abandonment of the boat and of its passengers. Four Palestinian flies away in a Boeing Egyptian, which is intercepted by hunting American and constrained to be posed on a basis of NATO in Sicily. Washington claims the delivery of the pirates. Bettino Craxi, having called its on Egypt, refuses to yield and the four Palestinians go freely in Yugoslavia the October 12th.
- the budget deficit accounts for 14,5% of GDP. That of the trade balance worsens January at July, involving a devaluation of 6%. Hugeness of the debt; when Italy borrows 3 liras, 2 are used to pay the interests of the debt in progress. With the second half-year, the foreign trade is rectified under the effect of the devaluation; inflation is of 8,6% for the year; unemployment strikes 10,6% of the credits.
Augmentation licenses population resulting from the immigration (of 400 000 with 800 000 people). Problems start to be pointed by observers: moonlighting, delinquency… and a series of laws passed to try to suppress this arrival (1986, 1990, 1995, 1998). The emergency impression is reinforced by the innumerable attempts of clandestine Albanian to reach Italy by the sea, sometimes dramatic. Concretely, this immigration is primarily dependant on a demand for labor in industry.
- April 11th: Died of the general secretary of the Albanian Communist party Enver Hoxha with the capacity since 1946. Its successor, Ramiz Combined, continues the extreme policy of autarky which reduces the people to poverty.
- July 5th, Czechoslovakia: The pilgrimage with Velehrad for the 1100° birthday of Méthode is transformed into demonstrations of Moravian and Slovak believers against the Communist regime.
Inflation (80-90% of rise of the prices in 1985 - 1986) and unemployment (a million unemployed for 23 million inhabitants) in Yugoslavia. The strikes multiply. The economic difficulties exasperate latent animosities between ethnicities in Yugoslavia. Within the communist League, the Croats and the Sloveniens disallow the proposals aiming at a centralization of the party and State; they are opposed to Serb which themselves are confronted with the Albanian problem of the Kosovo.
- March 11th: Mikhaïl Gorbatchev replaces Konstantin Tchernenko with the head of the USSR. After having ensured his capacity by changing the members of the Politburo, Gorbatchev launches a campaign intended to reform the Soviet company. Its day order speaks about Perestroïka (reorganization) of the nation's economy and about Glasnost (transparency) in the political matters and cultural.
- April 8th: Gorbatchev announces a moratorium on the deployment of the SS-20 in Europe.
- June: Edouard Chevardnadze, Foreign Minister.
- September 27th: To launch his reform program economic, Gorbatchev replaces at the post of Prime Minister recalcitrant the Nikolai Tikhonov by Nikolai Ryzhkov, considered to be more open. Until 1987, Gorbatchev remains however attached to a planned economy into which it introduces market components gradually.
Gorbatchev launches a programme of decentralization of the economic decisions.
- Relative parity enters the strategic forces of the United States and the USSR.
- the Warsaw Pact aligns on the face European North-Center, of Norway in the West Germany, 113 divisions and 24 200 tanks, whereas NATO has respectively only 54 and 8  of it; 800.
Gorbatchev makes accept by Politburo the principle of a withdrawal of the Russian troops of Afghanistan (10). Summit of Geneva amorçant a co-operation with the United States (11). Agreement with the archipelago of the Kiribati, allowing the Soviet naval expansion in the Pacific.
- February 10th: Nelson Mandela rejects the offer of release of Pieter Willem Botha.
- March 21st: 70 people are killed by the police force at the time of the 35e commemoration of the Massacre of Sharpeville to Port Elizabeth.
- July 20th: Revolt ghettos black and introduction of the state of emergency by the mode of Pretoria.
- April 6th: Begun again rebellion Southerner with the Sudan and falls of Nemeyri.
- August 27th: To the Nigeria, the army carries to the capacity the general Ibrahim Babangida who commits himself saving the country of the economic catastrophe.
October: Gorbatchev makes accept by the Politburo the principle of a withdrawal of the Russian troops of Afghanistan, together with certain conditions: the Soviet Union request in the United States which they cease supplying Afghan resistance so that the mode of the president Mohammed Nadjibullah can survive, at the price of concessions to islamist fundamentalist. In the middle of the governmental Years 1980, forces and some 120 000 Soviet soldiers control the cities and main roads but the remainder of the country is with the hands of the rebels.
Riots with Conakry.
- 1 150 000 inhabitants with Dakar.
- of the December 14th to the December 30th, War of the Band of Agacher between the Burkina Faso and the Mali
- January 14th: Hun Sen, Prime Minister for the Kampuchea.
- July 10th: Thaw sino-Soviet, voyage in the USSR of the Chinese Deputy Prime Minister.
- August 12th: A Boeing 747, the Flight 123 Japan Airlines, is crushed on a mountain, after having wanted to turn over has Tōkyō following a problem of decompression of the apparatus. 520 people find death there.
Revaluation of the Yen.
- Nepotism in North Korea: twelve parents of the marshal Kim It-sung occupy of the important stations.
- University of Lhassa.
- BJP revival agitation hindouist with Ayodhya for objective. The Hindu tradition claims that Rāma would have been born in this city on the site from a built mosque with the XVIe century. This mosque was closed since 1950 by court order to prevent the Hindus from practicing their rites there. The February 2nd, the seals are raised.
- Business Shah Bano in India: the Supreme court condemns a Moslem to provide the food needs of the woman whom he had repudiated. The Muslim organizations highly criticize this contrary decision with the Charia. The February 27th, Rajiv Gandhi presents a bill, the Muslim Women Bill , which repudiates the Supreme court and is aligned on the charia.
- Mars: Retreat of the Left the Congress at the time of the regional elections, in particular in the Maharashtra, where a coalition of the BJP and Janata party are victorious.
- July 24th: Rajiv-Longowal agreement signed with the Panjab following secret talks with the moderate separatists.
- August 20th: The leader moderate independentist Harchand Singh Longowal is assassinated, and the spiral of violence is restarted with the Khalistan.
- December 8th: Foundation in with Dhâkâ of SAARC ( South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation ). On the way of the return, the general Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, president of the Islamic Republic of the Pakistan, stops with Delhi and commits himself with Rajiv Gandhi not attacking their reciprocal nuclear installations.
Plane VIIe in India (1985 - 1990). He insists on the need for releasing from the new resources resulting from the widening of the taxability, a development of the private sector and a reform of the public sector.
- January 5th, Brazil: Immense popular demonstrations obliged the general João Figueiredo to return the capacity, and a civilian, Tancredo Neves is elected president of the Republic with 480 votes against 180. He dies the April 21st before his nomination. Civil government and democracy in Brazil.
- April 14th: Alan García (35 years), elected president of Peru.
- March 1st: Restoration of the democracy in Uruguay.
- March 15th: The vice-president Jose Sarney replaces Tancredo Neves with the presidency of Brazil (fine in 1990). He imposes a program of austerity economic and introduced a new currency to try to contain a which gallops inflation which will be assembled to 1000% in 1989.
- April 22nd: Argentinian opening in of the lawsuit of new marked military chiefs to have made 711 cases of violation of the human rights. This “lawsuit of the century finishes three months and half later by the judgment of the Videla general to the life imprisonment and of Violated with a 17 years sorrow. About the 3000 soldiers mentioned by the report/ratio of CONADEP responsible for disappearance of more than 9000 people, only the officers having taken initiatives are worried.
- June 14th: Argentinian southern plan: general freezing of the prices and the wages, fixity of foreign exchange rate. To fight against inflation, the peso yields the place to the southern , with a devaluation of 40%. Inflation passes from 350% in first half of the year to 20% to the second. As of April 1986, the government announces that certain prices and wages would be adjusted and the plan loses its credibility. The reduction of inflation is of short duration, and in 1989 the country is plunged again in a disastrous situation.
- July 28th: Alan García, candidate of APRA, takes its functions of president of Peru. He undertakes the democratic consolidation by widening his base of supports in the line of the APRA and military reformism. In spite of reforms, he does not manage to limit violence.
- economic Programme of stabilization in Bolivia: the budget deficit is brutally reduced, which makes fall inflation from 8170% in 1985 to 11% in 1987, without restoring a solid growth however.
- With the Peru, the president Alan García lance a consistent economic program in a revival of consumption by pay rises, a price freeze and a devaluation of 12%. Refundings of the interests of the debt are strictly limited. Inflation is temporarily controlled and Peru knows growth rates of 9,5% in 1986 and 6,9% in 1987, before the extent of the tax deficit does not cause a rise in inflation.
- October: Crisis of the debt: The United States launches the Baker plan which takes again the regulation usual of the the IMF concerning the adjustment and adding that the best pupils would be rewarded by new loans for the private banking and financings for the inter-American Bank for development (BID) and the World Bank. The plan does not approach the political dimension of the problem (responsibility for the United States which maintains interest rates high). This plan will have only few repercussions.
- November 12th: Catastrophic eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia, making 25 000 dead (because of a Lahar): a French geographer, J. - C. Thouret, had charted the possible impacts of such a catastrophe but the authorities had not considered to be convenient to make evacuate the city. Televisions retransmettent the death on line of a young girl.
- March 31st: The PDC gains the legislative ones with the El Salvador with 33 seats out of 60 compared with 13 for the ARENA. El Salvador then knows a preserving drift on the economic plan. Unpopular measurements succeed the failures of the peace negotiations. Generalized corruption deteriorates the credibility of the mode.
- May 1st: The United States issues the economic embargo against the Nicaragua. The Sandinistas must turn more and more to the Eastern European countries, then to take measures of economic adjustment.
- May 30th: Democratic constitution with the Guatemala. The soldiers yield the capacity to the civilians.
- April: The United States proposes a peace plan for the Central America clearly consisting in trying to eliminate the Sandinistes while exerting on them a military pressure thanks to the countered and by forcing them to organize competing elections.
- September: Act of Contadora for peace and the co-operation in Central America. Only the Nicaragua sign the document.
- September 19th: Violent one Earthquake with the Mexico, of magnitude 8.0, making at least 9 500 died, mainly with Mexico City, 350 km of the epicentre.
Hardening of the mode Sandinista: suspension of fundamental freedoms.
- Mexico: In a climate of irregularity, the institutional revolutionary Parti declares victorious parliamentary elections.
- Tax reform with the Mexico. Modernization of the system of perception of the taxes and installation of a tax on the added-value. A great number of tax incentives are removed for the social categories traditionally protected by the mode. The balance in the budget is reached since 1986 and the tax rates gradually reduced in order to stimulate the economic activity.
- the new preserving Prime Minister Canadian Brian Mulroney defends the idea of a free exchange zone between the the United States and the Canada.
- Scission of the Hard-working Canadian of the car of with the American United Auto Workers.
the United States
- January: Ronald Reagan decides to give the priority to a tax reform which must have a neutral effect on the entries and cannot in no case to reabsorb the deficit.
- June - July: Doctrines Reagan of assistance to the movements of opposition armed to the recently established Communist regimes.
- July 13rd: Ronald Reagan is made operate of a Cancer of the colon.
- September 22nd: Declaration of Plaza: the new secretary with the treasure James Baker expresses his intention to carry out a “landing carefully” dollar, whose too high parity harms exports.
- October: Baker plan to facilitate the payment of the debt of the underdeveloped countries.
- December 2nd: Law Gramm-Rudman on the initiative of the Congress which envisages the progressive but automatic reduction if necessary of the budget deficit, cuts being distributed equally on the military and social expenditure.
the incidence of poverty is of 13% in the middle of the Années 1980.
- Aggravation of the trade deficit.
- Concentration of the transport companies air following a proliferation of absorptions and fusions. American Airlines, the principal company, adopts a structure of tariffs that the other conveyers adopt readily.
- Mère Teresa opens an old people's home with Manhattan for the victims of the AIDS.
- February: The New Zealand leaves ANZUS.
- the New Zealand government prohibited the entry of its ports to the ships with propulsion nuclear or equipped with atomic weapons, which the pentagon refuses to confirm or to contradict.
- April 30th: Adoption of a bill on the New Caledonia where disorders occur.
- May 22nd: Edgard Pisani Minister for the New Caledonia.
- July 10th: Explosion of the Rainbow Warrior , ship of the group ecologist Greenpeace, in the port of Auckland, because of the French secret services.
- August 6th: Treaty of Rarotonga for the creation of a zone denuclearized in the Southern Pacific. It will be finally ratified in 1996 by the the United States, the the United Kingdom and the France.
The Middle East
- February 11th: Jordano-Palestinian agreement. PLO recognizes all the resolutions of UNO and proposes the “ground against peace”. The agreement calls with an International Conference made up of the five members of the Safety advice and all the recipients to the conflict, including the PLO. The installation of a government of national union (Likoud and left) paralyzes the reaction of Israel ( September). Shimon Peres considers the Jordanian action favorably and proposes a payment by stage, with one intermediate period where the Jordan and Israel will manage the Palestinian businesses in connection with an elected assembly. A series of Palestinian attacks (like the business Achilles Lauro) and of Israeli reprisals puts an end to the process.
- March 22nd: Removal with Beirut with the Diplomatic Lebanon of two S French, Marcel Carton and Marcel Fountain, asserted by the Islamic Jihad.
- Mars, Lebanon: The Lebanese Forces are raised against Amine Gemayel and carry at their head Samir Geagea and Elie Hobeika.
- May 22nd: Removal with Beirut of two French: Michel Seurat and Jean-Paul Kauffmann.
- October 7th: Diversion strapping of the Italian steamer Achilles Lauro by a terrorist commando Palestinian.
Lebanon: With the autumn, the Syria tries to establish an agreement between the principal militia (Amal, Druzes, FL). The agreement envisages the end of the state of war, a government of national union, the dissolution of the militia, a parliamentary parity between Christians and Moslems, a reinforcement of the capacities of the president of the Council to the detriment of the president of the Republic, the return of the civil refugees, the reorganization of the army, the establishment of privileged relations with Syria. The Shiites refuse the agreement because the parity goes against their conquest of the capacity. The other parts also refuse.
- War Iran-Iraq: The Iran gives up its tactic of the human waves and prepares small offensives on precise points.
- Backward flow of the oil prices. The Saudi Arabia, ulcerated to see nibbling its market shares by the other members of OPEC who do not respect their quotas, changes policy: it gives up supports it prices and is worried from now on volumes of production, thanks to the signing of contracts which guarantee to the refiners an amount given by barrel, the share of the variable kingdom wahhabite according to the price. In some month, the price of the West Texas Intermediate falls from 31,75 to 10 dollars the barrel. The producing States essuient heavy financial losses. The the United States worry about what the too low courses discourage the prospection on their ground, and the constrained one to depend more on the imports, which weakens their safety vis-a-vis the Soviet Union, exporter. A price close to 18 dollars (instead of the 29 official dollars) seems equitable. OPEC gives up the strategy of the market shares and returns to the quotas. At the end of 1986, the consequences of the Second oil crisis are unobtrusive; the consumers recover, by the fall of the nominal prices and more still real (exchange value of the dollar drops), part of what they had of pouring with OPEC during the preceding rises. The economic growth is stimulated by it.
Arts & Cultures
- Garry Kasparov becomes world champion of the failures (Anatoli Karpov - 10 years).
- With Paris, Christo “packs” the New Pont.
- With the Academy of Science of Moscow, Alexey Pajitnov creates Tetris, the most popular video game of all times.
Sciences & technology
See also: 1985 in science
See also: 1985 in aeronautics
See also: 1985 in the railroads
See also: 1985 in sport
See also: 1985 in football
Births in 1985
- January 7th: Lewis Hamilton, racing driver English of Formula 1
- January 11th: Kazuki Nakajima, racing driver Japanese of GP 2.
- May 16th: Stanislav Ianevski, Bulgarian Actor
- June 19th: Yannick Bokolo, French international player of basketball
- June 26th: Orgyen Trinley Dorje, recognized like 17th Karmapa with the Tibet
- June 27th: Nico Rosberg, racing driver German of Formula 1
- June 30th: Rafał Blechacz, pianist Polish
- October 22nd: Zackary Hanson, singer and American beater
- October 24th: Lionel Beauxis, French rugby player, opener of the French Stage Paris, world champion less than 21 years in 2006.
- October 25th: Ciara Harris, American singer
Death in 1985
- January 1st: Hermann Reutter, Type-setter and German Pianist. (° May 17th 1900).
- January 2nd: Jacques de Lacretelle, French writer
- February 11th: Henry Hathaway, American scenario writer
- March 10th: Konstantin Tchernenko, Soviet statesman
- March 28th: Marc Chagall, French painter of Russian origin
- April 10th: Vladimir Jankélévitch, French philosopher
- April 11th: Enver Hoxha, Albanian leader
- April 22nd: Jacques Ferron, doctor and writer Québécois.
- May 12th: Jean Dubuffet, French artist
- May 19th: Herbert Ruff, Type-setter, Leader and Pianist Polish (° September 16th 1918)
- July 19th: Janusz A. Zajdel, writer Polish of SF (° September 15th 1938)
- July 27th: Michel Audiard, scenario writer and realizer French
- August 6th: Philippe of Dieuleveult, journalist and TV host
- August 25th: Samantha Smith, American schoolgirl , Ambassador of good will in Soviet Union (° June 29th 1972)
- August 30th: El Yiyo (Jose Cubero Sanchez), Spanish Matador (° April 16th 1964)
- September 19th: Italo Calvino, Italian writer
- September 30th
- October 2nd: Rock'n'roll Hudson, ( Roy Scherer Fitzgerald ), American actor . (° November 17th 1925).
- October 10th
- October 18th: Stefan Askenase, pianist Polish (° July 10th 1896)
- November 24th: Rene Barjavel, writer and journalist French
- December 31st: Ricky Nelson, singer and American actor
Beats-smg: 1985 Be-X-old: 1985 Map-bms: 1985 Simple: 1985 Zh-min-nan: 1985 nor Zh-yue: 1985 年
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