This page relates to the year 1976 Gregorian Calendrier.
- 7 - January 8th: Agreements of Jamaica. Signature of the second amendment to the the IMF. It sanctions the demonetization of gold and the right of all the countries to let float their currency: it is the final end of the adopted system with Bretton Woods in 1944.
- February 10th: First North-South conference with Paris.
- 16 - August 19th: Conference of the non-aligned with Colombo.
- January 25th: Withdrawal of the South-African troops of Angola.
- February 3rd: Somali terrorists travel by as an hostage a school bus of French child with Loyada with Djibouti
- February 27th: Proclamation of the democratic Arab Republic sahraouie (RASD) by the Face Polisario, supported by the Algeria, in answer to the division of the the Western Sahara by the Morocco and the Mauritania. Beginning of the war of Morocco and Mauritania against the Polisario (fine in 1979).
- an earthquake of magnitude 7.1 fact 6 000 victims in New Guinea.
- June 16th: Riots of Soweto against a peaceful demonstration of young blacks in South Africa, brutally repressed.
- June 29th: Independence of the Seychelles.
- September: Foundation of the Economic community of the Country of the Big lakes gathering the old Belgian colonies (Zaire, Rwanda, and Burundi), heiress of a pact of mutual safety signed ten years earlier, which will show its inefficiency at the time of the crises which will secouront the area starting from 1994.
- October 26th: Independence of the homeland of the Transkei, not recognized by the international community.
- November 2nd: Coup d'etat of Jean-Baptiste Bagaza with the Burundi. The Tutsi S, minority vis-a-vis the Hutu S (84%), are with the capacity.
- February 1st: Angola between with UNO.
- December 8th: Angel-Felix Patassé becomes Prime Minister for the Central African Republic
- Conflict between nationalist parties in Angola. Victoire of the Marxists of MPLA with the assistance of Cuba.
- Constitutional reform with the Senegal founding a multi-party system limited to three parties; the USP becomes Socialist party, member of the international Socialist.
- “Plot Peul” in Guinea.
- Zaire: retrocession with their owners of the companies and foreign goods “zairianized”.
- Creation of a central bank by UDEAC (Customs union and Economic of central Africa).
- OAU adopts the cultural Charter of Africa.
- January 11th: Military coup d'etat in Ecuador: The fall of the oil prices in 1975, social agitation and criticisms of the middle-class involve the fall of the general Rodríguez Lara. Turn towards conservatism. The junta with the capacity represses social agitation, without finding solution with the economic crisis and organizes the devolution of the capacity to the civilians. The pressures of employers requiring a deregulation of the economy and the installation of a system of dialog are determining in the choice of the “constitutional return” ( retorno constitucional ).
- February 4th: Earthquake with the Guatemala and Honduras of magnitude 7.1,23 000 dead.
- In Bolivia, the pressures of the president Jimmy Carter and all the social sectors force Banzer to seek a political exit.
- Paroxysm of economic chaos and political violence in Argentina.
- February 16th: Isabel Perón dissolves the Parliament and convenes new elections, but as of the March 24th, the army reverses the president and places the general Jorge Videla at the report heading.
- March 24th: beginning of the Argentinian dictatorship of Videla in (fine in 1981).
- corruption, the economic crisis and the terrorist movement of extreme left of the Montoneros serve as a pretext for the pronunciamiento . Videla launches a process of national reorganization which assigns like objective to save the nation: purge university and of its professors, students and libraries, exile of artists, censures, “disappearance” of any suspect person of sympathy with the left; thousands of people are tortured, carried out or reported missing.
- the Videla general presents the measurements of economic cleansing inspired by the economists of the École of Chicago (Milton Friedman and Co). It devaluates the national currency immediately, reduced the wages, puts a term at the price control and with the subsidies, removes the public monopolies, releases foreign trade and opens the economy with world competition. Released from the supervision of the State which punctured important margins on the agricultural exportations of products, the farmers are satisfied, but the industrialists do not manage to support the shock and the bankruptcies multiply. Because of the massive entry of capital, the money supply in circulation is more difficult to control than with the Chile and the military government truly does not manage to domesticate inflation while slowing down the growth one year out of two. Finally in front of the difficulties, the capital flees: 20 billion dollars leave the country between 1976 and 1984, for a debt rising to 45 billion.
- July 16th: Abolition of the Capital punishment.
- June 28th: The Charter of the rights and freedoms of the person of the Quebec between into force. From now on, it is interdict to make discrimination based on the sexual orientation. It is about the first law in the world which prohibits this kind of discrimination in the sectors public and private (besides some cities and counties of the United States).
- July 17th: XXIe Olympic Games begins with Montreal.
- November 15th: Election of the Left Québécois Rene Lévesque, first independence party elected with the Quebec.
- the First liberal minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau preaches an economic relaxation of the bonds with the United States and the continuation of a “third option” based on closer relations with the European Community and the Japan.
- Political debate on the future of the mode within the coalition with the capacity. He opposes the duros , in favor of continuity and the blandos , moderate which claim that an institutionalization minimum is necessary in order to consolidate the legitimacy of the mode inside like abroad. “Constitutional acts” are elaborate which legalize the junta with the capacity.
- the national currency, the escudo becomes the peso, and foreign exchange rates are constantly adjusted according to inflation. Measurements of tariff dismantling. Limitation of the transfers to the state enterprises. On the whole, 492 of the 507 state enterprises will be sold at low prices. The Country knows an exceptional average growth of 6,9% per annum between 1976 and 1981.
- the Chile of Pinochet, eager to support the European and American investments, withdraws Andean Communauté of the Nations.
the United States
- April: Creation of the Committee one the Present Danger to stigmatize erosion with the military expenditure.
- July 4th: Bicentenary of American independence.
- With the end of the year, the relaxation is denounced so hard by Ronald Reagan, her adversary with the nomination with the Republican party, that Gerald Ford ends up prohibiting the use of its advisers, with the profit of that of “peace by the force” and to name a new team (TEAM B) to revise with the rise the estimates that the CIA had hitherto given military effort of the USSR.
- November 2nd: Election of Jimmy Carter (democratic) like chair of the United States with 50,1% of the voices (40,8 million) against Gerald Ford (R) 48% (39,2 million). (47% of abstentions).
- Report/ratio of the Trilateral Commission on “the governorship of the democracies”.
- 8% of the active population is with unemployment.
- February 1st: Jose López Portillo, president of the Republic of Mexico. It continues an economic austerity policy by inviting the workers to moderate their salary demands and the owners to maintain low prices and to increase their investments.
- Mexico: Devaluation of the peso of more than 50% to try to reduce the foreign debt of the country. Discovered crude oil reserves in the States of Campeche, Chiapas, Tabasco and Veracruz. The production doubles during second half of the Années 1970.
- June 12th: Uruguay: Juan María Bordaberry, little before the end of its mandate, suggests prohibiting the traditional parties to replace them by a system supporter of corporatism of representation of the large trends of public opinion. The soldiers refuse and replace Bordaberry by Alberto Demichelli then Aparicio Méndez.
- September 1st: Aparicio Méndez, president of Uruguay (fine in 1981). The mode tries to be institutionalized. Prohibited Méndez with 15 000 leaders of the traditional parties any political activity for one 15 years duration. The objective and to support the emergence of a new political community that the authoritarian regime discounted to co-opt. Curiously the soldiers do not make any effort to rejoin partisans and to constitute a party.
- December: The Uruguay, 3 million inhabitants, takes into account 6.200 political prisoners.
- April 15th: Re-establishment of the diplomatic relations between the India and the China.
- May 15th: Re-establishment of the diplomatic relations between the India and the Pakistan.
- June 24th: The Indonesia appendix the Eastern Timor.
- November, India: An amendment with the Constitution is adopted by the Parliament. It reinforces the prerogatives of the executive and modifies the balance of power in favor of the assemblies and in particular of the central Parliament. India becomes a republic “sovereign, socialist, laic and democratic”.
the principal political party with the Japan is the Jimintô (left liberal-democrat). The opposition parties counts the Minshatô (left democrat-Socialist since 1960) and the Kômeitô (Communist party, since 1964, supported by the Sōka Gakkai). The Japanese Communist party rejects the principle of the Dictatorship of the proletariat.
- Reunification of the Vietnam.
- Government of province decentralized in New Guinea-News-Guinea.
- 40% of the Indonesia NS lives in lower part of the poverty line.
- April 4th, Kampuchea: Norodom Sihanouk, reinstalled with the capacity in 1975, resigns. Khieu Samphân and Pol Pot leads democratic Kampuchea. During the four years of the capacity Khmer Rouge, more than one million Kampuchean are killed and the ethnic minorities are massacred or perish of hunger and disease. The political communities and intellectual of the country are destroyed and the economy is reduced to nothing.
- April: Elections in Thailand.
- July 2nd: Election of a single National Assembly to the Vietnam. She proclaims the official reunification of the Vietnam who becomes a socialist republic with Hanoi for capital. The United States refuses to recognize the new government. In the absence of diplomatic relations, Vietnam finds himself completely isolated from the Occidentaux countries and turns to the USSR.
- September, Thailand: The return of the former Prime Minister Thanom Kittikachorn, who was in exile with Singapore, causes with Bangkok bloody fights between students of left and in favor of Thanom, favorable to the right-hand side.
- October 6th: Massacres of the students in Thailand. Military coup d'etat against the Prime Minister Seni Pramoj. Whereas the disorders gain in width, a military group, carried out by the admiral Sangad Chaloryu, takes the control of the country and sets up a conservative government directed by Tanin Kraivixien.
Census and rehabilitation in the South Vietnam: the mass of the former soldiers and the South Vietnamese civils servant follows three days a light training course, but the leaders undergo a heavier rehabilitation in camps with the variation.
- the Vietnamese government tries with difficulty in unchoking the agglomeration of Saigon where refugees accumulated fleeing the zones of combat during the conflict (10 million rural moved towards the urban areas).
- Jiang Qing, wife of Mao, obtains, after the death of Zhou Enlai (January 8th) and the incident of the place consecutive Tian' anmen ( April), that its dolphin Deng Xiaoping is isolated capacity and constrained to hide to escape its vindication.
- July 28th: Earthquake in China (You Ang Chan) of magnitude 8.0 more or less 0.2,240 000 dead.
- September 9th: Died of Mao Zedong, which leaves a political situation and economic difficult. The situation of shift.
- October 9th: China: Arrest of the Band of the four.
- In October, Hooted Guofeng, heir designated to Mao, cumulates the titles of Prime Minister, President of the military Commission and the Central committee of the Communist party. It makes stop the “band of the four”, Jiang Qing at the head. While being pressed on the army, it restores the order in the provinces. Hua Guofeng is presented in the form of a Maoist of strict obedience: it is necessary to defend all that Mao decided, to obey all its directives. Stripped of prestige and imagination, it is not able to impose its authority and must be erased in front of Deng Xiaoping (1977).
the Tibet profits from a small amount of tolerance, in particular religious.
- March 15th: Withdrawal of the frankly of the European Monetary System (EMS).
- June 19th: Marriage of the king Charles XVI of Sweden with Silvia Sommerlath.
- June 25th: In Poland, the advertisement of a big rise of the food prices causes strikes and working riots with Radom and Ursus. Edward Gierek brings back measurement immediately, but must resort to the force to repress the demonstrations. The opposition starts to develop. It is organized in Defense committee of the workmen (KOR). One denounces falsifications of the Official story, one diffuses the truth on the massacres of Katyn. One is less and less afraid of the mode and his police force. The social inequalities and the privileges of the leaders were badly seen.
- October 3rd: Election in Germany of the 8th the Bundestag .
- October 8th: Thorbjörn Fälldin, Prime Minister in Sweden (fine in 1982). After 44 years with the capacity, the social democrat party loses the elections of September to the profit of a coalition formed by the center, the conservatives and the liberal parties.
- November 17th, Spain: Law of political reform which puts an end to the dictatorship. The the pro-Franco Cortes vote their own dissolution with the profit of two rooms, the Congress and the Senate. It is approved by plebiscite by 94% of the 77% voters. Political legalization of the parties (PSOE in December), authorization of the trade unions, granting of privileges pre-separatists to the Catalonia and the Basque Country.
- December 18th: Exchange Vladimir Boukovsky and Luis Corvalán, with Zurich.
the popular republic of Albania takes its distances with the China.
the First Belgian minister Leo Tindemans proposes to increase the powers of the Community institutions. He proposes to create a single decision-making center which would erase the distinction between the ministerial meetings of political co-operation and community nature. The common foreign policy would be subjected in the majority and either unanimously. He admits two-speed Europe, the ones progressing more quickly towards the union and preaches a reinforcement of the obligations relating to the budget policy and monetary and a development of the sectoral policies. Europe should also guarantee the rights of its citizens and allow freedom of movement of the people.
- Tenth five-year plan in Soviet Union (1976 - 1980). It reaffirms the priority granted to the heavy industry, which blocks any inclination of economic reorientation.
- Spain: 21% of the credits work in the primary sector. 40% in the tertiary sector.
See also: 1976 in France
- January 2nd: Enrico Berlinguer supports the government Moro which is released by its partners of PSI.
- January 7th: Aldo Moro resigns to form a new government cd. the February 11th.
- the new electoral campaign is held in a context of assassination and confrontation.
- June 20th: Political elections: NCV increases its score with 34,4% of the voices, cd. is maintained to 38,7% but all the other parties lose voices, including the PSI which passes from 12 to 3%. Taking into account the hostility of the United States on arrival of socialo-Communists to the capacity, economic instability and permanent violence maintained by the bunches activists, Enrico Berlinguer remains convinced of the cogency of a compromise with cd.
- July 10th: Catastrophe of Seveso in Italy: A cloud of Dioxine is spread on this area of Lombardy, evacuated in the urgency.
- 13 - July 29th: The new government directed by Giulio Andreotti profits from the benevolence of the Communists and the Socialists under the name of “government of national solidarity”. Thanks to the abstention from the parties of the “constitutional arc”, it obtains the nomination of the Senate (August 6th) and of the Room (August 11th).
the failure of the revolutionary bunches to the elections of 1975 (any “legal” way their is closed) and the historical Compromis passed between NCV and cd. in 1976 (feeling number of young betrayed voters), causes the toughening of Italian terrorism at the end of the Années 1970. To that the incredible laxism of the police force in the fight anti-terrorist in 1976 - 1977 is added. Attacks of the Red Brigades aiming at police officers, magistrates and journalists make several tens of dead in 1976 - 1978.
- Loan of a billion dollar to the EEC and two billion to the FRG; Italian gold is guaranteed near the Bundesbank.
- Amnesty offered to the Italian exporters of capital, under condition of repatriation.
- 14,3 billion dollars of debts abroad. Devaluation of the to read (16%).
- April 2nd: promulgation of the new constitution.
- April 25th: legislative elections. Victoire of the socialist party. The Communist party gains only 15 % of the voices.
- June 27th: victory of António Ramalho Eanes with the presidential election.
- July 23rd: first constitutional government of Mário Soares.
the child work of less than 14 years is prohibited.
- the schooling is obligatory and free from 6 to 14 years.
The United Kingdom
- April 5th: Beginning of the Labor ministry of James Callaghan, Prime Minister for the the United Kingdom (fine in 1979).
- Resignation of Harold Wilson after the failure of its social draft contract (to associate the trade unions with the fight against inflation). It replaced by James Callaghan whose mandate is dominated by the problem of the relationships to the trade unions.
- October: Monetary serious attack. Great Britain is placed under the supervision of the the IMF, which grants to him a loan of 3,5 billion £ in exchange of a strict budgetary and wage austerity policy. The worker government of Callaghan seeks to limit the financing needs of the public sector.
1,5 million applicants for work.
- Great Britain falls to the 18th rank by GNP per capita (5th in 1951).
Oceania and the Pacific
- Australia: Arboriginal Land Right Act , law on the rights to the ground of the Indigenous in the Territory of North.
The Middle East
- March 15th: Denunciation by Cairo of the soviéto-Egyptians agreements. The Egypt receives for the first time of the American armament.
- May 10th: Syrian intervention with the Lebanon.
- May 11th: Signature with Brussels of a commercial treaty and co-operation between the the EEC and Israel.
- May 15th: The Iran approves a treaty of friendship with the Iraq.
the last oil concessions are abolished and nationalized in Saudi Arabia.
- Palestine: The municipal elections in the Occupied territories devote the accession of a new elite to the detriment of notable the traditional close relations of the Jordan. It belongs to the educated middle-classes and its political program and close to PLO.
- January: Resumption of the engagements in Lebanon with the seat of the Palestinian camps by the Christian militia. The camps are taken by storm and their massacred population. PLO decides to enter the showdown.
- January 19th: The ALP, stationed in Syria and under the control of Damas, enters to Lebanon and settles in the Bekaa.
- January 20th: Hafez el-Assad proposes officially its mediation and advances a reform program, the “constitutional document”, intended to reform the national pact of 1943: parity of the members of Parliament between Christians and Moslems, increase in the capacities of the president of the Republic to the detriment of the president of the Council, stop of the access to the public office on constitutional bases, confirmation of the Agreements of Cairo.
- February 14th: The Christian chiefs accept the text of the “constitutional document” but the forces progressists of Kamal Joumblatt refuse it and ask for the resignation of Soleimane Frangié. The Syria is completely opposite there. The confrontations begin again. In the Mountain, the Christians flee the old areas of cohabitation with the Druzes in front of the operations of the militia progressists.
- April 9th: Quotas of the Sa' iqa enter to Lebanon and bring supports to them with the Christian militia.
- May 8th: Thanks to supports Syria, Elias Sarkis is elected with the Lebanese report heading.
- May 31st: 6000 Syrian soldiers enter to Lebanon, preceding 6000 others and fight the forces palestino-progressists with difficulty.
- In August, the forces last palestino-progressists crumble under the united action of the Christian militia, of the Syrian army and of supports Israeli, involving new massacres in the camps. The National movement is reconstituted in the Mountain. The LEA decides to intervene to find a peaceful solution.
- 16 - October 18th: The Arab top of Riyadh founds a cease-fire and creates an Arab force of dissuasion (FAD) dominated by the Syrian forces (40 000 men). It is spread in Lebanon starting from the November 14th and founds a relative peace.
Arts & culture
- April 24th: With Seville (Spain), alternate of Handbook Ruíz Regalo known as “Manili”, Spanish Matador.
- May 23rd: With Saragossa (Spain), alternate of Shine Francisco Esplá, Spanish Matador.
Sciences & technology
See also: 1976 in science
See also: 1976 in aeronautics
See also: 1976 in the railroads
See also: 1976 in sport
See also: 1976 in football
Births in 1976
- January 2nd: Mahée Payment, actress Quebec oise
- January 9th: Svitlana Azarova, Type-setter Ukrainian.
- February 9th: Antonio Barrera, Spanish Matador .
- February 12th: Holy Sylvia, actress of charm
- February 22nd: Veronika Pagacova, Czech actress.
- February 28th: Guillaume Lemay-Thivierge, actor Quebec ois
- March 5th: Julie Deslauriers, actress Quebec oise
- March 12th: Shine Vilches, Spanish Matador
- March 20th: Chester Bennington, principal Singer of the group neo metal and pop American rock'n'roll Linkin Park
- March 22nd: Reese Witherspoon, actress and producing American
- March 23rd: Elisa Tovati, actress and French singer
- March 31st: Melanie Coste, French actress
- April 3rd: Nicolas Escudé, player of Tennis French
- April 5th: El Renco (Antonio Pérez Rueda), Spanish Matador .
- April 6th: Georg Hólm (known as Goggi ), musician Icelandic, Bass player of the group Sigur Rós.
- June 23rd: Patrick Vieira, player of Football French
- June 24th: Sylvain Courtoux, Poet Objectiviste Punk French
- July 2nd: Dany Bédar, song writer and performer
- July 8th: Ellen MacArthur, English navigatrice
- July 12th: Delfynn Delage, French actress porn
- July 25th: Tera Patrick, American actress
- July 26th
- Oliv', French draftsman
- Alban Laurent, industrial French
- September 9th: Booba, French rappor resulting from Boulogne-Billancourt
- September 22nd: Ronaldo, Brazilian football player
- October 4th: Alicia Silverstone, American actress
- October 7th:
- November 11th: Leonardo Mataruna, player of Handicap Judo
- November 12th: Judith Holofernes, German singer
- November 15th: Virginia Ledoyen, French actress
Death in 1976
- January 8th: Zhou Enlaï, Chinese Prime Minister.
- January 8th: Pierre Jean Jouve, poet and novelist French.
- January 12th: Agatha Christie, the “queen” of the detective novel (° September 15th 1890)
- : Werner Heisenberg, physicist.
- February 20th: Rene Cassin, French lawyer (° October 5th 1887)
- March 17th: Luchino Visconti, Italian realizer.
- March 19th: Paul Kossoff, British musician, guitarist of the group Free.
- April 1st: max Ernst, painter and French sculptor of German origin (° April 2nd 1891)
- April 4th: Harry Nyquist, scientific Swedish.
- April 5th: Howard Hughes, American aviator.
- May 4th: Henri Bosco, French writer.
- May 9th: Ulrike Meinhof, cofondatrice of the Bande in Baader is found died (committed suicide) in its cell with Stuttgart
- May 11th: Alvar Aalto, architect and designer Finnish (° February 3rd 1898)
- May 26th: Martin Heidegger, German philosopher.
- August 2nd: Fritz Lang, realizer and German scenario writer (° 1890)
- September 9th: Mao Tsé Toung in China.
- September 10th: Dalton Trumbo, scenario writer and American realizer.
- September 29th: Yann-Kel Kernalegenn, Breton militant of FLB-ARB.
- October 24th: Helen Gaige, zoologist American (° November 24th 1890).
- October 25th: Raymond Queneau, the French writer and poet.
- October 31st: Eileen Gray, the Irish conceptrice of furniture.
- November 9th: Öyvind Fahlström, painter, writer and poet Swedish (° December 28th 1928).
- November 11th: Alexander Calder, American sculptor.
- November 12th: Walter Piston, American type-setter (° January 20th 1894)
- November 15th: Jean Gabin, actor (° May 17th 1904)
- November 18th: Man Ray, photographer and American painter (° August 27th 1890)
- November 23rd: Andre Malraux, French writer (° November 3rd 1901)
- December 4th: Benjamin Britten, British type-setter.
- December 24th: Jean de Broglie, former minister.
to also see: : Category: Death in 1976
Beats-smg: 1976 Be-X-old: 1976 Map-bms: 1976 Simple: 1976 Zh-min-nan: 1976 nor Zh-yue: 1976 年
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