This page relates to the year 1973 Gregorian Calendrier.
War of Kippour from October 6th to October 24th, 1973.
- First oil crisis resulting from the israélo-Palestinian conflict.
- Conference of Algiers which claims a new world economic order.
- the Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to the American Henry Kissinger and to the North-Vietnamese Đức Thọ, which refuses it.
- Creation of the Trilateral Commission (the United States, Western Europe, Japan) by David Rockefeller and Zbigniew Brzezinski vis-a-vis the “very worrying international situation”.
- September: Tokyo Round (fine in 1979).
- January 1st: The the United Kingdom, the Ireland and the Denmark enter the EEC. The Norway withdraws its application to join following the negative results of a national referendum.
- January 26th: Government of Edmond Leburton in Belgium (fine in 1974).
- February 12th: The the United Kingdom, the Italy and the Ireland choose the autonomous undulation of their currency following the devaluation of the dollar. The Pound sterling is devaluated of 20% in four years. The rate of inflation reaches 7% in Italy. The FRG must revalue the Deutsche Mark twice ( March and June) to ensure the survival of the European Currency snake.
- January 31st: Beginning of the negotiations on the forces in Central Europe (MBFR).
- March 8th: Attacks of the WILL GO to Whitehall and Old Bailey (London)
- March 9th: Abolition of the Parliament of Stormont (Northern Ireland). A referendum in Ulster chooses to 57,4% for maintains of Ulster in the the United Kingdom.
- April 19th, Portugal: Foundation of the socialist party by the lawyer Mário Soares.
- June 1st: The military junta Greek abolishes the Monarchie and proclaims a République. Yeóryos Papadópoulos becomes president of the Greek republic.
- 6 - June 10th, Italy: Congress of the Christian Democrat. Amintore Fanfani is elected secretary of the party in the place of Arnaldo Forlani. The Congress decides the return to the center left.
- June 12th: Helmut Kohl becomes president of CDU (Union Christian Democrat of Germany).
- Cabinet reshuffle in Spain. End of the technocratic experiment. The admiral Luis Carrero Blanco becomes the chief of the government, charged to regulate the succession.
- Citroen and FIAT decides to put an end to the drawn up reports in 1968: Michelin repurchases the shareholder participation of FIAT.
- July 3rd: Beginning of the conference of Helsinki (CSCE).
- July 7th: The president of the Italian Council Giulio Andreotti resigns. Mariano Rumor form its fourth government of center left.
- July 15th: Beginning of the reign of Charles XVI Gustave, king of Sweden.
- July 31st: Birth of the European space agency.
- August, Portugal: Creation of the movement of the captains ( Movimento back Capitães ).
- the Ostpolitik of the chancellor Willy Brandt allows the simultaneous entry of both Germany, the FRG and GDR, with UNO.
- Italy: The Sardinian Enrico Berlinguer, elected with the head of NCV in 1972, lance in a series of articles in the review Rinascita the idea of the “historical Compromised ” with cd. and PSI. This defensive bringing together is dictated by the fear of a coup d'etat of right-hand side following the events of the Chile and rests on the postulate that morals catholic and communist, also opposed to wild liberalism, can find an area of agreement.
- November 25th, Greece: Yeóryos Papadópoulos is reversed and replaced by the general Phaedon Gizikis who proclaims Head of the State. Martial law.
- December 20th: Luis Carrero Blanco is assassinated with Madrid by the ETA, and is replaced with the head of the Spanish government by Carlos Arias Navarro.
the Soviet Union proposes to establish a forum paneuropéen which would consolidate the relaxation by solidifying the status quo territorial and policy in Europe with its advantage.
- the West Germany and East Germany agree on the reciprocal diplomatic recognition.
- Bored extreme line with the the United Kingdom. The British National Face obtains 13% of the voices to a by-election in the East End London.
- Abolition of the Capital punishment to the the United Kingdom for the crimes of common right.
- Epidemic of Cholera to Naples.
- the Portugal account 9 million inhabitants, of which 40 000 students. More than two million tourists visit the Portugal.
See also: 1973 in France
January: Rupture with Israel of the States of Black Africa members of OAU.
- January 20th: Assassination of Amilcar Cabral.
- April 12th: The king of the Swaziland Sobhuza II suspends the constitution of 1968 and grants the full powerss until his death in 1982.
- April 15th: The popular revolution in Libya consolidates the capacity of Mouammar Kadhafi.
- May 10th: Creation of the Face Polisario with the the Western Sahara.
- July 5th: Military coup d'etat to the Rwanda.
- Renewal for five years of the cooperation agreements free-Malians.
- Libya: Go for the unit towards Cairo.
- Libya nationalizes to 51% the production of oil (be).
- September 12th, Namibia: UNO and OAU recognize SWAPO like “single representative of the Namibian people”.
- September 24th: The Guinea-Bissau declares its independence.
- November 6th: Revelations on the famine in Ethiopia and in other countries of the the Sahel.
- February 1st: The Union between the Libya and the Egypt is broken.
Sampaio/Fernando Business with the Mozambique. Two priests are shown by DGS to encourage their parishioners on the way of separatism. The Sampaio father had in fact denounced in a sermon the destruction and the extermination of the inhabitants of a village of the north of Mozambique by the Portuguese army.
- Great famine in the zone soudano-sahélienne until in Ethiopia (1973 - 1975).
- military Coup d'etat in the Upper Volta.
- the Libya holds the Bande of Aozou (Chad) until in 1989.
- First conference of the African ministers with Abidjan intended to draw up the assessment of “the first decade of the development”.
- Four countries only add up with them more of the three quarters of the military expenditure of the African continent: the Egypt (37,4%), the Nigeria (19,8%), the South Africa (12,6%) and the Libya (6,16%). The total of the sales of weapons in Africa of 1973 with 1983 is distributed between the Soviet Union (41,4%), the France (12,5%), the the United States (9,6%), the Italy (5,4%), FRG (4,8%), the Great Britain (3,7%), various (22,6%).
The Middle East & Arab world
- February: Meetings between the Egyptian persons in charge and Henry Kissinger, which establishes the policy of the “small steps”: recognition of Egyptian sovereignty on the the Sinai but maintains military presence of Israel for a few years to guarantee its safety. Sadate refuses, supported by Soviet who rejects their engagements of the top of Moscow.
- February 21st: Israeli aviation cuts down a Boeing 727 Libyan Arab Airlines above the desert of the the Sinai.
- April: Sadate and Hafez el-Assad meets to prepare a recovery plan of the engagements against Israel. The Saudi Arabia promises a use of the oil weapon.
- 7 - June 11th: Travel of Willy Brandt to Israel.
- June 16th: American-Soviet Summit mentioning the “legitimate interests of the Palestinian people”.
- October 6th: Fourth Israeli-Arab war or War of Kippour (fine the October 22nd). The Syria and the Egypt attack Israel at midday.
- the Egyptian army crosses the Bar Lev and seizes several strengthened post offices. Commandos are parachuted derrières the Israeli lines to cut the communications. The intervention of Israeli aviation is a failure in front of the Egyptian anti-aircraft batteries. Egypt establishes an in-depth line of defense on bank Is Suez Canal. The Israelis lost 900 armoured tanks in the engagements.
- Offensive Syrian woman on the Golan, combined with actions of commandos on the principal Israeli bases of the plate. Israeli aviation essuie of heavy losses. The Israeli line of defense moves back.
- October 7th: Israeli defense is at the edge of collapse on the Golan.
- October 8th: The situation is restored on Golan with sends of Israel of a new fleet of planes.
- October 13rd: the Syrians returned to their starting lines. Syria reorganizes its forces with the assistance of Jordanian armoured tanks and of Iraqi quotas, the defense of Damas ensures but fails to implement a counter-offensive. Israel had to sacrifice the quarter of its military potential. He addresses himself to the United States for new supplies, threatening to resort to the nuclear weapon. The United States organizes an airlift the following day.
- October 14th: the Egypt lance a new offensive with the the Sinai which fails in front of the arrival of American military material. While being folded up, it leaves at discovered the output area of the channel in the lake Amer. Ariel Sharon seizes opportunity and crosses the channel to carry out an attempt at surrounding of the Egyptian army.
- October 16th: Sadate accepts a cease-fire but Israel refuses.
- October 17th: Beginning of the First oil crisis . the representatives of the oil Arab countries (OPAEP), joins together with Kuwait, but not the Iran, decide a monthly reduction of 5% of the oil production until evacuation of the occupied territories and recognition of the rights of the Palestinians.
- October 20th:
- Of the negotiations soviéto-American opens with Moscow and leads to resolution 338 of the Safety advice of the United Nations.
- the king of Saudi Arabia Fayçal decides a total embargo on the deliveries intended for the United States, then in the Netherlands.
- October 22nd: The Safety advice of the the United Nations adopts the Résolution 338 (1973), which reaffirms the validity of the resolution 242 (1967), adopted during the Guerre the Six Day old and calls all the parts with the conflict (the Egypt, the Syria, Israel, the Jordan) with an immediate cease-fire and negotiations in sight “to found a peace fair and lasting in the Middle East”. Egypt accepts, then Syria and Israel. This last however decides not to respect the cease-fire and continues its encircling movement of the Egyptian army.
- October 24th: Resolution 339 requires the withdrawal of the Israelis on their positions of the October 22nd. The Soviet Union proposes a joint military intervention with the United States to separate the belligerents, but Henry Kissinger refuses. The Soviets are ready to act unilaterally. Kissinger then decides to put in state of alert all the American forces of the Atlantic sector, including the nuclear strategic air command. Resolution 340 reiterates the order of cease-fire and creates an emergency Force of the United Nations (FUNU). in front of the international tension, Israel accepts the cease-fire.
- November 11th: The Egypt and Israel sign a cease-fire. Technical agreement of “kilometer 101” between Israel and Egypt under the auspices of Kissinger. It makes it possible to supply the Egyptian army and of the prisoner exchanges.
- 26 - November 28th: Arab life top of Algiers which reiterates the objectives of the Arab States vis-a-vis Israel: total release of the grounds conquered in 1967, release of the Arab Jerusalem and refusal of very reached with the sovereignty of the latter, re-establishment of the national rights of the Palestinian people. It requires the end of supports military and economic Western Europe in Israel and the suppression of the embargo on the sales of weapons to the Arab countries. He asks the United States a better consideration of the Arab cause. He reiterates the need for supports Eastern European countries to the Arab cause and the continuation of the deliveries of weapons. The United States must modify their policy considered to be too favorable to Israel, just like Western Europe and Japan.
- November 28th: Recognition by the the Arab League of PLO like only representing of the Palestinian people.
- 13 - December 18th: Henry Kissinger carries out a shuttle between the Arab countries and Israel to prepare the Conference of Geneva.
- December 21st: Conference of Geneva. Syrians and Egyptians, anxious to obtain an Israeli military withdrawal, are been willing to yield on the Palestinian question. A military technical committee, in charge of the disengagement of the belligerents, is set up.
violences multiply with the Lebanon between Palestinians and Christians, the latter and the forces of the Lebanese left, between traditional chiefs, Israel and resistance.
- Dubai adheres to OPEC.
Asia & India
- February: Crisis of subsistence in India. The Indian government nationalizes the trade of the grains.
- March 20th, Popular republic of China: Return of Deng Xiaoping to the businesses. Mao Zedong requests it to control the popular Armée with release.
- April: Political disturbances with the Sikkim. The chogyal request the intervention of the Indian troops to restore the order.
- July 17th, Afghanistan: In a diplomatic and economic situation worsened, Mohammed Daoud Khan seizes the capacity, relieves the king, and proclaims an Afghan Republic. He institutes an uncommitted government.
- the Bhutan adheres to the movement non-aligned countries.
- January 8th: Resumption of secret negotiations between the the United States and the Vietnam with Paris.
- January 27th: Agreement of Paris on the Vietnam: Cease-fire. Withdrawal of the American forces of the Vietnam of the South. It envisages the formation of a tripartite government of coalition which will never be born. Quickly, the situation worsens in South-Vietnam, where the leaders corrupted anticommunists, incompetent to suppress inflation and private supports of a good part of the American appropriations, lose supports it reduced to poverty and demoralized population.
- February 11th: 1st release of American prisoners of war to the Vietnam.
- February 21st: The United States signs a cease-fire with the Laos.
- March 29th: The last American soldiers leave the Vietnam.
- June 20th: The Congress of the United States interdict to the administration any bombardment on Kampuchea beyond the August 15th.
- August 15th: End of the American bombardments to the Kampuchea, officially marking the 12 years end of armed confrontations in the South-East Asia.
- October 14th, Thailand: Demonstrations organized by students opposed to the military government force Thanom Kittikachorn to resign and lead to the nomination of a civil cabinet.
Ouverture to That-Saint-Cloud of negotiation enters the GRP and Saigon.
- New Constitution in Burma instituting a mode with sole party.
- Suharto is re-elected president of the republic of Indonesia.
Oceania & the Pacific
- May 9th: The Australia and the New Zealand deposit a complaint with $the Hague against the French nuclear tests.
- February 1st: The New Guinea-News-Guinea obtains autonomy.
- official Adoption of a multicultural policy in Australia. Right to vote with the Indigenous of Australia.
- Establishment of an Agency of examination of the overseas investments to the Canada (1973-1984).
the United States
- January: Lifting of the wages and price controls.
- January 22nd: Decision of the Supreme court legalizing, under certain conditions, the Abortion (stop Roe v. Wade ).
- January 27th: Agreements of Paris. Cease-fire and military withdrawal of the United States in Vietnam.
- February 8th: The Senate opens a board of inquiry on the Scandale of Watergate.
- February 12th: The dollar is devaluated of 10% compared to the principal Western currencies.
- February 27th: 200 Sioux Oglala of the American Indian Movement occupy the village of Wounded Knee (South Dakota) to protest against the living conditions in the reserves and to require that one recognize their rights and their grounds. They resist during 71 days and obtain the re-examination of the treaty of 1868.
- March 23rd: Gordon Liddy, recognized guilty of participation in the installation of tables of listenings to the seat of the Democratic party, located in the building of the Watergate at Washington, is condemned by the judge John Sirica; it is the first condemned in the Scandale of Watergate.
- April 30th, Scandal of Watergate. Richard Nixon must accept the resignation of two of its principal advisers.
- May 17th: Beginning of the transmissions on line on the American television channels of hearings of the board of inquiry into the Scandal of Watergate.
- June: Official visit of Leonid Brejnev in the United States.
- September 22nd: Henry Kissinger is named Secretary of State (fine in 1976).
- October 6th: War of Kippour. Nixon puts its nuclear forces in state of alert when the Soviet Union appears to want to benefit from the circumstances.
- October 10th: Resignation of the vice-president Spiro Agnew following an accounting scandal. Gerald Ford becomes vice-president
- October 20th:
- Nixon returns the special prosecutor whom it had named “to make all the truth”, which claimed magnetic bands to him on which it recorded his conversations and phone interviews. The public sees a consent of culpability there. The Room starts a procedure of Impeachment to relieve the President.
- First oil crisis. The embargo of OPEC on the oil and the rise of the prices cause a recession.
- November 7th: War Power Act . The capacities of the president as regards sending of troops abroad are limited by the Congrès which reaffirms its control on the control of the external businesses.
- February: The president of the Republic of the Uruguay Juan María Bordaberry accepts the creation of a Safety advice main road (COSENA), composed of soldiers, who will assert themselves gradually like truths centers capacity.
June 27th: Coup d'etat in Uruguay. Supported by the army, the president Juan María Bordaberry seizes all the powers. End of the constitutional government. Bordaberry dissolves the Parliament for “serious violation of the constitutional principles” and seizes all the powers. A collegial authoritarian regime settles. The state of siege is stated in order to be able to launch the war against subversion. The left parties are prohibited and their stopped leaders. The other parties are suspended and the electoral system is abandoned.
- : Foundation of the Community and Common Market of the Caribbean (Caricom).
- the Ecuador adheres to OPEC.
- the crisis of oil causes the resumption of inflation. The Brésil turns towards the nuclear energy and the use of alcohol of cane like automobile fuel.
- March 11th: Héctor Jose Cámpora, candidate of the justicialist face of release (coalition of peronists, conservatives, Christian-Democrats) arrives at the head of presidential in Argentine. The junta declares officially it elected the March 30th.
- June 20th: Juan Perón makes a triumphal return in Argentine. Two tendencies peronists clash the same day close to the Ezeira airport where must land the leader.
- July 13rd: In a climate of violence, Cámpora resigns.
- September 23rd: New elections carry Juan Perón to the capacity with 60% of the votes. It launches the “national rebuilding”.
- September 24th: The revolutionary Army of the people is put out the law and it seems that Perón will repress the left forces. It reactivates alliance with the trade unions (Act of national compromise).
- September 25th: The general secretary of CGT is assassinated. The September 26th, it is with the turn of the president of Youth peronist.
- Mars: The Unidad Popular (43,9%) is beaten by the opposition linked to legislative to the Chile. Under the pressure of the various parties of its government, Salvador Allende cannot accept the conditions posed by the soldiers to take part in a new government. Their participation in the government for six months did not bring back the calm policy but brought them closer to the capacity.
- Of April to September, Allende seeks various exits with the crisis, in the form of economic adjustments and cabinet reshuffle, in vain. The opposition, supported more and more openly by the United States, organizes the blocking of the institutions, worsens the economic crisis while launching recurrent strikes and recourse even to violence.
- September 11th: Coup d'etat of September 11th, 1973 in Chile : the government of the Chile is reversed by a military coup d'etat supported by the United States. The president Salvador Allende commits suicide (officially) in the presidential palace of Moneda whereas the army gives the attack. The general Pinochet seizes the power.
- the Congress is immediately dissolves, the suspended Constitution, the prohibited political parties and the media placed under monitoring. The state of siege is imposed and wild repression. Close to 250 000 Chilean must be exiled to escape the prison, torture and death, the Direccíon of inteligencia nacional (DINED) making “disappear” 11 000 people.
- October 15th: Decree of the ministry for the Economy completely releasing the prices, some remaining controlled (feed, sugar, oil, milk, etc) and others supervised (coffee, medicinal products, tariffs school, etc). Another decree envisages an adjustment of the wages by a system of allowance intended to compensate for inflation.
- Pinochet consolidates her authority thanks to a concentration and a centralization of the repressive apparatus and while being surrounded of a group of technocrats (the Chicago servant boys, economists trained by Milton Friedman with the Université of Chicago) who work out a project on which to base the legitimation of its capacity. It is about a “new development model directed towards the outside” which stresses exports and the opening at international competition. Economic project, it is also social and political, the principles of the market having to govern the whole of the company according to the principles of the neoliberalism, which supposes a “preserving restrictive democracy”. The objective is to destroy any trace of Marxism which represents a permanent threat, as claims it the “doctrines of the national security”. The excellent economic results of the first years consolidate bases of the mode.
Arts & culture
- January 19th: First edition of the famous Price of Lausanne, contest of ballet dancing.
- April 29th: With Seville (Spain), alternate of Jose Antonio Campuzano, Spanish Matador.
- October 20th: The Opéra of Sydney is inaugurated by the queen Elisabeth II.
Sciences & technology
See also: 1973 in science
See also: 1973 in aeronautics
See also: 1973 in the railroads
See also: 1973 in sport
See also: 1973 in football
- October 6th: War of Kippour: fourth Israeli-Arab war (Oct. 6-22); beginning of the economic crisis.
- October 17th: OPEC decides a reduction of the deliveries of Pétrole.
- December 23rd: Doubly oil prices.
- the dollar is detached from the Or.
Births in 1973
- January 1st: Danny Lloyd, American actor, celebrates for his role of Danny Torrance in Shining (film)
- : Yuri Landman, experimental Violin maker, creator of comic strip, musician, singer
- February 3rd: Ilana Sod, journalist Mexican
- February 11th: Varg Vikernes, singer and Norwegian type-setter
- February 12th:
- Kath Troubles, actress American
- Tara Strong, actress Canadian
- February 25th: Helene de Fougerolles, French actress
- March 25th: The duchess of Fitz-James, downward of the king Jacques II of England.
- March 26th: Larry Page, American data processing specialist (Co-creator of Google)
- May 14th: Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet, French political woman, minister
- May 17th: Joshua Man, singer American guitarist
- May 20th: Elsa, French singer
- May 23rd: Juan Jose Padilla, Spanish Matador .
- May 24th: Karim Alami, Moroccan tennis player
- June 7th: Hatem Ghoula, athlete Tunisia N
- June 13rd: Kasia Kowalska, Polish singer
- June 16th: Thomas Dutronc, Guitarist of Jazz manouche
- June 19th: Nâdiya, athlete and French singer
- July 3rd: Patrick Wilson, American actor
- July 23rd: Monica Lewinsky, trainee with the White House during the mandate of Bill Clinton
- July 24th: Johan Micoud, footballer
- July 26th: Kate Beckinsale, English actor
- August 25th: Fatih Akin, German realizer
- August 29th: Víctor Puerto (Víctor Sánchez Cerdá), Spanish Matador .
- September 13rd: Christine Arron, athlete
- September 18th: Mark Shuttleworth, South-African contractor
- November 2nd: Marisol Nichols, American actress
- November 3rd: Julia Chanel, French actress
- November 8th: Florence Foresti, French humorist
- November 22nd: Chadwick Trujillo, American astronomer
- December 2nd: Monica Saddles, professional tennis player Yugoslav then American
- December 4th: Tyra Banks, mannequin and American actress
- December 8th: Corey Taylor, singer of the group Slipknot
- December 27th: Kristoffer Zegers, Dutch type-setter
to also see: : Category: Birth in 1973
Death in 1973
- January 22nd: Lyndon Johnson, former president of the United States
- February 22nd: Jean-Jacques Bertrand, former Prime Minister for Quebec
- March 6th: Pearl S. Buck American novelist (° 1892)
- April 8th: Pablo Picasso, Spanish painter and sculptor (° October 25th 1881).
- April 19th: Hans Kelsen, American lawyer of Austrian origin (° 1881)
- June 10th: Erich von Manstein, celebrates general Third Reich (° 1887)
- July 20th: Bruce Lee, américano-Chinese, actor, Master in martial arts
- July 25th: Louis SAINT LAURENT, old Prime Minister of Canada
- August 6th: Fulgencio Batista, cuban dictator (° 1901)
- August 16th: Selman Abraham Waksman, American microbiologist
- August 18th: François Bonlieu, skier
- August 31st: John Ford, realizer of American cinema (° 1895)
- September 2nd: John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, British writer
- September 11th:
- September 15th: Gustave VI Adolphe, king de Suède
- September 24th: Pablo Neruda, poet, diplomat and journalist Chile in, Nobel Prize of literature (° 1904)
- September 26th: Anna Magnani, Italian actress
- September 28th: Fernand Raynaud, French humorist (° May 17th 1926)
- September 29th: Wystan Hugh Auden, poet and critical English (° February 21st 1907)
- October 6th: François Cevert, French racing driver (° 1944)
- October 10th: Ludwig von Mises, Austrian economist
- November 3rd: Marc Allégret, realizer, scenario writer of cinema (° 1900)
- November 6th: No5el Roquevert, actor French (° December 18th 1894).
- December 3rd: Adolfo Ruiz Cortines, president of the Mexico, between 1952 and 1958.
- November 13rd: Bruno Maderna, Type-setter and Italian Leader
- December 13rd: Fanny Heldy, Belgian singer of opera
- December 17th: Charles Greeley Abbot, American astronomer
- December 23rd: Gerald Kuiper, Dutch astronomer
to also see: : Category: Death in 1973
Beats-smg: 1973 Be-X-old: 1973 Map-bms: 1973 Simple: 1973 Zh-min-nan: 1973 nor Zh-yue: 1973 年
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