This page relates to the year 1981 Gregorian Calendrier.
- May 13rd: attack of Mehmet Ali Ağca against the Pope Jean-Paul II with Rome
- December 11th: Election of Javier Pérez de Cuéllar at the position of secretary general of UNO.
- the Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to Office of the High Commission of UNO for the Refugees.
- April 24th: Constitutional reform founding a Multi-party system without restrictions on the Senegal.
- the general strike with the Morocco is started by the democratic Confédération of the work of Morocco, trade-union organization made up in 1978. The strike would have made hundreds of victims and thousands of syndicated prisoners of which the general secretary of the trade-union organization Noubir Amaoui, the assistant secretary Bouzoubaa Abdelmajid and two members of the executive office, Mrani Mohamed and Bezzaoui Lakbir. The Minister of Interior Department Driss Basri implies also the U.S.F.P, socialist Union of the popular forces what involves the imprisonment of the editor association of the newspaper Almouharir Mustapha Karchaoui and that of the general secretary of the trade union of small and average tradesmen, Abdallah Al Moustaghfir.
June 22nd: adoption by the Organization of African Unity of the African Charter of the human rights and the people at the time of the top of Nairobi (Kenya)
- July 31st: Intervention of the armed sénégalaise in Gambia to support the president Dawda Jawara reversed by a Coup d'etat.
- September 1st: David Dacko resigns of the presidency of the Central African Republic. It is replaced by a military committee chaired by the general André Kolingba.
- September 8th: In the Upper Volta (current Burkina Faso), the captain Thomas Sankara is named Secretary of State to Information.
- October: Withdrawal of the Libyan troops of the Chad.
- December 4th: Independence of the homeland of the Ciskei, not recognized by the international community.
- December 31st: Military coup d'etat of the lieutenant Jerry Rawlings with the Ghana.
nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
The Middle East
- March 10th: Itzhak Shamir Foreign Minister in Israel.
- April, War of Lebanon: Resumption of the engagements between the Syrian army and the FL of Bachir Gemayel. Zahleh is besieged while the confrontations begin again with Beirut. End April, the Syrians seize the heights overhanging the Bekaa and the Christian tiny room. Israel decides to intervene to help the Christians.
- April 28th: Two Syrian apparatuses are cut down by Israeli aviation, in violation of the red line. In answer, the Syria installs batteries of anti-aircraft missiles in Bekaa.
- May 25th: Vis-a-vis the War Iran-Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, Oman and the Saudi Arabia form the Cooperation Council of the Gulf (CCG), which establishes an economic cooperation, policy and soldier.
- June 7th: Opération Operated. Israeli aviation sends several planes F-15 and F-16 to bombard and destroy the Iraqi nuclear reactor Osirak in the course of construction advanced with the assistance of France.
- Confrontations between Coptes and islamist in the suburbs of the Cairo.
- Menahem Begin gains the elections in Israel at the price of a more increased support of its right wing (Yitzhak Shamir, Ariel Sharon).
- the confrontation takes again with the Southern Lebanon against the Palestinians. Israel bombards Beirut Western to strike the Palestinian general headquarters. In answer, the Palestinians multiply the bombardments on the Galileo.
- July 14th: Philippe Habib, sent by Ronald Reagan, obtains a cease-fire with the Lebanon. It is an implicit recognition of the Palestinian organizations by Israel.
- July 28th: The seism of Sirch (Kerman, Iran) of a magnitude MS 7.2 fact at least 3000 victims.
- August 5th: Ariel Sharon becomes Minister for Defense in Israel.
- August 7th: Plane Fahd of peace for the Middle East based on the resolutions of UNO: withdrawal of Israel of all the Occupied territories in 1967 including Jerusalem-Is, dismantling of the colonies of the occupied territories, freedom of worship in the Holy Places, right of the Palestinians to the return, the West Bank and Gaza under U.N. supervision, independent Palestinian State with Jerusalem for capital, right of all the States of the area to living in peace. It is rejected by Sadate but the Westerners are interested. PLO remains divided. Yasser Arafat and the Fatah is favorable there but not the members of the Old face of the refusal. The Syria is opposed to it and Hafez el-Assad refuses to take part in the Arab top of Fès.
- September 3rd, Egypt: following the confrontations of June, Sadate orders an immense operation of police force and arrests. 3000 opponents of any edge are imprisoned. The patriarch copte is placed under house arrest in a monastery. The islamist organization qotbist; Al-Jihad , decides to prepare an attack against the Head of the State, follow-up of a popular rising.
- September, War Iran-Iraq: The Iran lance a series of offensive to release its territory. To taken considerable losses, he manages to take again the positions occupied by the enemy.
- September 4th: Assassination with the Lebanon of the Ambassador of France, Louis Delamarre.
- October 6th: Assassination of the president Anouar el-Sadate by the Muslim brothers at the time of the procession commemorative of the war of October, in front of the television cameras. A movement of revolt, launched in High Egypt, fails. Hosni Mubarak replaces it like chair Egypt. A plebiscite will confirm this choice. Mubarak is presented in the form of a continuator of Sadate, but decides to release the opponents and restores pluralism, although the islamist organizations do not have the right to be presented to the elections.
- November 25th: Hafez el-Assad force PLO to reject the plan Fahd.
- December 14th: Israel benefits from the division of the Arab world by annexing the plate of the Syrian Golan in spite of the international protests.
January 17th: The martial law is raised in the near total of the Filipino , except in the South.
- January 25th: End of the lawsuit of the “Band of the Four” in China, death sentence of the widow of Mao Zedong, Jiang Qing.
- June 16th, Filipino: Ferdinand Marcos “is elected” for new a six years mandate at the time of an election largely boycotted by the opposition.
- June 18th: creation with Paris of the United front of national release of Laos, FULNL.
- July 16th: Mahatir bin Mohammed (UMNO), Prime Minister of Malaysia (fine in 2003).
- November 9th: Win does not give up the presidency Burma with San Yu, a general, but guard the direction of the party.
December 27th: Foundation with Beijing ( Beijing ) (China) of the “ Friendly main road of the compatriots of Taiwan ”, patriotic popular organization of the Taiwaneses of various ethnos groups living on the continent.
- January 10th: To the El Salvador, the FMLN launches its final offensive which shows a failure. The ten years which follow are rythmées by the war, the massacres of civilians and the elections.
- March 21st: Roberto Eduardo Violated, president of the Argentine (fine the December 11th).
- June 18th: Foundation of the Organization of the States of Caribbean Eastern (OECS) gathering seven small islands of the old British Antilles around a program of integration, central bank and collective security.
- August: With the Brazil, the opposition of extreme right-hand side ( duros ) breaks out against democratization through a wave of terror. Golbery advises with Figueiredo firmness with regard to the soldiers, but he is dismissed in August. The capacity thus manages to calm the duros , but does not control really any more the situation.
- September 21st: Independence of Belize.
- November 1st: Independence of Antigua-and-Barbuda.
- November, Brazil: Pacto de Novembro . The rules of the game electoral are modified. The direct suffrage for the governors is retained but alliances between parties are prohibited, just as mixing between the lists, to avoid a coalition of the opposition. PP then decides to be melted in PMDB, sealing the failure of the strategy of Golbery established in 1980.
- November 29th: Pésidentielles elections in Honduras. Roberto Suazo Córdova, of the liberal party and Zúñiga, of the national party, engages so that the army continues after the elections to control the main road questions of security, that it has a right to veto on the governmental nominations and that no investigation is open on corruption in the army. On its side, the army is committed respecting the poll. Roberto Suazo Córdova is elected with 52,3% of the voices.
- December 7th: Massacre hundreds of civilians with El Mozote by the governmental forces of the El Salvador.
Whereas in 1980 the mode of Augusto Pinochet had reached her higher rate of legitimacy thanks to its economic performances, the recession obliges the government Chile in to intervene massively in the economy, in particular by nationalizing the banks in bankruptcy, which is in total contradiction with its liberal philosophy.
The United States of America
- January 20th: Beginning of the republican presidency of Ronald Reagan with the the United States (fine in 1989). Release of the 552 hostages of Teheran, after 444 days of retention.
- the program of the Reagan Administration is simple: restoration of the American leadership, starts again economy, re-establishment of the size of the country. The release of the hostages of Teheran the very same day of the nomination appears to symbolize the beginning of this “Rebirth”. The government announces a plan in four shutters: deregulation, severe monetary policy against inflation, budgetary restriction (except for the military expenditure), reduction without precede by the taxation to impel the revival by the investment.
- February 3rd: American declarations against the Soviet in the Middle East and cuban presence in Latin America.
- March 30th: Attempted murder against Ronald Reagan with Washington.
- Spring-be: Demonstrations with Boston against the budgetary restrictions.
- August 6th: Ronald Reagan decides the production and the storage of 1200 Bombe to neutrons in the United States.
- August 19th: Sandra Day O'Connor, first woman chair Supreme court.
- August 24th with the August 26th: First conference CRYPTO.
- August: Dismissal of the guilty “air-traffic controllers” to have started a strike prohibited by the law.
- October 2nd: Modernization plan of the American strategic armaments. The United States adopts an offensive posture vis-a-vis the Soviet Union: re-establishment of the naval superiority, forces of fast deployment. Reagan makes pass the military expenditure from 281 to 409 billion dollars (constant of 1992) between 1980 and 1987; their share in the American budget believes from 4,8% to 6,5% between 1979 and 1986 (the percentage reached is lower than that of the years 1951 - 1972).
- December 4th; Creation of the Intelligence Community
- December 9th: arrest of the black journalist Mumia Abu-Jamal.
the United States joins again with the economic liberalism. Deregulation of the oil prices. Raise record of interest rates. Tax reform (autumn). Under Reagan, the marginal rate highest of the federal tax on the income of households, which reached 90% at the time of Kennedy, falls to 31%.
- Négociation from importation quotas from Japanese vehicles to the United States (1981 and 1983).
- January 1st: The Greece joined the EEC.
- January 26th: Scission within the workers party with the the United Kingdom. Formation of the Social Democratic Party (fine in 1988).
- April 24th: Lifting of the US embargo on cereals bound for the USSR.
- May 5th, Northern Ireland: Bobby Sands, Irish militant, dies of an hunger strike in prison with ten other republican prisoners. Riots in several big cities.
- May 13rd: Mehmet Ali Ağca tries to assassinate the pope Jean-Paul II with Rome.
- May: In Sweden, thousands of collar-white cease work, on bottom of governmental crisis.
- July 30th, Belgium: adoption of a Law against racism and xenophobia known as the law Philippe Moureaux, tending to repress certain acts inspired by the Racism and the Xenophobia.
- August 24th: The Greece adopts the new Greek flag.
- October 21st: Andréas Papandréou, Prime Minister in Greece after the victory of the Socialists of PASOK to the legislative elections (end in 1989).
Disarmament in Europe
- October 10th: A demonstration the pacifist ones gathers 300.000 people with Bonn, other demonstrations in Europe.
- October 16th: Ronald Reagan evokes the possibility of a “war limited” in Europe.
- November 18th: Reagan proposes the “option Zero” in Europe: Zero SS-20, Zero Pershing.
- November 22nd: Brejnev proposes a unilateral disarmament of the armaments with average carried, at the time of a voyage in Germany.
- November 30th: Opening of negotiations EU-URSS on the euromissiles in Europe, Geneva.
- January 31st: Resignation of Adolfo Suárez following the popular disenchantment and the dislocation of UCD. The conservative Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo succeeds the February 23rd to him.
- February 23rd: Fallen through attempt at putsch of the colonel Tejero, in Spain. Occupation of the the Cortes by the commander of the Civil guard Tejero. Only Adolfo Suárez, Santiago Carrillo, and the general Guttiérez Mellado, Minister for the army, remain upright in front of the threat. The king Juan Carlos Ier calls in the night all the captains of the military regions to bring back them to the reason.
- April: Legalization of the divorce.
- December: Spain adheres to Atlantic Alliance and NATO.
the organic law of harmonization of the process separatist (LOAPA) is subjected to negotiation, but of content person.
See also: 1981 in France
See also: 1981 in Switzerland
- Arrest of the brigadist Mario Moretti.
- Scandal of the Cabin P2: three members of the government are implied.
- May 13rd: Attempted murder against the pope Jean-Paul II by Mehmet Ali Agça, young Turkish financed by the Communist leaders of Eastern Europe, anxious of its capacity of attraction.
- 17 - May 18th: Referendum on the law for the abortion: the majority opposes abrogation.
- May 26th: The president of the Council Arnaldo Forlani resigns.
- May 26th: The republican Giovanni Spadolini replaces it with the head of a coalition government (pentapartism) including/understanding social democrat Christian-Democrats, Socialists, liberal , republicans and . For the first time since 1945, the Christian Democrat yields the direction of the government to another party, the Italian Republican party.
- December 17th: Removal by the red Brigades of the American general of the NATO, James L. Dozier, released the January 28th 1982 with Padoue.
the deficit of the foreign trade in first half of the year worsens of 40% compared to first half of the year 1980 and reached 10 600 billion liras.
- Devaluation of the To read in March (6%) and in October (3%).
- October: New plan of cleansing. Two million unemployed (8,8% of the active population).
- Privatization of Montedison.
- February 9th: The General Wojciech Jaruzelski is appointed Prime Minister (fine in 1985).
- September 10th: Moscow requires that Warsaw take measures against the anti-Soviet demonstrations.
- September - October: The congress of the trade union Solidarité requires free elections and resounds of sometimes anti-Soviet matter.
- October 18th: Wojciech Jaruzelski succeeds Stanislas Kania with the head of the Polish PC (POUP). It faces a difficult economic situation marked by strikes, cuts of electricity and shortages food.
- December 13rd: Introduction of the state of siege in Poland by Wojciech Jaruzelski, can be to avoid the direct Soviet intervention (end in 1983). Solidarność is dissolved, Lech Walesa and more 6 000 militants of the trade union are arrested and imprisoned. Any opposition is repressed. The party dismisses the Communists reformists.
- December 23rd: American sanctions against the Poland, then against the the USSR the 29.
Oceania & the Pacific
Arts & cultures
- June 30th: With Burgos (Spain), alternative of Jose Cubero Sánchez known as “El Yiyo”, Spanish Matador.
- September 5th: With Murcie (Spain), alternate of Pepín Jiménez, Spanish Matador.
- September 13rd: With Barcelona (Spain, alternative of Victor Mendes, matador Portuguese.
Sciences & technology
See also: 1981 in science
See also: 1981 in aeronautics
See also: 1981 in the railroads
See also: 1981 in sport
See also: 1981 in football
The pope Jean-Paul II indicates a commission of study of the controversy ptolemeo-copernician of the XVIe and 17th century, in order to examine the errors made by the Church at the time of the business Galileo. In 1992, Jean-Paul II publicly recognized the errors of certain theologists at the 17th century.
Births in 1981
- January 21st: Izabella Miko, compositrice and Polish actress
- January 22nd
- Beverley Mitchell, American actress
- Willa Ford, American singer
- January 25th: Clara Morgane, French Actress of pornographic films
- January 28th: Elijah Wood, American Actor
- January 31st: Justin Timberlake, American musician
- February 3rd: Sami Gtari, football player Tunisia N
- February 5th: Julie Zenatti, French Singer.
- February 10th: Natasha Saint-Pier, Canadian Singer .
- February 11th: Kelly Rowland, singer of the group Destiny's Child.
- February 17th: Paris Hilton, American actress, wealthy heiress of the Hilton hotels.
- February 22nd: Sleeve-board Biedermann, singer and actress of German television.
- February 24th: Hewitt, Australian tennis player.
- March 6th: Ellen Muth, American actress.
- March 10th: Samuel Eto' O, professional Cameronian footballer.
- March 18th: Leslie Djhone, French athlete.
- April 2nd: Bethany Joy Galeotti, American actress
- April 19th: Hayden Christensen, Canadian actor
- April 25th: Felipe Massed, pilot of Formula One Brazilian a
- April 26th: Matthieu Delpierre, French footballer
- April 28th: Jessica Alba, American Actress
- May 5th - Craig David, British singer.
- May 17th - Bastien Lucas, French singer.
- May 30th - Devendra Banhart, composer-songwriter American singer.
- June 7th: Anna Kournikova, Russian tennis player
- June 9th: Natalie Portman, American Actress
- June 13rd: “El Fandi” (David Fandilla Marín), Spanish Matador.
- July 8th: Anastasia Myskina, Russian tennis player.
- July 12th: “Juan Bautista” (Jean-Baptiste Jalabert), Matador French.
- July 29th: Fernando Alonso, Spanish pilot of formula 1.
- August 3rd: El Salvador the Cortes, Spanish Matador .
- August 8th: Roger Federer, Swiss tennis player
- August 12th: Djibril Cissé, professional French footballer.
- August 20th: Bernard Mendy, professional French footballer.
- August 24th: Chad Michael Murray, American actor.
- September 4th: Beyoncé Knowles, compositrice, singer, American actress
- September 14th: Ashley Roberts, singer, American dancer
- September 23rd: Robert Doornbos, Dutch racing driver of Formula 1.
- September 26th: Serena Williams, American tennis player
- October 15th: Elena Dementieva, Russian tennis player.
- October 19th: Heikki Kovalainen, pilot of Formula One Finnish
- October 31st: Frank Iero, guitarist of the group My Chemical Lovesong
- November 8th: Blued Skye, actress American.
- December 2nd: Britney Spears, American singer.
- December 15th:
Death in 1981
- January 5th: Lanza del Vasto (Giuseppe Lanza di Trabia-Branciforte), writer French and in favor of the Non-violence (° 1901).
- January 23rd: Samuel To bore, American type-setter. (° March 9th 1910).
- February 9th: Bill Halley, musician and American singer, pioneer of the rock'n'roll. (° July 6th 1925).
- February 12th
- Lev Atamanov, Realizer of cartoon films Russian (° 1905).
- Edmond Lahaye, Artist, Illustrator, Ceramist Chansonnier (° 1886)
- February 21st: Muhtar Başoğlu, Turkish herpetologist (° April 6th 1913)
- March 11th: Kazimierz Kordylewski, astronomer Polish (° October 11th 1903)
- March 15th: Clear Rene, Realizer French (° 1898).
- April 26th: Jim Davis, Actor (° 1909).
- May 11th: Bob Marley, Singer of Reggae (° 1945).
- June 19th: Senya Flechine, Russian anarchistic militant, in exile in Mexico. (° December 19th 1894 with Kiev, Ukraine).
- July 1st: Bernard Dimey, Poet, Lyric writer French (° 1931).
- August 10th: Valentine Tessier, actor French (° 1892).
- September 1st: Albert Speer, architect and Minister of the Nazi Germany (° March 19th 1905)
- September 4th: Louis Delamarre, ambassador of France, assassinated with the Lebanon.
- September 7th: Felix Rousseau, Belgian Historian of French expression and Walloon Militant (° January 14th 1887)
- September 9th: Jacques Lacan, Psychoanalyst French (° 1901).
- October 3rd: Tadeusz Kotarbiński, philosopher Polish (° March 31st 1886)
- October 6th: Anouar el-Sadate, president of the Egypt (° 1918).
- October 29th: Georges Brassens, Song writer and performer French (° 1921).
- November 3rd: Jean Eustace Realizer and Actor French (° 1938).
- November 9th: Frank Malina, American aeronautical engineer (° October 2nd 1912)
- November 10th: Abel Gance, Realizer French (° 1889).
- November 26th: max Euwe, player of failures Dutch (° 1901).
- 1981 : Tercentenary of the Channel of the South
Beats-smg: 1981 Be-X-old: 1981 Map-bms: 1981 Simple: 1981 Zh-min-nan: 1981 nor Zh-yue: 1981 年
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