This page relates to the year 1982 Gregorian Calendrier.
- June 29th: Beginning of the negotiations START on the strategic armaments, with Geneva.
- the Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to Suédoise Alva Myrdal and to the Mexican Alfonso García Robles.
- : Formation of the federation Sénégambie (fine in 1989). It is equipped with the Council of Ministers and an assembly having the capacity to coordinate the policy of the two States as regards defense, foreign politics, economy and finances.
- February 15th: Etienne Tshisekedi, Marcel Lihau and others Congolese creates the Union for the democracy and the social progress, opposition party under the mode of sole party of Mobutu Sese Seko with the Zaire.
- April 25th: Restitution with the Egypt by Israel of the last occupied part of the the Sinai.
- June 7th: Hissène Habré seizes the power with the Chad. It takes Ndjamena.
- October 1st: Israeli air raid on the general headquarter of PLO to Tunis: 68 dead.
- November 6th: Resignation of the Cameronian president Ahmadou Ahidjo. Paul Biya becomes president of the Cameroun.
- Creation of the Movement of the democratic forces of Casamance.
- Report/ratio of international Amnesty on the violations of the Human rights in Africa.
- April 14th: By the proclamation of the Queen of the United Kingdom on the hill of the Parliament, the Canada repatriates its Constitution and gains full independence against the the United Kingdom; included in this constitution is the Canadian Charte of the rights and freedoms.
The United States
- January 8th: To escape the antitrust continuations, the group ATT agrees to be divided.
- Law extending the deregulation to the financial institutions.
- June 12th: Nearly a million people express with Central Park against the arms race.
- June 18th: Quarrel on the gas pipeline. Ronald Reagan interdict with the subsidiary companies of the American firms to abroad provide the hardware requirement to the construction of a gas pipeline for the transport of Siberian gas towards Western Europe. A compromise east establishes with the autumn.
- Be: Inflection of the monetary policy.
- November: Success limited of the democrats to the partial ones. They manage to make give up Ronald Reagan her project of “néo-federalism”, to make him accept a rise in the taxation (consolidation of the incomes) and a reinforcement of the law of 1965 to protect the electoral rights of the Blacks.
- December 8th: The Boland amendment prohibited with the Reagan Administration to finance military operations or paramilitaries of the Countered , groups of opponents armed to the mode Sandinista with the Nicaragua.
the brutal recession of 1982, strongest since the Second world war, breakage Net inflation. 10% unemployed at the end of 1982.
- the United States count 232 million inhabitants. The South and the West of the country ( Sunbelt ) for the first time are populated than the North-West.
- 213 billion dollars are invested abroad.
- Appearance of case of AIDS in the United States.
- January 11th: Constitution with the Honduras. It gives to the soldiers insurances to be completely with the shelter of the political fluctuations (the chief of Staff is named for five years, that is to say one year more than the presidential mandate, and revocable by the majority of two thirds by the assembly).
- January 27th: Roberto Suazo Córdova, reformist with the capacity with the Honduras.
- February 7th: Creation of URNG ( Unión revolucionaria nacional guatemalteca ), joining together the EGP, the ORPA, the FAR and PGT-Núcleo of dirección nacional.
- March 15th: State of emergency with the Nicaragua, threatened of outside by the the United States.
- March 23rd: Military dictatorship with the Guatemala of Efraín Ríos Montt.
- March 29th: Constituent elections with the El Salvador. PDC does not obtain that 24 seats out of 60, the right-wing opposition being distributed the 36 other seats, including 10 for the extreme line (ARENA).
- July 4th: Miguel of Madrid Hurtado gains the presidential election with the Mexico with 74,3% of the voices.
- July 21st: Democratization and establishment of a civil government in Bolivia with the come to power of Guido Vildoso Calderón (fine in October).
- August 12th: Critical financial position with the Mexico, which involved in debt of more than 80 billion dollars, is declared unable to refund its creditors. He applies for loans the foreign governments, a moratorium for the refunding of the capital at the trade banks and rééchelonnement of his debt. Mistrust extends quickly to the Brésil, the Argentine and the other Latin-American countries, all strongly involved in debt, like in the African continent. The banks, scalded by the risks which they had taken before, refuse to grant appropriations again or to renew the old ones.
- In the Mexican crisis, the government foreigners (the United States), the the IMF and the commercial large banks initially endeavors to maintain open the taps of the credit and to make pressure on the banks of size inferior so that it act in the same way. A constrained policy of “loans concerted” banks required new appropriations proportionally to their former loans. The debt is re-spread, passing from the short term to the long run. Mexico manages to reduce its public expenditure by 20% between 1982 and 1986.
- October 10th: The soldiers decide to withdraw capacity in Bolivia and Hernán Siles Zuazo is indicated president of the Republic by the Congress.
- November: The elections change gives it political to the Brésil: PMDB (opposition) gains the posts of governor of the four most important States (São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Paraná). The government must negotiate with the Room of the representatives where the opposition is majority. Finally certain governors of PDS ( Partido Democrático Social ) become more independent with regard to the central capacity.
- February 1st: Miguel of Madrid Hurtado succeeds Jose López Portillo, with the presidency of the Mexico.
- Programme of “employment for the household heads” with the Chile.
- the Venezuela reduces its public expenditure of 20% between 1982 and 1986.
- March 19th: Occupation of the island of South Georgia by a group of Argentinian civilians.
- April 2nd: Invasion of the Falklands (British Territory of overseas) by the Argentinian (fine the June 14th).
- the Argentinian generals, incompetent to rebuild a healthy economy, hope to find some credit while playing of the nationalism of the population. Calling upon debatable rights on the Falkland Islands (Falkland), they occupy them by the force in April, cash to put the government of Margaret Thatcher in front of the accomplished fact. The population, of British origin, wants to preserve its bonds with the the United Kingdom. An English squadron, supported by the Americans as regards telecommunications, reconquers the archipelago in June, while the Argentinian generals must yield the capacity to the civilians.
- May 1st: The Royal Air Force bombards the airport of Port Stanley, the capital of the Falklands.
- May 21st: the British forces unload in Port San Carlos.
- June 14th: Rendering of the garrison Argentinian of Port Stanley. End of the War of the Falklands.
- June 18th July 1st: After the defeat of Argentinian, the president Leopoldo Galtieri is replaced by the general Bignone who promises a return to the democratic order, but the armed forces are not in position to be able to control the process of devolution of the capacity to the civilians (fine in 1983).
Laos: After having fled in 1975 with the seizure of power by the communist armed forces, the general Tong Lit returns with like mission of unifying the various groups of resistance under the crook of the United front of national release of Laos (FULNL), created the June 18th, 1981 with Paris.
Kampuchea: Khmer Rouge, always recognized by the the United Nations, and the partisans of Sihanouk and its former minister His San, form a coalition. Supported by the Western countries, the China and the countries of ASEAN, they continue the fight against the new mode provietnamien.
China: Article 35 of the Chinese Constitution guarantees the freedom of the beliefs, provided that they do not disturb the order and the State.
- October 8th: The free trade union Solidarność (Solidarity) is declared illegal in Poland.
- November 14th: Release of Lech Wałęsa.
- the pope Jean-Paul II supports the Polish trade union Solidarité .
- June 18th: Ronald Reagan extends the Embargo against the USSR to exports of technology.
- July 22nd: France, then the Germany, the the United Kingdom and the Italy refuse to follow the American embargo on the Soviet Union.
- November 10th: Died of Léonid Brejnev, Iouri Andropov, former chief of the KGB ( Komitet gossoudarstvennoï bezopasnosti , “committee for the safety of State”), succeeds to him the general secretary of the party and the report heading (end in February 1984). 68 years old and reached of a renal disease, it occupies the station only fifteen months. It appears to incarnate the accession with the capacity of a new generation, and liberal inclinations are lent to him. It launches out in a brutal discipline campaign against alcoholism, corruption, the incompetence, the absenteeism with work. Out of economic material, it does not conceive reforms out of the traditional framework.
- November 13rd: Lifting of the gas embargo on the the USSR by the the United States, after the French refusal to respect it.
- December 21st: Proposal for a fall of the level of the armaments in Europe by the USSR.
- January 11th: Principality of Asturies, Andalusia and Cantabrie accept by referendum the statute of autonomy.
- May 28th: First visit of a Pope in Great Britain by Jean-Paul II.
- June 9th: Spain: The Area of Murcie and Rioja accept by referendum the statute of autonomy.
- July 20th: Attack of the WILL GO to Hyde Park.
- August 12th: Constitutional revision with the Portugal. Removal of the council of the revolution, drawing aside the soldiers of the political life. Reduction of the capacity of the president of the Republic.
- August 28th: Dissolution of the the Cortes in Spain. PSOE triumph with the elections with 46% of the votes and 202 seats (80% of participation). UCD makes only 7,3%, the Alianza Popular 25,3% and PCE only 3,9%.
- October 1st: Resignation of the chancellor Helmut Schmidt (social democrat) following the defection of part of the liberals (FDP). Helmut Kohl (CDU) becomes chancellor of the West Germany.
- October 8th: Olof Palme, social democrat Prime Minister in Sweden (fine in 1986).
- February 1st: Felipe González form the first Socialist government of Spain (fine in 1996).
the United Kingdom: After the failure of the strikes of the minors, railwaymen and of hospital staff, the preserving majority votes a law which makes in the case of the trade unions financially responsible suit at law in damage or of “secondary” strike (when the trade union is not directly concerned in the conflict with a given employer).
- the former empress of Austria Zita of Bourbon-Parma is authorized for the first time since 1918 to come in Austria where it receives a triumphal reception at the time of the ceremony in the Saint-Etienne cathedral of Vienna.
- unemployment touches 16% of the active population. 18% of the active population are in agriculture (8% in France).
- * More than 10% unemployed to the the United Kingdom between 1982 and 1987.
- Margaret Thatcher goes to the Japan in order to encourage the industrialist to invest in Great Britain.
See also: 1982 in France
See also: 1982 in Switzerland
- April: Dismantling of the “Clan of Catanais” (150 people) and votes of a special legislation against the Mafia.
- April 21st: Opening of the lawsuit of the assassins of Moro. 32 sorrows of imprisonment will be marked (January 1983).
- April 30th: Assassination in full day of the communist deputy Pio Torre with Palermo. The President of the Council Giovanni Spadolini names the general Dalla Chiesa co-ordinating operations anti-Maffia.
- August 7th: Deprived of the support of the Socialists, Giovanni Spadolini resigns. Having been able to secure their adhesion again, it forms a fifth government (August 23rd). The coalition divides by dissensions between Christian-Democrats and Socialists.
- September 3rd: Assassination by the Mafia of the general Paved Chiesa and of his wife with Palermo.
- Arrest of members of the red Brigades with Naples (Vittorio Bolognesi and Natalia Ligas, September-October) and with Milan (Suzanna Ronconi, November 1st). 3600 terrorists or supposed such are in prison with the end of the year. Among them 355 repented and 378 “dissociated” (those which give up the fight without collaborating with the police force).
- November 13rd: Spadolini must resign.
- December 11th: The Christian-Democrat Amintore Fanfani, president of the Senate, forms a coalition government without the participation of the republicans.
Recession: -0,5% of growth. Employers asks for the removal of the flexible salary scale ( mobile Scala ) to fight against inflation.
- the Lire is devaluated (2,75%). The budget deficit reached 70 000 billion liras (15,5% of GNP). That of the balance of the payment 6000 billion, that of the trade balance double. 16,2% of inflation. The share of the public expenditure reaches 53,7% of the GNP.
- the program of Fanfani is to reduce inflation to 13% and the budget deficit.
- Beginning of the Bradyséisme of Pouzzoles (the phenomenon will last until in 1984).
Oceania & the Pacific
- Discovered Helicobacter pylori by two Australian researchers: Robin Warren and Barry Marshall.
The Middle East
- February 2nd: Massacre of Hama. In Syria, the town of Hama is raised under the impulse of the Muslim brothers. After three weeks of combat and bombardments (the center of the city is shaven), Hama falls. One estimates at 15 000 the number of victims of the combat and the massacres which followed. The islamist movement crumbles.
- April: The the Sinai is demilitarized.
- May 24th, War Iran-Iraq: Khorramshahr is taken again by the Iran and of the thousands of Iraqi soldiers prisoners are made.
- June 3rd: An attack against the Israeli ambassador with London gives the pretext of the Israeli intervention to the Lebanon. Benefitting from the Lebanese civil war, Israel, allied to the Phalanges Maronites of the family Gemayel, carry the war in Lebanon (1982-1985), without gaining the discounted victory.
- June 6th: Operation “Peace for Galileo”: The Israeli troops carried out by Ariel Sharon invade the Lebanon and liquidate the Palestinian pockets of resistance with the Southern Lebanon.
- June 9th: The Israeli army attacks the army Syria, which is folded up after several days of engagements.
- June 11th: A cease-fire is signed between Syria and Israel.
- June 13rd:
- Fahd becomes king of Saudi Arabia. there
- the Israelis make their junction with FL and put the seat in front of Beirut, without being able to enter, because of American opposition.
- June 20th: Saddam Hussein recalls her troops on the international border. Khomeiny ambitionne to invade the Iraq to establish an Islamic Republic there.
- July, War Iran-Iraq: The Iran lance a series of offensives “attack” based on the sacrifice of considerable waves of volunteers, the “guards of the revolution”. The Iraq opposes a line of defense strengthened and protected by a powerful artillery. The first Iranian offensive fails around Al Basra. The Iranians destroy the petrochemical installations of Kirkuk and Al Basra. They enter in Iraq in August. The offensives of the autumn produce little results compared to the human losses.
- August 21st: PLO evacuates Beirut, protected by an international force. Yasser Arafat is constrained to leave Beirut for Tunis.
- August 23rd: Bashir Gemayel is elected president of Lebanon. He refuses the peace treaty proposed by Israel and requires the departure of the foreign forces.
- September 1st: Publication of the peace plan Reagan prepared by the Secretary of State Schultz, based on the principles of the Camp David agreements: total autonomy of the Palestinians of the Occupied territories but refusal of the formation of a State independent Palestinian. The Reagan plan is refused by the Palestinians at the time of XVIe CNP to Algiers (February 1983) and by Israel.
- September 14th: The assassination of the new Lebanese president Bashir Gemayel allows the entry of the Israeli troops Beirut-West.
- 15 September: Whereas PLO settles with Tunis, Yasser Arafat is received by the pope Jean-Paul II.
- September 16th with the September 17th: Massacre (500 to 3000 dead) Palestinian S and Lebanon board with Sabra and Chatila, Beirut, by Christian militia without intervening the Israeli troops. The manifestations of the Palestinians of the Occupied territories are repressed hard by the Israeli army. The opposition to the war even goes up in Israel, while the international protests multiply.
- September 21st: Amine Gemayel, brother of Bachir, is elected President of the Republic of the Lebanon. It supports the rebuilding of a national army and is based on the Multinational force. But the militia supported by Damas take again the combat and the peace agreement with Israel is not ratified by the Parliament. Israeli occupation enlise until its departure in 1984 vis-a-vis the actions of the Shiite (militia Amal of Nabih Berri and Hezbollah) and of the Face of Lebanese national resistance.
- September 25th: 400 000 Israeli demonstrators ask for the resignation of the Prime Minister Menahem Begin.
- October 1st: Israeli air raid on the general headquarter of PLO to Tunis: 60 dead
- October: Reconciliation between Hussein of Jordan and Yasser Arafat with Amman. In December, the idea of a jordano-Palestinian confederation is approved.
- Constitution of the Face of Lebanese resistance, animated by the Communists Lebanese, who multiplies the attacks against the Israeli presence. The November 11th, the Israeli general headquarter with Saïda is destroyed by an explosion which causes the death of 75 Israelis.
After the Iraqi defeats, monarchies of the Golfe worry about the expansionism Iranian and subsidize the Iraqi effort of war massively (they lend 50 billion dollars to Baghdad during the conflict). While remaining neutral, the Americans give a broad support for the Iraq in its war against the Iran.
a Earthquake of magnitude 6.0 fact 2 000 victims with the Yemen of North.
Arts & cultures
- In April, the Greek government accepts by decree the system known as monotonic (μονοτονικό σύστημα monotonikó sístima ), which largely simplifies the system of the Diacritiques of the Greek alphabet.
- Mode: Reebok leaves the Reebok Freestyle, model exclusively dedicated to the women and at the origin of the Step.
Sciences & technology
See also: 1982 in science
See also: 1982 in aeronautics
See also: 1982 in the railroads
Sport and leisures
See also: 1982 in sport
See also: 1982 in football
Births in 1982
- January 3rd: Manzanares (Jose María Samper Frauds), Spanish Matador .
- January 5th:
- Jaroslav Plašil, Czech Football or
- Karel Geraerts, Belgian Football or
- Morgan Turinui, player of the Team of Australia of Rugby to XV
- January 6th: Gilbert Arenas, player of Basketball NBA
- January 12th: Paul-Henri Mathieu, player of Tennis French
- January 13rd:
- Guillermo Coria, player of Argentinian Tennis
- Erwann Péchoux, Fencing ur French
- Olivier Fontenette, Football or French
- January 14th: Víctor Valdés, Football Spanish or
- January 16th: Tuncay Şanlı, Football Turkish or
- January 17th:
- January 18th: Álvaro Pérez Mejía, Football Spanish or
- January 19th: Mike Komisarek, player of hockey evolving/moving with the Canadian of Montreal
- January 21st:
- January 22nd:
- Fabricio Coloccini, Football Argentinian or
- Peter Jehle, Goalkeeper of Football born with the Liechtenstein
- Martin Koch, jumper with Austrian Ski
- January 26th: Kalimba Marichal, Mexican singer
- January 27th:
- January 28th:
- Michael Guigou, player of Handball French
- Gorgi Katcharava, player of Rugby to XV evolving/moving in the team of Georgia
- Sebastien Puygrenier, Football or French
- January 29th:
- Kim Dong-jin, Football South Korean or
- Michael Claassens, player of the team of South Africa of Rugby with XV
- January 30th:
- January 31st: Alexei Verbov, Russian player of Volley ball
- : Sam Tuitupou, player of Rugby to XV New Zealand
- February 4th: Kimberly Wyatt, singer, American dancer
- February 10th: Justin Gatlin, American Athlete
- February 11th: Adriano, Football or Brazil IEN
- February 15th: Élodie Frégé, French singer
- February 18th: Juelz Santana, American Rap fear
- February 19th: Paul Guyvenson, Poet writer and Haitian Draftsman
- February 24th: Birth of Amandine, the first French baby “in vitro”
- April 16th: Boris Diaw, player French of Basketball
- April 24th: Kelly Clarkson, singer, American actress
- April 30th: Kirsten Dunst, American actress
- May 1st:
- May 2nd: Lorie, French singer
- May 6th: Guillaume Guibert, French musician
- May 15th: Jessica Sutta, singer, American dancer
- May 17th: Tony Parker, French player of Basketball
- May 20th: Clement Poitrenaud, French rugby player
- June 1st: Justine Henin, Belgian tennis player
- June 21st: William, crown prince to the Crown of the the United Kingdom
- June 22nd: Kristof Vliegen, Belgian player of Tennis
- June 26th: François Come Canada
- : Jean-Charles Mattei, skater of Shorts-track French
- August 29th: Yakhouba Diawara, Basketball player French evolving/moving with the Denver Nuggets
- October 1st: Matthew Stevens, player of Rugby to XV evolving/moving with the team of England
- October 5th: Yannick Kamanan, Football French or
- October 7th:
- October 13rd: Ian Thorpe, swimmer Australia N, known as “the Torpedo”
- October 16th: Frederic Michalak, player of Rugby to XV French
- October 18th: Thierry Amiel, French singer
- October 20th: Jose Acasuso, Argentinian tennis player
- October 21st: Matt Dallas, American actor
- October 28th: Matías Tejela, Spanish Matador
- October 28th: François Rousset, Designer French
- October 30th: Chimène Badi, French singer.
- November 12th: Anne Hathaway, American actress
- November 15th: Jennifer, French singer
- November 30th: Elisha Cuthbert, Canadian actress
- December 6th: Alberto Contador, runner Spanish cyclist
- December 30th: Kristin Kreuk, Canadian actress
Death in 1982
- January 1st: Paul Belmondo, French sculptor
- January 13rd: Marcel Camus, French scenario writer
- January 22nd: Eduardo Frei, former president of the Chile
- February 9th: Marthe Richard, inspirer of the law on the removal of the houses closed in France
- February 17th: Thelonious Monk, pianist and type-setter of American jazz
- March 2nd: Philip K. Dick, author of science fiction
- March 3rd: Georges Perec, French writer
- March 29th: Carl Orff, type-setter
- May 5th: Irmgard Keun, German novelist
- May 8th: Gilles Villeneuve, racing driver of Canadian F1
- May 15th: Joelle Mogensen, singer
- May 29th: Romy Schneider, Austrian actress (° September 23rd 1938)
- June 10th
- To groove Werner Fassbinder, German realizer
- Official reception Dali, wife of Salvador Dali
- June 17th: Roberto Calvi, business man
- June 29th: Pierre Balmain, dressmaker, (born in 1914)
- July 16th: Patrick Dewaere, French actor - (suicide), (° January 26th 1947)
- July 19th: Hugh Everett, physicist and American mathematician (° November 11th 1930)
- August 12th: Henry Founded, actor American (° May 16th 1905)
- August 29th: Ingrid Bergman, Swedish actress (° August 29th 1915)
- August 31st: Wladislaw Gomulka, Hungarian politician (° February 6th 1905)
- September 14th
- Kristján Eldjárn, Icelandic politician (° December 6th 1916)
- Christian Ferras, French violonist - (suicide)
- Béchir Gemayel, president Lebanon board
- Grace Kelly, the Grace princess of Monaco (° November 12th 1929)
- October 4th: Glenn Gould, pianist and Canadian type-setter
- October 18th: Pierre Mendès France, French politician (° January 11th 1907)
- November 1st: King Vidor, American realizer
- November 5th: Jacques Tati, born Tatischeff, French scenario writer (° October 9th 1908)
- November 10th: Léonid Brejnev, Soviet statesman (° December 19th 1906)
- November 19th: Erving Goffman, sociologist
- December 8th: Moro Naba Kougri, emperor of the Mossis of the Burkina Faso (established in 1957)
- December 18th: Valerie Valère, writer
- December 20th: Arthur Rubinstein, American Pianist
- December 24th
Beats-smg: 1982 Be-X-old: 1982 Map-bms: 1982 Roa-rup: 1982 Simple: 1982 Zh-min-nan: 1982 nor Zh-yue: 1982 年
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