This page relates to the year 1975 Gregorian Calendrier.
- March 8th: proclamation 1975 Year of the woman .
- the Arab countries, benefitting from a favorable diplomatic opening, succeed in making pass to the general meeting a resolution comparing the Zionism to a form of racism.
- foundation of the Worldwide organization of tourism.
- October 9th: The Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to the Soviet Andreï Dmitrievitch Sakharov, who cannot go to seek his price.
- November 15th: With Rambouillet (France), the president Valery Giscard d'Estaing brings together the Heads of State of the five most industrialized countries (the United States, Japan, FRG, France and the United Kingdom), informal meeting which will be held from now on annually with the Canada and the Italy, forming the G7.
- December: Organization of the first conference on the economic cooperation, usually called North-South Conference, gathering sixteen industrialized countries and nineteen countries in the process of development. Four commissions must prepare the conference of February 1976.
February 28th: Agreements of Lome (Lome I) between the the EEC and 46 countries of Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific ACP. Over five years, 3,5 billion Units of Account (dollars of before 1971), the majority in the form of gifts, contributes to the financing of the development. A mechanism, Stabex, stabilizes the receipts drawn from the exports, threatened by the fall of the courses of the raw materials; articles manufactured by these 46 countries, as well as the very great majority of their agricultural produce are free from customs duties, without is to require of reciprocity.
- March 22nd: Abolition of the Monarchy in Ethiopia.
- Mars: Beginning of a violent civil war in Angola supported by Cuba and the South Africa. Three anticolonialists groups clash before even the withdrawal of the Portuguese army (MPLA, armed by the USSR and supported by Cuba, which controls Luanda, FNLA, in the North of the country, supported by the Zaire and the the United States, and UNITA, in the center and the south, supported by South Africa, Zaire and the United States).
- April 13rd: Military coup d'etat to the Chad. Felix Malloum seizes the power the April 15th (fine in 1979). The French troops must evacuate the country following the business Francoise Claustre (the French government had directly negotiated the release of Francoise Claustre, retained as an hostage by the rebels Toubou).
- May 28th: Foundation of the Economic community of the States of West Africa (English CEDEAO or ECOWAS). Composed of sixteen members, it is dominated by the Nigeria, the most populated nation and richest of the area.
- June 5th: Reopening of the Suez Canal.
- June 2nd: Release of political prisoners, old collaborator of Modibo Keïta, with the Mali (June and November).
- June 25th: Accession with the independence of the Mozambique, old Portuguese colony .
- Mozambique (FRELIMO) approaches the Soviet Union and cuts the economic links with the South Africa and the Rhodesia. Civil war enters RENAMO and FRELIMO (fine in 1992).
- July 5th: Accession with the independence of the Cape Verde, old Portuguese colony .
- July 6th: Independence of the Union of the Comoros.
- July 12th: Accession with the independence of Sao-Divided into volumes, old Portuguese colony .
- July 29th: Military coup d'etat to the Nigeria. Murtala Muhammed seizes the power.
- November 6th: “green Walk” of 350 000 Morocco ains to take possession of the the Western Sahara. They go peacefully towards the South to take possession of the territory and to oblige Spain to withdraw itself.
- November 11th: Independence of the Angola, old Portuguese colony . Beginning of civil war (MPLA to the capacity against FNLA), installation of a Communist regime.
- November 14th:
- Agreement on the independence of the the Western Sahara: Spain, Morocco, Mauritania. Spain, worried by the succession of Free, admits a division between the Morocco and the Mauritania when it would leave the Western Sahara. The Algeria, excluded from this agreement, protests.
- Destruction of the statue of Norton de Matos, founder of News-Lisbon, in Angola.
- November 30th: The Dahomey becomes the Popular republic of the Bénin.
- December: The Congrès refuses to continue the airlift which feeds out of weapons the Angolan organizations supported by the United States.
Establishment of Soviet bases in Somalia.
- 6,5 million inhabitants in Ivory Coast.
- 15 000 cuban soldiers in Angola.
- Exodus of 400 000 Portuguese of Angola.
- the Gabon adheres to OPEC.
- April 22nd: Fall of the general Oswaldo López Arellano with the Honduras following an accounting scandal. Juan Alberto Melgar Castro succeeds to him.
- August 28th: With the Peru, the dictator Velasco is reversed by the general Francisco Morales Bermúdez Cerruti. This one dismantles the reforming building while claiming to continue on the way of Velasco.
- November 25th: Independence of the Suriname.
- December: The Uruguay, 3 million inhabitants, takes into account 6200 political prisoners.
Following a strong process of concentration of the grounds to the El Salvador, the proportion of peasants without ground passed from 19,8% in 1961 to 41,1% in 1975. This year appears in the campaigns the revolutionary popular Block (BPR) which will launch out three years later in the armed struggle.
- Municipal elections with the Brazil. The government in cost with a strict control of the electioneering propaganda (law Falcao) and the ARENA gain 83% of the town halls, thus securing the majority the electoral college which will have to choose the president of the republic in 1978.
- the last oil concessions are abolished and nationalized with the Venezuela.
- Creation of the Latin-American Economic system (SELA). Proposed originally by the Mexico and the Venezuela, it gathers 27 States and wants to be an answer to the American law on the reform of the trade.
- Foundation of Pétro-Canada after the first Oil crisis.
- the growth decreases and inflation increases with the Mexico.
- the courses of copper crumble, causing a recession with the Chile. The government of Augusto Pinochet reacts by redoubling her efforts of liberalization of the economy.
- Installation of a Program of minimum employment (PEM) at Chile consisting in offering the work of public utility slightly remunerated by the unemployed.
The United States of America
- Mars: To fight against the recession, Gerald Ford makes approve by the Congrès the most important tax reduction ever authorized (22 billion).
- May 1st ( Mayday , in English): Removal of the fixed commissions on the transactions on transferable securities with the the United States, which starts the spectacular growth of the financial markets.
- July 30th: disparistion of Jimmy Hoffa.
- September 22nd: Opening of the lawsuit of Ronald DeFeo Jr. which, in a house of Amityville, assassinated the six members of its family with a rifle 35 mm the November 13rd 1974. At the time of this lawsuit, he will say to be had by a voice which would have ordered to him to kill. He will be condemned to 125 years of prison. (This fact various would be at the origin of the film " The Amityville House" in 1980)
- With the autumn, Henry Kissinger accepts the opening of the “North-South dialog” preached by the French.
- November 23rd: The American congress officializes the Metric system but will never use it.
the Soviet Union refuses a trade agreement with the the United States.
- unemployment reaches 8,3% of the active population (5,6% in 1974).
- Of the independent federal organizations controls safety in the means of transport.
- the the United States export for 9,5 billion dollars of armament.
The Middle East
- March 6th: Agreement of Algiers: the Iraq recognizes the delimitation of the border irako-Iranian woman on the line of the Thalweg of the Chatt-el-Arab and the two parts begin to cease supporting their respective oppositions. The Kurdish accept peace, and a limited autonomy their is granted with certain cultural rights.
- March 25th: Assassination of the king Fayçal of Saudi Arabia.
- Mars: Henry Kissinger obtains Sadate the acceptance of the principle of nonuse of the force to solve the Israeli-Arab question. Israel refuses and breaks thus the negotiations. It is the end of the diplomacy of Kissinger. The administration Ford decides to reduce the economic aid and military to Israel, but always refuses to grant a diplomatic legitimacy to PLO and is thus opposed to the resumption of the Conference of Geneva.
- June 5th: Reopening of the Suez Canal to navigation. Gerald Ford pushes Israel to take again the negotiations on the the Sinai in exchange of a revival of the American assistance.
- September 4th: The Egypt and Israel sign with Geneva a new temporary peace agreement, the agreement of disengagement of “the Sinai II”. The Hebrew State is withdrawn to the line of the collars of the the Sinai and returns to Egypt the oil fields of the gulf of Suez. Both part are committed regulating their different by peaceful means, having to lead to a durable peace. Egypt authorizes the passage by the coming channel of the nonmilitary products or bound for Israel.
- November 18th: Free-Iraqi agreement for the delivery of the engine Osirak.
the last oil concessions are abolished and nationalized with the Kuwait.
- February: Pierre Gemayel request a national referendum on the approval of the presence of the Palestinian commandos.
- April 13rd: Beginning of the civil war (War of Lebanon) with Beirut with the Lebanon (fine in 1990). Bloody clashes take place between Phalangistes and Palestinians. The parts clash during three days in all the city. The Moslem militia join the combat against the Christians.
- May 24th: Barricades are raised in Beirut western. The city is separate between the Lebanese Face and the National movement.
- June 30th: To alleviate the situation, Soleimane Frangié composes a new government and calls the leader sunnite, Rachid Karamé, with the presidency of the Council.
- violences begin again during the summer. In September, Beirut undergoes violent one bombardments. The battle for the conquest of the center town starts in October. The Christians leave the Moslem zones and reciprocally, in front of the fear of the reprisals.
- December 6th: The Christian militia devote to massacres Moslems (“black Saturday”). The confrontations devote the rise of the militia to the detriment of the political leaders.
- April 5th: Died of Tchang Kaï-chek. Yen Shit-kan with the capacity with Taiwan (fine in 1978)
- July 8th: An earthquake devastates the site of Pagan, in Burma: many monuments are destroyed.
- November 28th: Nationalist rebels proclaim the independence of the Eastern Timor after the withdrawal of the Portugal. The Fretilin ( Frente Revolucionaria C Timor Ballasts Independente ), an independence communist group, takes the control of the capital, Dili.
- December 7th: Regarding the Fretilin as a threat for the integrity of the country, the Indonesia invades the Eastern Timor. In spite of the judgments of the Portugal and the United Nations, Indonesia makes this area its 24e province. The defense organizations of the Human rights estimate that this annexation cost the life more 100 000 Timoreses.
the Chinese government sets up an immigration policy of Chinese Han at the central Tibet. According to the Popular republic of China, 96 000 Han, except military personnel, arrive at central Tibet as of 1982.
- collectivization is completed with the Tibet.
- May 16th: The Sikkim becomes the 22e State of the Indian Union following a referendum which puts an end to monarchy.
- August 15th: Assassination of the sheik Mujibur with the Bangladesh. The country passes under the military authority.
Movements of revolt in India:
- Victoire of Janata Face, the coalition of right-hand side of Jayaprakash Narayan on the Congress of Indira Gandhi with the regional elections with the Gujerat. At the same time, High court of justice of Allahabad invalid the election of the Prime Minister in 1971 for fraudulent electoral practices. The opposition claims the resignation of Indira Gandhi. His/her son junior Sanjay Gandhi succeeds in organizing a gigantic demonstration in favor of his mother. The opposition calls with civil disobedience to this “illegal” government.
- June 25th: Indira Gandhi proclaims the state of emergency and makes stop the main leaders of the opposition, in particular Mr. Desaï and Jayaprakash Narayan. The press is censured, the “subversive” organizations like the RSS or Jamaat-e-Islami, is prohibited. Approximately 100 000 people are stopped.
- the influence of Sanjay Gandhi increases days in days, although it does not have official functions.
- January 7th: Catch of Phuoc Binh by the Northern Vietnam. The Americans do not react.
- February 26th: A freely elected government is formed in Thailand.
- March 9th: A general offensive is decided by Vietnam North. The communist troops subject the South Vietnam after 55 days of countryside starting from the high plateaus of Annam (fine the April 30th).
- March 25th: Taken Hoots.
- April 2nd: Catch of Đà Nẵng. Countryside Ho Chi Minh on Saigon.
- April 12th: The last Americans leave the Kampuchea.
- April 21st: Catch of Xuan Loc. Resignation of Nguyễn Văn Thiệu. The last Americans are evacuated.
- 12 - May 15th: Incidental of Mayagüez. The American cargo liner Mayagüez is hailed by the Kampuchean ones. Gerald Ford requires the immediate liberation of the ship and its crew. In spite of the advertisement of the restitution of the ship, it orders an military operation on the island of Koh Tang, during which 41 American soldiers are killed.
- April 17th: Fall of Phnom Penh, the Khmer Rouge, a communist faction, enter the capital of the Kampuchea and establish for four years their dictatorship directed by Pol Pot. The attack against the Aéroport of Pochentong is given by the troops ordered by Hun Sen. Evacuation of the city. They follow a violent policy aiming at establishing an agrarian Community company. The townsmen are off-set towards the campaigns where they form a servile labor. This mode will make approximately two million dead on the 8 million which counted at the time Kampuchea.
- April 30th: Fall of Saigon, renamed Ho-Chi-Minh-City with the Vietnam of the South, which marks the end of the Guerre of Vietnam.
- Of the thousands of Vietnameses families flees, and embarks clandestinely (boat-people). Those which remain are confronted with difficult years of poverty, insulation and repression.
- August 23rd: Takeover by the Pathet Lao with Vientiane with the assistance of the USSR, and abolition of monarchy to the Laos. The old government is carried out. Repression causes an surge of refugees in Thailand.
- February 1st: A popular Democratic republic lao is proclaimed with Souphanouvong with the presidency (end in 1986). After the interruption of the American assistance, the Soviet Union installs per hundreds of the troops and the advisers in the country.
46 million inhabitants in the Vietnam, who compensated for the losses of the war (1,5 million civilian victims) by a strong birthrate.
- Seven million tons of bombs was released on Vietnam during the war.
Oceania & the Pacific
- September 16th: Independence of the New Guinea-News-Guinea with respect to the supervision of the United Nations and the Australian administration. Michael Somare, chief of the Pangu Party, becomes Prime Minister (1975 - 1980, 1982 - 1985, since 2002).
Australia: Racial Discrimination Act , which declares illegal any discriminatory action or legislation towards the individuals on the basis of of the race, the color or national or ethnic origin.
- New Zealand: Creation of the Court of Waitangi in order to appreciate the territorial claims of the Maoris.
- January 1st: New constitution in Sweden, reducing the capacity of the king more.
- February 11th: Margaret Thatcher leads the conservative party to the the United Kingdom.
- February 13rd: The North of the island of Cyprus is unilaterally declared State autonomous by the Turkey.
- Mars: Compromise of Dublin between the EEC and the the United Kingdom: the sugar of the the Commonwealth is seen guaranteeing an access to the European market, just as New Zealand butter and cheese. The United Kingdom will profit in addition from refundings to its financial contribution in some limiting.
- May 20th: Beginning of the lawsuit of the Band with Baader in Germany.
- May 29th: Gustáv Husák, president of the Czechoslovakia (fine in 1989).
- June 5th: Confirmation by referendum of maintains of Great Britain in the EEC, with 67,2% of the votes.
- June: The Greece deposits an application to join at the European Community.
- July 30th -: Agreements of Helsinki at the conclusion of the Conference on safety and the co-operation in Europe (CSCE) which joins together 35 State (33 European countries except Albania, more the United States and Canada): safety in Europe, respect of the human rights and fundamental freedoms, co-operation in the scientist fields, technique and humanitarians.
- November 10th: Treated of Osimo between the Yugoslavia and the Italy which definitively regulates the division of the free Territoire of Trieste.
- February 1st: The Council of Europe adopts in Rome the principle of the election by the direct suffrage of the members of the the European Parliament in 1978.
- Law against sexual discrimination with the the United Kingdom.
- 1,6 billion £ of balance of payments deficit to the the United Kingdom. The English products account for nothing any more but 8% of the world exports.
- the national revenue per capita with the the United Kingdom passed from 600 to 1200 £ since 1965.
- September 27th: Lawsuit of Burgos against the ETA. Execution of three members of FRAP and of two of the ETA.
- October: An attack terrace Caudillo. Its entourage, in front of the uncertainty of its succession, tries to prolong it médicalement.
- November 20th: Died of Free, Head of the Spanish State after a long illness.
- November 22nd: Proclamation of Juan Carlos de Borbon there Borbon under king d' Espagne under the name of Juan Carlos I.
the production of steel was multiplied by five since 1960. The incomes were multiplied by two and half since 1960.
See also: 1975 in France
- May 21st: Following the increasing wave of political violence, the Parliament approves the Loi Reale aiming at reinforcing the capacities of the magistrature and the police force.
- June 5th: Mara Cagol, one of the founders of the Red Brigades, is killed by the police force.
- June: The electoral campaign is held in a climate of violence, confrontations between neofascists and revolutionary bands which result in the death of several people. In this context, Amintore Fanfani presents the Christian Democrat like the party of the law and of the order and Enrico Berlinguer, condemning the clientelism and the corruption of municipalities cd. qualifies NCV of “party to the clean hands”. With the regional elections, the NCV acquires 33,4% of the voices (+ 6 points), PSI 12%, cd. 35,3% (- 2 points). NCV and PSI agree to form “ giunte di will sinistra ” (council of left) in all the big cities except for Bari and of Palermo. Cd. prefers to replace Fanfani by Benito Zaccagnini as secretary, whereas bursts the Lockeed scandal which splash with the leaders Christian-Democrats and social democrat and which prepare of the anticipated elections for 1976.
- July: Reform areas wanted by NCV which obtain the capacities, financial autonomy and the responsibility in essential fields like health or town and country planning.
- September 20th: The ambassador of the United States expresses the formal opposition of his country to the historical Compromis.
- December 6th: The first great demonstration of women with place with Rome. The feminist movement acquires a national dimension. The MLD ( Movimento di liberazione delle gives ) is the most active movement.
Reform of the right of the family, founding the equality enters the couple and between child legitimate and natural.
- Fall of the industrial production (- 9,5%), construction (- 9%), the investments (- 13%), the national revenue (- 3,6%) but also of inflation (17% over the year). Increase in the number of unemployed (1,2 million on the whole).
- Établissement of the Broke Integrazione Guadagni , which controls the lay-offs. 80% of the wages are guaranteed to the workmen put at foot. The fired workmen can come to the factory, not there not to work and set out again with the near total of their wages.
- Introduction of the mobile Scala , which automatically indexes the wages at the cost of living (abandoned in 1992).
- January 1st: Trade agreement with the EEC.
- March 11th: Failure of the attempt of the putsch of the general António Spínola.
- Mars - July: Occupation of the great properties in the Alentejo.
- May 25th: Victoire of the socialist party to the elections. Nationalizations.
- August: Business of the Republica newspaper. Two projects clash: that of the Communists and the Prime Minister Vasco Gonçalves who want a socialism authoritative and that of the Socialists and democratic popular party, near to the Western democracies.
- September 19th: Government of Jose Batista Pinheiro de Azevedo (fine in 1976).
- November 25th: Failure of the putsch gauchist of Otelo de Carvalho (coup d'etat of the parachutists of Tancos).
- November: Burden with the workmen of the building. The wages are increased by 44%.
Arts & culture
- Anatoly Karpov becomes world champion of failures after the fixed price of Bobby Fischer.
- the schmilblick , sketch of Coluche.
Sciences & technology
See also: 1975 in science
See also: 1975 in aeronautics
See also: 1975 in the railroads
See also: 1975 in sport
- Chris Evert gains Roland Garros and the US Open one of the United States.
- August 12th with Gothenburg in Sweden: John Walker of New Zealand beats the world records of the mile into 3 ' 49" 4.
- Bernard Thévenet gains its 2nd Tour de France.
Births in 1975( See also: : Category: Birth in 1975
- January 14th: Taylor Beam, American actress
- January 15th:
- February 4th: Natalie Imbruglia, singer Australia
- February 14th: Eugenio de Mora, Spanish Matador .
- February 16th: Ramata Sore, Burkinabe Journalist .
- February 19th: Javier Cop, Spanish Matador .
- February 26th: Virginia Hocq, Humoriste and Belgian Actress
- March 14th: Abd Al Malik, rappor
- March 15th: Eva Longoria, American actress (series: Desperate housewives )
- March 24th: Thomas Johansson, tennis player Swedish.
- March 26th: Freya Van den Bossche, Flemish political woman, Minister for the Budget and Deputy Prime Minister for the Belgium.
- April 4th: Delphine Arnault, billionaire French businesswoman LVMH
- April 11th: Walid Soliman, Tunisian writer, (° 1975).
- April 17th: Victoria Beckham, English Singer of the Spice Girls and marries David Beckham
- April 22nd: Greg Moore, Canadian racing driver
- April 26th: Joey Jordison, American beater of the group Slipknot
- May 2nd: David Beckham, English footballer
- May 5th: Cédric Tiberghien, French pianist
- May 25th:
- June 4th: Angelina Jolie, American actress
- June 6th: Stephan Mondino, French singer
- June 17th: Chloe Jones, American actress († June 4th 2005)
- June 18th: Jamel Debbouze, French actor
- June 19th: Hugh Dancy, British actor
- June 21st: Shine Miguel Encabo, Spanish Matador .
- July 18th: Daron Malakian guitarist of System Of has Down
- July 24th: Torrie Wilson catcheuse with division SmackDown! with WWE.
- August 7th: Charlize Theron, South-African actress
- August 18th: Anne Barzin, Belgian political woman of French language
- August 20th: Jose Tomás (Jose Tomás Román Martín), Spanish Matador .
- September 20th: Juan Pablo Montoya, racing driver Colombian F1
- September 26th: Jake Paltrow, American director film television and cinema, brother of Gwyneth Paltrow
- September 30th: Marion Cotillard, French actress
- October 5th: Kate Winslet, actress
- October 12th: Marion Jones, American athlete
- October 17th: Francis Bubble, player of Hockey
- October 16th: Christophe Maé, French singer
- December 13rd: Tom Delonge, singer and American guitarist
- December 17th: Milla Jovovich, actress and Ukrainian singer
- December 18th: Frederic Billharz, Swiss singer
- December 30th: Tiger Woods, American golfor
Death in 1975
- January 4th: Carlo Levi, writer and Italian painter, (° 1902).
- January 9th: Pierre Fresnay, Actor French, (° 1897).
- February 3rd: Oum Kalsoum, Arab diva Egyptian singer (° 1904)
- February 9th: Pierre Dac (Andre Isaac), French humorist, (° August 15th 1893).
- February 14th: P.G. Wodehouse, writer and British Humoriste
- March 15th: Aristote Onassis, Greek Ship-owner.
- March 20th: the prince Jacques Henri de Bourbon, duke of Anjou and Segovia, elder of the Capétiens and chief of the House of France, (° 1908).
- April 5th: Tchang Kaï-chek, old directing Republic of China, (° 1887).
- April 12th: Joséphine Baker, Singer American French-speaking person, (° 1906).
- April 19th: Robert Aron, the writer
- April 25th
- April 27th: John B. McKay, American pilot of X-15 (° December 8th 1922)
- May 6th: Fernand Verhaegen, Belgian artist painter, (° 1883).
- May 12th: Jean Dubuffet, painter French, (° 1901).
- May 20th: Rodolfo Gaona, Mexican Matador (° January 22nd 1888)
- May 21st: Barbara Hepworth, British Sculptor
- May 30th: Michel Simon, Swiss Actor, (° 1895).
- June 5th: Paul Keres, Estonian player of failures, (° 1916).
- June 26th: Josémaria Escriva de Balaguer, founder of the Opus Dei, (° 1902).
- : Benoit Frachon, former general secretary of the CGT, (° 1893).
- August 9th: Dmitri Chostakovitch, Russian Type-setter, (° 1906).
- August 27th: Hailé Sélassié Ier (assassinated), emperor of Ethiopia, (° 1892).
- September 20th: Persian Saint-John, Diplomatic Poet and French, (° 1887).
- October 3rd: Guy Mollet, French politician (° December 31st 1905)
- October 7th: Antonio Bienvenida (Antonio Mejías Jiménez), Spanish Matador (° June 25th 1922).
- October 22nd: Arnold Joseph Toynbee, Historian, (° 1889).
- November 2nd: Pier Paolo Pasolini, writer, Scenario writer and Italian Realizer, (° 1922).
- November 20th: Francisco Franco, Spanish dictator, (° 1892).
- November 21st: François of Roubaix, French musician
- December 4th: Hannah Arendt, German Philosopher, (° 1906).
- December 5th: Gilbert Hiring, French painter.
to also see: : Category: Death in 1975
Beats-smg: 1975 Be-X-old: 1975 Map-bms: 1975 Simple: 1975 Zh-min-nan: 1975 nor Zh-yue: 1975 年
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