This page relates to the year 1977 Gregorian Calendrier.
- May 20th: Departure of the last voyage of the East-Express train after 94 years of service, connecting Paris to Istanbul. The majority of the places were reserved 6 months in advance.
- the Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to Amnesty International.
- February 11th: Takeover by the colonel Mengistu in Ethiopia.
- 11 - February 12th: Official visit of Valery Giscard d'Estaing to the Mali.
- March 18th: Military committee with the capacity with the Congo after the assassination of Marien Ngouabi. Congo, popular republic since 1970 evolves more and more to the Soviet Union.
- April 5th: Joachim Yhombi-Opango, president of the Republic of Congo (fine in 1979).
- June 10th: To the Mali, the Cour of state security condemns to death 7 marked warrant officers and soldiers and 5 nomads “to have tried a coup d'etat in 1976”. Student's agitation.
- June 27th: Independence of Djibouti.
- July 23rd: Beginning of the War of Ogaden. The Somalia supports the claim of the nomads Somali pastors of Ogaden which refuse the arbitrary layout of the border inherited Italian and English colonialism. It sends troops. The Soviet Union having decided to defend its new Ethiopian ally, Somalia expels the 6 000 Soviet experts who remain on his territory and recovers the base of Berbera which she concedes in the United States. Moscow compensates for this loss by extending its influence in Ethiopia; thanks to its military aid and with the cuban soldiers, Addis-Abeba with the advantage in the war of Ogaden (1977-1978, 1980). Somalia, beaten by Ethiopia, dark in the civil war.
- November 13rd: Rupture of the diplomatic relations of the Somalia with Cuba and the Soviet Union.
- December 4th: Crown of the emperor of Central Africa Jean-Bédel Bokassa, in the presence of the French Minister for the co-operation and other international personalities. He sets up the fear in system of government until his fall in 1979.
- December 5th: Independence of the Bantustan of the Bophuthatswana, not recognized by the international community.
First “war of Shaba” to the Zaire: fight against the rebels of the province of Shaba (Katanga) with the Moroccan and French assistance. The the IMF and the World Bank impose an easing of the political regime.
- Creation of the Party of the Revolution in Tanzania.
- April: In a speech with OAS, Jimmy Carter announces the signature by the United States of American convention on the human rights and of the Traité of Tlatelolco prohibiting the parking of nuclear weapons in Latin America.
- July: Plan Tupac Amaru of the dictator Morals with the Peru, intended to reinforce a “fully participative social democracy”. It means flashback in the direction of the economic austerity and the favorable conditions with the overseas investments. Morals encounters an increasing social agitation caused by a fall of the standard of living of the Peruvians. Repression employed does nothing but nourish dissatisfaction. The July 19th, whereas a general strike paralyzes the country, Morales made stop more than 700 trade union leaders. Subjected to the pressure of the street and the international financial organizations, having to face divisions within the army, pressed by president Carter, the dictator announces the July 28th 1977 his intention to engage a transition towards the democracy.
- September 7th: Casing-Torrijos agreements, which abolish the unequal treaty of 1903 between the the United States and Panamá and envisage a progressive transfer of the responsibilities for the channel to Panamá until the end 1999. The United States obtains the unilateral right to defend the water way. The Sénat of the United States makes add, at the time of the vote of ratification (April 18th 1978), a clause specifying that if the Americans give up the right of intervention in the interior matters of Panamá, they reserve the right to reopen the channel, with the need by the force, if it would be closed in consequence of disorders. The agreements are accommodated triumphantly with Panamá and in all the Latin America.
- “Law of defense and guarantee of the law and order” to the El Salvador (1977 - 1979) which makes it possible the government to conduct a campaign of repression against any dispute and the Church, which affects its relations with the United States.
- Plane Chacarillos with the Chile: a constitution project is written to answer the international pressures (Casing) and that of the Catholic church. It envisages a process of institutionalization over the period 1978 - 1985 with for objective the transfer of the capacity to the civilian within the framework of a democracy controlled by the soldiers. This plan will never be adopted.
- Failure of the negotiations between the Bolivia and the Chile concerning an access to the ocean for the Bolivia before the centenary of the war of the Pacific (1979). The Bolivian president Banzer engages an political expansion, and elections are programmed for July 1978. In December, women of imprisoned minors begin an hunger strike to claim the release of the political prisoners. The movement becomes extensive quickly, calling in question the control of the mode about the trade union movement.
- In Argentinian, an estimate gives a report of 6000 executions and 15 000 imprisoned political prisoners.
- Argentinian Revaluation of 85% in between 1977 and 1981, causing a strong imbalance of the trade balances compensated by the loan.
- March 15th: Brigitte Bardot alarm the world on hunting for the babies seals organized on the ices of White-Fine sand.
- August 11th: First remote transmission of Sagouine on Radio operator Canada.
- August 26th: Charte of the French language to the Quebec (also called the Law 101) is an outline law which serves to make respect the linguistic rights of the citizens as Quebec and which makes of French, the majority language of the province of the Quebec, the only official language of the Québécois province. It is a fundamental law which has a quasi-constitutional value which is connected to the Charte of the rights and freedoms of the person of Quebec, which, compared with the Charte of the French language, is higher in the hierarchy of the legal standards.
The United States
- January 20th: Beginning of the democratic presidency of Jimmy Carter with the the United States (fine in 1981).
- the Jimmy Carter democrat intends to put at the foreground of the priorities the defense of the human rights, policy taxed by its adversaries with idealist and considered to be dangerous for the American strategic interests. Whereas the American diplomacy had supported dictatorships in the past, provided that they are anticommunists, Carter made pressure so that they are liberalized, with varied results.
- Mars: The Soviets brutally disallow the advanced proposals by Washington on the “control of the armament”, that is to say a reduction of 25% of the strategic arsenals. The negotiations begin again with the autumn.
- Plane on Energy: tax on the big-engined cars, raises taxation of oil, subsidy with energies other than oil (coal). The project runs up against the hostile liberals against any increase in the fuel, against the Oil companies anxious to profit from the rise and on the indifference of the Americans.
- Following inflation, Carter withdraws the reduction project tax deposited in January.
Since 1969, the expenditure of defense fell from 8,7% to 5,5% of GNP.
- February: New constitution in Afghanistan. Mohammed Daoud Khan is elected at the station the Almighty of president.
- March 20th: Electoral failure and resignation of Indira Gandhi in India. The Janata Party (left the people), coalition hétérodoxe of conservative parties seizes the power after its victory with the general elections. The Prime Minister Morarji Desai, President of the Congress Organization , restores the democracy. He announces his will to break with the line of the Congrès: to decentralize, restore fundamental freedoms, to join again with true non-alignment. The Gandhi family makes the object of attacks for businesses of various embezzlements, abuse of power, nepotism, etc Charan Singh, Minister of Interior Department, claims a lawsuit: the agents of the CBI ( Central Office off Investigation ) stop Indira Gandhi and lead it in prison. This episode contributes to make of it a victim with the eyes of the opinion, the more so as it decides to act in favor of most underprivileged.
- May 29th: Foundation of the Jammu Kashmir Release Face.
- June 30th: Dissolution of OTASE, following the War of Vietnam.
- July 5th: Inversion of the Pakistani president Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, replaced by the general Zia Ul Haq, who institutes the Islamic law.
- July 5th: Rehabilitation of Deng Xiaoping. It recovers the stations of which it had been driven out one year earlier. With its slogan “to seek the truth starting from the facts”, he is opposed to dogmatism Maoist Hua Guofeng.
- September 20th: Adhesion of the Vietnam to UNO.
- November 12th: The government inhabitant of Thailand of Tanin Kraivixien is reversed by the admiral Sangad Chaloryu and its group. Sangad founds a new cabinet directed by the general Kriangsak Chomanan to try to bandage divisions of the company inhabitant of Thailand and to improve the relationships to the Communist regimes of the adjoining countries.
- December 31st: Rupture of the diplomatic relations between the Vietnam and the Kampuchea.
- the Vietnam lance a massive offensive against resistance anticommunist of the Hmongs of the Laos. More 30 000 Vietnamese soldiers supported by aviation tackle the mountainous region between Luang Prabang and Vientiane by using Napalm and yellow rain , a very mortal chemical agent. Assessment: 40 000 civilians will be massacred and several tens of thousands of refugees flee towards the Thailand.
- January 5th: Proclamation of the “Charter 77” in Czechoslovakia, signed by nearly thousand people (intellectuals, men of the church, workmen, etc) including 242 dissidents among which Vaclav Havel. She shows the government of Gustáv Husák of serious violations towards the Human rights. She does not manage to inflect the particularly hostile government with any evolution.
- March 16th: Arrest of Anatoli Chtcharanski.
- June 16th, Soviet Union: Departure of Nikolaï Podgorny. Léonid Brejnev cumulates the president's functions of the Council and president of the Supreme Soviet.
- September 4th: Deployment of the first Soviet SS-20 in Eastern Europe. Beginning of the crisis of the euromissiles: as from 1977, the USSR deploys 396 tactical mobile missiles carrying three nuclear warheads of 150 kilotons each one, the SS-20 of carried intermediate, able to strike all the urban centres of Western Europe.
- October 7th: News constitution of the USSR.
- February: Austerity measures to the Portugal. Devaluation of the escudo of 15%. Sale of 110 tons gold accumulated by Salazar. Increase in the public tariff and interest rate. Raise price of the fuels.
- June 23rd: Severe criticism of the “eurocommunism” by the the USSR.
- July: Discusses for the “reprivatisation of the economy” to the Portugal.
- August 10th: Law Barreto of land reform to the Portugal.
- catastrophic Explosion on the oil platform of Ekofisk, in the North Sea.
- the share of the the United Kingdom in the world industrial production falls to 9% (20,5% in 1955). The public expenditure reaches 48,5% of GNP (157 billion %).
- Plane of elimination of illiteracy of the adults to the Portugal.
- September 5th: Removal of the president of German employers Hans Martin Schleyer by the Red Army Fraction.
- October 13rd: Diversion of a plane of the Lufthansa by a Palestinian commando (in support for the Red Army Fraction).
- October 18th: Commit suicide members of the “Band with Baader”. Died of Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, and Karl Jasper with the prison of Stammhein, in Germany. End of the taking of hostages of the plane of Lufthansa.
- October 19th: Assassination of Hans Martin Schleyer by the Red Army Fraction. It is found died close to Mulhouse.
- January 1st: coming into effect of the law of December 30th, 1975, which reduces the number of communes that Belgium counted since the independence of 1830 from 2359 to 596.
See also: 1977 in France
- June 15th: Legislative elections: PSOE obtains 29%, PCE 9%, UCD of Adolfo Suárez 34% (165 seats out of 350).
- July: Candidature of Spain for the EEC.
- August: Creation of the Herri Batasuna , connects terrorist ETA.
- September 29th: Re-establishment of the General information of Catalonia. Its former president Josep Tarradelas is recalled of exile and constitutes a government of national union.
- October: Pact of Moncloa signed by all the parliamentary formations: he announces the re-establishment of the democracy, an economic plan and social in front of the extent of the crisis (35% of inflation, a million unemployed…).
the Basque Country is equipped with a general advice.
- Re-establishment of the diplomatic bonds with the Mexico, which had never recognized pro-Franco Spain.
- Program of rigor and deflation, devaluation, limitation of the national expenditure (- 10%), wage increase.
- February: Luciano LAMA, general secretary of CGIL, comes to dialog with the students who occupy the university of Rome to protest against the reform project of the Minister for the state education. The reception which it receives is if violent that the service of order of NCV must intervene.
- Mars: riots coeds with Rome and Bologna
1600 terrorist attacks in 1977 (31 dead).
- the year 1977 is extremely agitated. The revolutionary movement gathers two tendencies: one, “creative” and spontaneous, primarily turned towards the derision and the refusal of the industrial society, the other, “autonomous” and militarized which wants to use violence to fight against the State. This second tendency is represented and theorized by Toni Negri and Oreste Scalzone. With Rome, Bologna, then in all Italy of the disorders burst, causing confrontations between police force and demonstrators during which shots are drawn.
- 7,2% of the active population to unemployment (3,2% in 1970).
Oceania & the Pacific
The Middle East
- January 9th: Arrest with Paris of Abou Daoud, a Palestinian activist suspected of having taken part in the taken hostages and the assassination of Athlete S Israeli with the Olympic Games of Munich of 1972.
- February: Jimmy Carter revival peace talks. Israel refuses all maintains with PLO.
- March 16th:
- Jimmy Carter answers Israel that the Palestinian question must be solved and that the refugees must have a ground ( homeland ). In Cairo, XIIIe CNP examines the question of the participation of PLO in the conference of Geneva. The refusal of the resolution 242 is pointed out. However the PLO affirms its intention to be in Geneva and implies that it could consider the creation of a Palestinian State in the occupied territories, meaning the acceptance of a possible coexistence with Israel.
- Lebanon: Assassination of Kamal Joumblatt. His/her son Walid replaces it with the head of the community Druze. The National movement disaggregates with the profit of PLO, only organization able to set up an administration similar to that of the Christian sector. Israel supports the Christian militia with the Lebanon Southern and establishes a red line (the river Litani) that the Syrians should not cross.
- May 17th: Menahem Begin arrives at the capacity in Israel. It accepts the principle of the conference of Geneva but refuses the participation of the Palestinians. The Likoud with the capacity does not intend to yield any conquest to the Palestinians in order to carry out “Large Israel”.
- August 14th: Extension of the Israeli legislation to the the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
- October 1st: An American-Soviet official statement calls with the conference holding of Geneva, with the withdrawal of the Israeli forces of the Occupied territories in 1967, with the legitimate respect of the rights of the Palestinians. Casing must recognize a right to veto in Israel on the participation of the Palestinians in the conference.
- November 9th: Anouar el-Sadate declares before the Egyptienne National Assembly that it is ready to go in Israel to negotiate peace.
- November 19th: Visit historical Anouar el-Sadate in Israel, with Jerusalem, it makes a speech with the Knesset. It reaffirms there its desire of peace and the right of the Palestinians. This visit recognizes the State of Israel de facto, which involves the hostility of the other Arab countries.
- December 2nd: To the Arab top of Tripoli, the face of the Palestinian refusal and the Iraq are opposed to the Syria and the PLO which wish a payment negotiated with Israel. The participants freeze their relations with Egypt, which obtains supports it Jimmy Carter.
- Israel makes known its proposals: evacuation of the Sinai, maintains colonists under the protection of UNO and Israel, carryforward of any discussion on the occupied territories. The December 25th, a meeting between Sadate and Begin leads to a dead end
the the IMF makes pressure on Egypt so that it reduces its subsidies on the basic commodities. It follows of the popular demonstrations which make 160 dead.
Arts & cultures
- May 28th: With alternate Nimes (France, department of the Gard), of Christian Montcouquiol known as “Nimeño II”, Matador French.
- November 20th: With Guanajuato (Mexico), alternative of David Silveti, Mexican matador.
Sciences & technology
See also: 1977 in science
See also: 1977 in aeronautics
See also: 1977 in the railroads
See also: 1977 in sport
See also: 1977 in football
Births in 1977
- January 13rd:
- Orlando Bloom, British actor ( the Lord of the Rings , Troy ).
- “Cayetano” (Cayetano Will rivet Ordóñez), Spanish Matador .
- January 14th: Narain Karthikeyan, Indian pilot of Formula 1 .
- January 21st: Jose Ignacio Uceda Leal, Spanish Matador .
- February 2nd:
- Isabel Mebarak-Ripoll known as Shakira, singer Lebanon O Colombia.
- Antonio Ferrera, Spanish Matador .
- February 5th: Simone Cristicchi, singer Italy N, Song writer and performer.
- February 8th: Dave Farrel, bass player of the group neo pop metal rock'n'roll Linkin Park
- February 11th: Mike Shinoda, musician, American music producer, rappor of the group neo pop metal rock'n'roll Linkin Park
- February 26th: Gregoire Legrain, thinker and painter. Belgian
- March 2nd: Chris Martin, singer/pianist of the group Coldplay.
- March 15th: Joe Hahn, disc jockey of the neo-native group and pop American rock'n'roll Linkin Park.
- March 24th: Crow, singer Rwanda is.
- April 9th: Gerald Way, singer of the group My Chemical Lovesong
- April 14th: Sarah Michelle Gellar, American actress ( Buffy against the vampires , Sex intentions ).
- April 21st: Jamie Salted, artistic skater Canadian.
- June 1st: Domingo López Cháves, Spanish Matador .
- June 6th: Malgosia Bleated, mannequin and Polish actress
- June 13rd: Romain Mesnil, pole vaulter French.
- June 27th: Raúl, Spanish footballer .
- July 1st: Liv Tyler, American actress ( the Lord of the Rings , Armageddon ).
- July 31st: Fabien Marsaud, alias sick Large body, Slam French mor
- August 2nd: Edward Furlong, American actor ( Terminator 2 , American History X ).
- August 7th: Laurent Artufel, actor, stimulating TV.
- August 16th: Davy Ea, musician French.
- August 17th: Thierry Henry, footballer French.
- September 7th: Maud Fontenoy, navigatrice with the French oar
- September 11th: Jonny Buckland, lead guitar of the group English Coldplay.
- September 13rd: Fiona Apple, American singer ( Shadowboxer ).
- October 15th: David Trezeguet, footballer French.
- October 20th: Pierre Jourde, artist plastics technician, vidéaste French.
- October 31st: Severine To shoe, tele presenter and French actress ( Class mannequin ).
- November 7th: Bertrand Puard, novelist of French language, price Cognac 2001, price of the Novel of Adventures 2003.
- November 16th: Maggie Gyllenhaal (sister of Jake), American actress ( the secretary , Donnie Darko ).
- November 23rd: Jean-Baptiste Elissalde, the French, half of fray of Stade Toulousain and international rugby player.
- February 1st: Brad Delson guitarist of the American group neo-metal and pop rock'n'roll Linkin Park.
- December 8th: Sebastien Chabal Rugby player French.
- December 22nd: “Javier Valverde” (Javier Ricardo Sánchez San Jose), Spanish Matador .
Death in 1977
- January 2nd: Errol Garner, Pianist of American Jazz.
- January 12th: Henri-Georges Clouzot, Scenario writer French.
- January 13rd: Henri Langlois, founder of the French Cineclub.
- January 14th: Anaïs Nin, writer American (° February 21st 1903).
- January 21st: Sandro Penna, Italian poet (º June 12th 1906).
- March 2nd: Paul Rohmer Father of French modern pediatry (° November 1st 1876).
- April 11th: Jacques Prévert, Poet French.
- April 21st: Grummo Marx, American comic actor.
- April 28th: Sepp Herberger, Trainer of German football.
- May 10th: Joan Crawford, American Actress.
- May 16th: Modibo Keïta, politician Mali in.
- June 4th: Roberto Rossellini, Italian Realizer.
- June 13rd: Matthew Garber, English actor.
- June 16th: Wernher von Braun, American engineer of German origin.
- July 2nd: Vladimir Nabokov, American writer.
- July 9th: Alice Paul, American feminist (° January 11th 1885).
- July 11th: Jacques Tréfouël, Chemist French (° November 9th 1897).
- : Francis Gary Powers, pilot Plane of Espionage American U-2 .
- August 16th: Elvis Presley, American Singer of Rock' roll.
- August 19th: Groucho Marx, American comic actor.
- September 3rd: Jean Rostand, Biologist.
- September 5th: Marcel Thiry, Belgian writer of French expression and Walloon militant (° March 13rd 1897).
- September 10th: Hamida Djandoubi, 28 years, arising Tunisia N, the last condemned to undergo the Capital punishment in France. (° 1949).
- September 16th: Maria Fixed, American Cantatrice of opera of Greek origin (° December 2nd 1923).
- October 20th:
- Ronnie Van Zant, singer of the group rock'n'roll Lynyrd Skynyrd.
- Steve Sheaths, guitarist of the group rock'n'roll Lynyrd Skynyrd.
- Cassie Sheaths, chorus-singer of the group rock'n'roll Lynyrd Skynyrd.
- October 25th: Felix Gouin, politician French, former president of the provisional government.
- November 5th: Rene Goscinny, Scenario writer of Cartoon.
- December 12th Howard Hawks, Scenario writer, producing and American Realizer.
- December 19th: Jacques Tourneur, Realizer French.
- December 25th: Charlie Chaplin, Actor, Realizer, Scenario writer and Type-setter.
See also: : Category: Death in 1977
Beats-smg: 1977 Be-X-old: 1977 Map-bms: 1977 Simple: 1977 Zh-min-nan: 1977 nor Zh-yue: 1977 年
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