This page relates to the year 1983 Gregorian Calendrier.
- March 30th: Strategic initiative of defense (““star war” or Star Wars”) IDS.
- January 11th: In the Upper Volta, (current Burkina Faso), the “Committee of the hello of the people” (CSP) appoints Thomas Sankara Prime Minister (fine the May 17th).
- Mars: Yamoussoukro, native village of the president of the Ivory Coast Felix Houphouët-Boigny, is arranged and embellished so as to become the capital of the country.
- April 26th: The president of the Sudan Gaafar Nimeiry states the state of emergency. The introduction of the Charia (Islamic law) involved the resumption of the civil war between North and the South.
- August 4th: Coup d'etat of the captain Thomas Sankara in the Upper Volta (fine in 1987).
- August: The France starts the “ Opération Manta ” with the Chad. The French troops intervene in Chad, in prey with the civil war. The hostile partisans with the government of Hissène Habré are supported by Libya.
- December 31st: The general Buhari shift Shehu Shagari with the Nigeria.
nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
a million immigrants are expelled of the Nigeria.
- a news Constitution grants some Droit S to the Métis and the Indien S in South Africa.
- Inauguration of the Bridge Matadi on the river Congo.
- Foundation of the Economic community of the States of central Africa (CEEAC).
the African countries trade very little between them (3,4% of exports, 3% of the imports) and remain deeply depend on the Western capitalist countries (83,3% of exports, 74,2% of the imports), in particular Western Europe (60,9% of exports, 55,9% of the imports).
the Prime Minister for the Canada Pierre Elliott Trudeau changes his economic policy. He proposes to multiply the bilateral agreements with the United States on the model of the pact of the car of 1965. The Reagan administration agrees to negotiate, but refuses the method suggested.
The United States
- January 15th: The day of birth of Martin Luther King becomes non-working.
- March 8th: In front of an audience of fundamentalist Protestants, Ronald Reagan denounces the Soviet Union like “the empire of the evil”.
- March 23rd: To break the logic of “the balance of terror”, Reagan launches a defensive program, the strategic Initiative of defense (IDS) baptized by its detractors “Star Wars”. It would be a question of building an impenetrable antinuclear shield which would get a “assured mutual survival”, instead of the “mutual destruction assured” (MAD) traditional dissuasion. The critics assert that such a system is destabilizing, technically ineffective and expensive, and that it is likely to militarize space. The partisans of IDS notice that MAD is immoral and that, because of precision of the missiles, the offensive forces are vulnerable in the event of attack. While launching out in an arms race which calls upon high technology, Reagan hopes to blow the technically delayed USSR.
- October 23rd: With the Lebanon, two car bomb attacks strike French barracks (56 dead) and American (239 dead).
- First execution by intravenous injection with the the United States.
- the United States decides to stop the nuclear reactor with fast neutrons (RNR) Clinch River.
- 52% of the women works apart from the hearth.
- March 24th: Signature with Carthagène, Colombia, of the Convention for the Protection and the Development of the Maritime environment of the area of Large Caribbean the , known as Convention of Carthagène, only obligatory regional environmental treaty.
- June - October: Demonstrations, concerts of pans or protested against the capacity organized with the Chile.
- July: The socialist mode of the Nicaragua is in prey with incursions of guerillas, the “ Contras ”, come from the Honduras.
- August 10th, Chile: Augusto Pinochet names a preserving civilian, Sergio Onofre Jarpa, with the ministry for the Interior with mission of establishing a dialog with the opposition.
- September: The Ecuadorian president Osvaldo Hurtado draws the attention of CEPAL to the social consequences and policies of the crisis of the debt. A first conference is taken place under the aegis of OAS with Caracas.
- October 19th: Independence of Saint-Christophe-and-Niévès.
- October 18th, Chile: An united demonstration of all the opposition gathers more than one half million of people with Santiago of Chile.
- October 25th: American unloading with the Grenade, in prey with serious political disturbances. The intervention is condemned by the General meeting of the United Nations.
- October 30th: In Argentinian, beginning of the civil presidency of Raul Alfonsin after the dictatorship of Videla, elected president with the majority of the votes. He restores the democracy. He adopts a reasonable attitude vis-a-vis the soldiers, choosing to say the truth on the “dirty war” and to return justice, without spirit of revenge and tackling the military institution. It wishes that the former leaders of the three juntas be judged severely but which one shows indulgence with respect to the executants. He created a National Commission on the disappearance of the people (CONADEP) and entrusts the direction of it to the writer Ernesto Sabato.
- Group of Contadora: the Mexico, the Venezuela, the Colombia and Panamá decide to make an effort of mediation intended to bring back peace in the isthmus centraméricain. It receive a broad international support (except of the United States) and are joined starting from 1985 by the Argentine, the Peru, the Brésil and the Uruguay.
- Commission Kissinger (National Commission bipartisane on the Central America) convened to study the threats which weigh on the North-American interests in the area. It concluded that the origin of the crisis is to be sought in poverty, the injustice and of the not very inclined political regimes to the reforms. But the Reagan administration retains the idea that the causes of the destabilization of the democracies are the exploitation of a volatile situation made by hostile forces with the Western values and receiving the Soviet support.
- Peru: The president Belaúnde Terry gives freehand to the army to repress the guerilla, which results in an increase in the violations of the human rights. The area of Ayacucho is declared zone emergency and is placed under military command, without peace returning there for as much.
- Brazil: The economic crisis is with its roof in party because of a hesitant economic policy. The soldiers are discredited by it. Divided, they must face an enormous popular mobilization on the topic Diretas Já! (direct Elections immediately!) whereas the president Figueiredo chooses his successor. The moderate ones of PMDB manage to convince the left of the party to line up behind Tancredo Neves. Inside the PDS ( Partido Progressista ), the president of the party Jose Sarney form the PFL ( Partido da Frente Liberal ) which refuses the candidate proposed by Figueiredo. The PFL and the PMDB approach to form the AD ( Aliança Democrática ) to support the candidature of the ticket Firns-Sarney. The duros launch threats, which obliges Neves to give guarantees that in the event of victory, there would be no spirit of revenge ( revanchismo ).
- the foreign debt of the Uruguay doubled since 1972.
- August 21st: With the Filipino , the chief of the opposition Benigno Aquino is assassinated with the airport of Manila on its return of exile.
Malaysia: Mahatir bin Mohammed is opposed by twice to the hereditary sultans and succeeds in making accept with the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and the Council of the sovereigns a limitation of their right to veto.
- the restoration of the Buddhist temple of Borobudur (Java), started in 1966, is completed.
- Fine July: Separatist movements Tamoul S with Sri Lanka (Eelam Tamoul, Tigers). The Tigers (LTTE) pass to the terrorist activity, which starts confrontations between Tamouls and Cingalais.
the Parti the Congress loses the regional elections in Andhra Pradesh vis-a-vis the Telugu Desam whose leader, NR. T. Rama Rao becomes chief of the local government. Indira Gandhi manages to make fall the government by convainquant a minister to rejoin the Congress. This handling causes such an outcry that New Delhi must move back. Indira rejects all the responsibility for the business on the government. At the Cashmere, Indira sets up a similar scenario and thus causes the swing of the State in violence.
- With the Panjab, the Sikhs, which form 52% of the population, is victims of an important rise of unemployment. The Akali Dal, resulting from a sect sikhe extremist which wants to found a theocracy, sees his audience growing. Indira Gandhi decides to divide Akali Dal into promoting the faction extremist of Sikh nationalism, directed by Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwalé, which claims the creation of a State sikh, the Khalistan. The cycle violence/repression made 10 000 died since the beginning of the Years 1980. Akali Dal present of new claims at the central government, whose refusal supports the movement of Bhindranwalé, which installs its militia close to the Temple of Gold to Amritsar. The October 5th, all the passengers of a Hindu bus are massacred and the president' S rule is proclaimed in the Panjab. Bhindranwalé, although he is not accused, decides to take refuge out of weapon in the crowned enclosure of the Gold Temple. Akali Dal in vain tries to take again the control of the situation.
- January 20th: Speech of François Mitterrand in Bonn: “the missiles are with the East and the pacifist ones in the West”. It approves the deployment of the American missiles Pershings .
- February: Dissolution of the Parliament to the Portugal.
- April 25th: Success of the PS to the legislative elections with the Portugal.
- June 9th: Mário Soares, chief of the Portuguese government (fine in 1985).
- August 31st: A Boeing southern Korean is cut down by the Soviet Chasse believer to deal with American spy plane in its airspace, with broad of the island Sakhaline (269 dead).
- September 7th: End of CSCE to Madrid.
- October 17th: Peace marches in West Germany.
- October: Law dépénalisant the Abortion in Spain.
- November 15th: Proclamation of the Turkish republic of Cyprus of North. She is recognized only by the Turkey.
- November 23rd: Deployment of the first Pershing in Germany and with the the United Kingdom.
- December 8th: Suspension by the Soviet of the negotiations START with Geneva.
- December 15th: Withdrawal of the country of the Warsaw Pact of the negotiations MBFR of Vienna.
- December: Euromissiles: Installation in Italy, Great Britain and FRG of 48 Pershing II and 64 American cruise missiles to rebalance the forces in Europe.
- Law of reorganization of the economy in Spain (Miguel Boyer, Minister for the economy): rigor and austerity (devaluation, suppression of employment in the shipyards, iron and steel industry, the textile, creation of zones of urgent reindustrialisation).
See also: 1983 in France
See also: 1983 in Switzerland
- May 4th: The president of the Republic charges Fanfani with ensuring the management of the go concern and dissolves the Parliament.
- June 26th: The Christian Democrat falls to 33% to the legislative elections, NCV to 29,9%, PSI progresses to 11,4% and MSI to 6,8%.
- August 4th: Beginning of the government Bettino Craxi (PSI-DC) (fine the March 3rd 1987).
-0,2% of growth. Restarting of the Italian economy. The growth accelerates, inflation slows down, the public deficits are filled. The weight of the underground economy remains important (20-30% of the national revenue). The Lire is devaluated of 2,5%.
- Bradyséisme of Pouzzoles (continuous between 1982 and 1984).
- July: The state of war is suspended in Poland after a voyage of the crowned pope of success.
- Demonstrations and arrests multiplies. Solidarité becomes a clandestine movement of opposition, supported by the Catholic church.
- October 5th: Lech Wałęsa obtains the Nobel Prize Paix, it cannot go to the Cérémonie.
The United Kingdom
- January 9th: Unexpected trip of British the Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in the archipelago of the Falklands, which has just been begun again with the Argentins.
- June 9th, the United Kingdom: Electoral triumph of the conservative party thanks to the division of its adversaries.
- June 11th: The monetarist Nigel Lawson becomes chancellor of the Exchequer (fine in 1989). However, the experiment monetarist turns short as of 1985. The policy of interest rates tends to control either the money supply, but foreign exchange rate.
- October 2nd: Neil Kinnock takes the head of the workers party.
- December 17th: Attack of the WILL GO to Harrods (London).
Taken again growth. Spectacular retreat of inflation to the the United Kingdom. In 1983-1987, the annual rise of the prices and 4,7%, that of the wages of 8,5%.
- Increase in the military expenditure with which culminates in 1983-1984 with 5,4% of the GDP.
- Margaret Thatcher fulminates against the agricultural policy of the the EEC which absorbs 70% of the community budget and proves to be unable to control enormous surpluses.
Oceania & the Pacific
The Middle East
- February 8th: The Commission Report of Kahane investigation involves the resignation of Ariel Sharon in Mars.
- April 18th: Attack-suicide with the truck trapped against the American Embassy with Beirut, (Lebanon) asserted by the Islamic Jihad. Assessment: 63 died and 120 wounded.
- May 17th: Peace agreement between the Lebanon and Israel. It is based on the model of the treaty with the Egypt, but cannot be applied because of the occupation of Lebanon by the Syrian troops. The Lebanese government will denounce it the following year. The multinational force ensures the withdrawal of the Israeli army of Beirut, manpower the September 26th.
- August: Resignation of Menahem Begin, Israeli Prime Minister.
- September: The Israeli withdrawal without preparation of the area of the Chouf opens the way with the massacre of Christians by the Druzes. The friendship between Israel and the Maronites are threatened by it. The Druzes go on Beirut. The Lebanese army, ordered by the colonel Michel Aoun, manages to stop the offensive Druze on Beirut.
- October, Lebanon: A national reconciliation conference with place with Geneva (10). The political officials ask for a priority withdrawal of Israel, which refuses the Lebanese Forces. In November, the engagements begin again.
- October 1st: A cease-fire is signed between the Lebanese army and the Druzes.
- October 10th: Yitzhak Shamir becomes Prime Minister of Israel.
- October 23rd: Simultaneous explosions of two trucks trapped in front of the barracks of the “marine ” American and of the French Army with Beirut, (Lebanon). Assessment: 241 navy American and 56 French parachutists of the Multinational force is killed.
- October 30th: A Earthquake of magnitude 6.8 fact 1 330 victims in Turkey.
- December 21st: Attacks against French soldiers of FINUL to the Lebanon Southern. Assessment: 10 died, of which a French soldier, and 110 wounded.
nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
Arts & cultures
- January 22nd: With León of los Aldama (Mexico, state of Guanajuato), alternate of Manolo Mejía, Mexican Matador.
- April 3rd: With Seville (Spain), alternate of Juan Mora, Spanish Matador.
See also: 1983 in sport
See also: 1983 in football
Sciences & technology
See also: 1983 in science
See also: 1983 in aeronautics
See also: 1983 in the railroads
Births in 1983
- January 19th: Utada Hikaru, Japanese singer
- January 20th: François Yserentant, Belgian politician.
- January 31st: Sebastien Castela (Sebastien Turzac), Matador French.
- February 21st: Melanie Laurent, French actress
- February 24th: Sophie Howard, British model
- February 26th: Kara Monaco, model and American actress , Playmate off the Year 2006
- April 1st: Franck Ribéry, French footballer
- May 5th: Serafín Marín, Spanish Matador .
- May 13rd: Grégory Lemarchal, French singer († April 30th, 2007)
- July 3rd: Dorota Masłowska, Romance writer cière, Polish Playwright and Journalist .
- July 14th: Igor Andreev, Russian tennis player
- November 9th: Jennifer Ayache, French singer
- November 11th: Arouna Koné, footballer of the Ivory Coast
- November 12th: Michał Kwiatkowski, singer Polish
- November 27th: Miguel Ángel Perera, Spanish Matador .
Death in 1983
- January 11th: Nikolaï Podgorny, Soviet politician
- January 19th: Jean d' Arcy, man of television
- January 24th: George Cukor, American realizer
- January 27th: Meyer Strong, British anthropologist
- January 27th: Louis de Funès, French actor
- January 28th: Billy Fury, British singer
- February 25th: Tennessee Williams, American writer (° March 26th 1911)
- March 3rd: Georges Remi known as Hergé, draftsman, " père" of Tintin.
- March 8th: Chabuca Granda (of its true name Maria Isabel Granda Larco ), Peruvian singer. (° September 3rd 1920).
- April 19th: Jerzy Andrzejewski, writer Polish (° August 19th 1909)
- April 30th: George Balanchine, dancer and choreographer
- May 14th: Miguel Alemán Valdés, president of the Mexico between 1946 and 1952.
- July 1st: Richard Buckminster Fuller, architect, designer, inventor and American writer (° July 12th 1895)
- July 13rd: Gabrielle Roy, écrivaine Canadian
- July 29th: Shine Buñuel, realizer Spanish
- October 26th: Alfred Tarski, logician Polish (° January 14th 1902)
- November 7th: German Tailleferre, type-setter, member Six
- December 5th: Robert Aldrich, producer and American realizer
- December 25th: Joan Miró, painter and Spanish ceramist
Beats-smg: 1983 Be-X-old: 1983 Map-bms: 1983 Simple: 1983 Zh-min-nan: 1983 nor Zh-yue: 1983 年
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