This page relates to the year 1969 Gregorian Calendrier.
- November 19th: Beginning of the negotiations SALT between the the United States and the Soviet Union.
Physical Nobel Prize
- January 19th: Jan Palach, student with Prague, immole by fire Place Venceslas to protest against the invasion of the Czechoslovakia by the Union of the Soviet socialist republics in 1968. Its suicide symbolizes with the eyes of the world the desperate resistance of the Czechoslovakian people vis-a-vis oppression. The Soviet troops are joined by civil advisers and soldiers who come to frame the policy of “Normalization”.
- January: The Greece must leave the the Council of Europe.
- April 17th: Alexander Dubček is évincé and replaced by Gustáv Husák with the head of the Czechoslovakian Communist party: the Normalization in Czechoslovakia starts. Husák cancels the reforms of the Printemps of Prague, except for the promise of a federal constitution which is applied.
- May 23rd: In the Netherlands: Creation of the Lauwersmeer by closing by a Dam of the Lauwerszee.
- June 25th: In the crossing of the Netherlands, water of the the Rhine is polluted by an insecticide, which causes the death of 40 million fish.
- July 22nd: Juan Carlos de Bourbon is designated as the successor of Francisco Franco in Spain.
- August 2nd: Richard Nixon starts her visit in Romania: it is acclaimed by 500.000 people.
- August 14th: The British troops are spread in Northern Ireland. Violence between Protestants and catholics (practically excluded from the political life) in Northern Ireland. The multiplication of the attacks during the summer leads Harold Wilson to send troops to ensure the law and order. Measurement galvanizes the nationalist movement, divided between moderated and extremists, around the WILL GO provisional (Provos).
- September 24th, Portugal: Creation of the Head office of safety (D.G.S.), to replace the Pide.
- October 14th: Olof Palme, Prime Minister social democrat in Sweden (fine in 1976). Social democracy is radicalized, so much in interior policy (larger intervention of the State in the economy), than in foreign policy (taken of distance with regard to the United States).
- December: Conference of $the Hague between the six Heads of State of the the EEC, which starts the establishment of a system of long-term financing of the common Agricultural policy, of a co-operation increased on the questions of foreign politics and the opening of the negotiations on the adhesion of the Great Britain, the Ireland, the Denmark and the Norway.
Cabinet reshuffle in Spain: the technocrats triumph.
- Portugal: The sole party, the National union, becomes National alliance.
- the United Kingdom: Failure of a bill giving to the State capacities of intervention increased in the industrial disputes. Final abolition of the Capital punishment. Divorce Reform Act , simplifying the divorce procedures.
- September 28th: Election of the 6th the Bundestag .
- October 21st: Election of Willy Brandt at the station of federal Chancellor.
- November 4th: Beginning of Ostpolitik of Willy Brandt.
- July 5th: Scission of the unified socialist party. The social democrats constitute the unit socialist party. Mariano Rumor resigns because of the scission of the socialist party and constitutes a homogeneous government cd. (August 5th).
September: “Hot Fall”. Vagueness of strikes, demonstrations and occupation of buildings in particular in the North of the country (Milan). 1,5 million strikers.
- November 26th: The central committee of NCV decides the expulsion of the group of the “ Manifesto ”.
- November 28th: The Room approves the law on the Divorce.
- 4 - December 5th: The Parliament approves a series of laws aiming at regulating the problem of Haut-Adige.
- December: Fast increase in the wages following the social movements. 40 hours week and right to the union meetings during the work hours.
Quasi-équilibre of the trade balance.
- At the end of the Years 1960, 20% only of the population remains rural.
See also: 1969 in France
- July 22nd: The general Franco designates his successor with the approval of the the Cortes: the prince gift Juan Carlos of Bourbon.
- January 1st: Marien Ngouabi becomes president of the République of Congo. “Revolutionary” mode with the Congo-Brazzaville which adopts the “scientific socialism” (Marxism) with the creation of the Congolese Parti work.
- February 3rd: Assassination of Eduardo Mondlane with the Mozambique and intensification of the guerilla.
- May 12th: Foundation of the African western Union economic and monetary.
- May 25th: The general Nemeiry seizes the power with the Sudan after several coups d'etat (end in 1985).
- September 1st: Deposition of the king Idris of Libya. The colonel Mouammar Kadhafi seizes the power in Libya.
- October 15th: Assassination of the Somali president Abdirashid Ali Shermarke.
- October 17th: The death of Sheik Tayeb Al Mahaji, the large Imam of the town of Oran, It will bequeath a cultural heritage of great value whose works treat history, of linguistics and religious sciences.
- October 21st: Military putsch which carries to the capacity the general Siad Barre in Somalia. This one wants to engage Somalia on the way of “scientific” socialism. Near to the Soviet Union, the Somali government offers to him naval facilities in the port of Berbera.
- December 10th: Military coup d'etat to the Dahomey.
- December 29th: Repression of the demonstrations of students with Addis-Abeba in Ethiopia.
Agreements of Yaounde on the development.
- Famine with the Biafra.
- student's Strikes against the military junta with the capacity with the Mali in April and July. In December, the embassy of Mali in France is occupied twice by students.
- student's Strikes and social agitation with the Senegal: adoption of a reform project constitutional.
- “Plot of the officers” in Guinea.
- the Namibia is illegally built-in with the South Africa. An armed struggle develops under the direction of SWAPO (Organization of the people of Africa of South-west).
- the Algérie adheres to OPEC.
- Kadhafi modifies the terms of the contracts signed with the oil companies. It obtains a rise of the prices, imposes a control and a production ceiling.
- April 27th, Bolivia: The death of Barrientos in an accident of helicopter makes it possible the rival factions within the army to be freely opposed until in 1971.
- May 26th: Agreements of Carthagène. Foundation of the the Andean Community of the Nations (EDGE) by the Chile, the Bolivia, the Colombia, the Ecuador and the Peru, joined in 1973 by the Venezuela.
- May 29th: Cordobazo : Force insurrection against the dictatorship of Onganía to Córdoba, in Argentine. All the city joint with the demonstrators. The calm one returns only after one week of confrontation and the mode does not go back from there.
- July 14th: War one hundred hour old or war of “football” enters the El Salvador and the Honduras. National mobilization in favor of the democracy revived by the war of “football” to the Honduras.
- August 31st: Military coup d'etat to the Brazil.
- September 26th: The general Ovando becomes president de Bolivie (end in October 1970). He follows a moderate line reformist pointing out that of the revolutionary Nationalist movement (MNR).
- October 30th: Emílio Garrastazu Médici, president of Brazil.
Land reform with the Peru. The president Velasco declares with the peasants that the great landowners “would not nourish any more theirs misery”. The large plantations of cane with sugar of the coast are expropriées and entrusted to Agricultural cooperatives of production (CAPES). They are not dismantled in a preoccupation with a productivity. In the sierra, Velasco wants to support the small ones and average properties. The grounds, as well those of the great fields as those of the Indian communities, pass under the control of agricultural Companies of social interest (KNOW) in which côtoient old peones and Indians. In a few years, the three quarter of the cultivable grounds are managed by co-operatives and the great property almost disappeared.
- Peru: The mode undertakes to make disappear the precarious habitat in vast the barriadas , the Bidonville S surrounding Lima, renamed pueblos jóvenes . It supports the possibility of home-ownership and the improvement of quality of life and creates an National office of new urban development (ONDEPJOV) charged to encourage the inhabitant car-to organize and to assist them in their research solutions with their problems.
- March 23rd: French McGill demonstration: more 15 000 people express in front of the Université McGill.
- April 1st: Pierre-Paul Geoffroy, militant of the Face of release of Quebec (FLQ), is condemned to the life imprisonment.
- May 14th: The government of Pierre-Elliott Trudeau adopts the “bus bill” concerning with the abortion, the indecent assault (homosexuality), the lotteries, control with weakened faculties and the firearms.
- July 7th: Law on the official languages. English and French become the two official languages of Canada.
- October 23rd: Deposit of the bill (“bill 63”), which gives the choice to the parents of the language in which teaching will be given to their children. Outcry in the Québécois population.
- October 26th: The Common front of the Quebec French requires that the National Assembly proclaim the French unilinguism on all the levels. Quebec knows many demonstrations against the principle which underlies the bill, namely the implicit equality of English and French in Quebec).
- October 28th: The liberal opposition requires of the government Quebec of Jean-Jacques Bertrand to postpone immediately the adoption of the principle of the “bill 63”.
- October 31st: The Common front of French Quebec organizes a demonstration in front of the Parlement of Quebec. For the first time since the foundation of the regrouping, violence bursts and the police force intervenes.
- October 12th: The mayor of Montreal, Jean Flag, makes adopt a payment antimanifestation. The bill, renamed “law to promote the teaching of the French language in Quebec” after stormy debates at the assembly, is finally adopted after many modifications.
The United States
- January 20th: Richard Nixon succeeds Lyndon Johnson with the presidency of the United States (until in 1974).
- January 28th: The explosion of a rig of oil in California causes an enormous oil slick.
- June 28th: Beginning of the riots of Stonewall. The homosexual ones of the two sexes, joined together to carry the mourning of the actress Judy Garland violently clash with the police force in the bar Stonewall Inn with Greenwich Village (New York) in the night of the 27 to the June 28th. From this brawl is born the movement for the release from the gays and the lesbians.
- July 25th: With Guam, president Nixon states doctrines according to which the people victims of a nonnuclear aggression communist will have initially to defend themselves and that they will not be able to count any more on the direct aid of the American soldiers.
- 15 - August 17th: Immense the festival of Woodstock gathers a hundred artists and several hundreds of thousands of Hippie S.
- August 29th: Last concert of the Beatles in Candlestick Park of San Francisco. They will separate definitively in 1970 marking the end from an extraordinary decade from the Rock' roll, inaugurated by Elvis Presley.
- October 15th: Vietnam Moratorium Day. Two million people expresses against the Guerre of Vietnam in all the the United States.
- November 15th: War of Vietnam: 250 000 with 500 000 people express peacefully against the war with Washington.
- November 9th: Soixante-dixhuit Indiens occupies the small island of Alcatraz to protest against their miserable condition. They will be six hundreds at the end of the month.
- December 4th: Assassination by the police force of Chicago of the militants of the Blacks Panthers Fred Hampton and Marck Clark in their apartment.
- December 24th: The president Nikolaï Podgorny (Soviet Union) and Nixon ratify a nuclear treaty of non-dissemination.
33 960 unsubmissive people with the end of the year.
- Of 1969 with 1974, the federal budget passes from 200 to 300 billion dollars and 40% are devoted to the welfare expenditures. Prices and wages are subjected to a severe governmental control.
- 43% of the black families is officially poor. The wages of a Black do not account for 60% of that of a White. The Blacks and other citizens of color are likely twice more to be with unemployment.
- February: Legislative elections in Thailand. The Thai United People' S Party carries 75 seats with the Room of the representatives. The independent group of opposition, the Democratic Party , obtains 56 seats.
- March 3rd: Border incidents on the Oussouri between the China and the the USSR.
- March 25th: The general Muhammad Yahya Khan becomes president of the Pakistan (fine in 1971).
- April 14th: An American reconnaissance aircraft is cut down in Mer of Japan by the North Korea.
- May 3rd: Political crisis in India about the nationalization of the banks and the news successive election presidential E with the death of Zakir Hussain. The line is hostile with the nationalization of the banks claimed by the left and part of the small farming community. Indira Gandhi dislocates the Minister for Finance Morarji Desai, who resigns with crash of his post of Deputy Prime Minister. The Congress east tears between its right wings and left. In November, a fraction of the right-hand side creates a new party, the Congress Organization or Old Congress .
- the population of Malayan stock protests against the division of the richnesses - that she judged unfavourable at her place - and against the inequality in front of work, and denounces the domination of the Chinese and other ethnicities on various spheres of the company. The government answers this dispute by introducing the New Economic policy (NEP), thanks to which he hopes to record the economic level of Malayan (Bumiputra) and to put a term at association between the social status and the ethnic origin. It is about a true policy of positive discrimination in favor of the Malayan ones, whose objective is to increase the share of companies that they hold. Although the objective for 1990 was not achieved, the economic level of Malayan nevertheless improved and the ethnic tensions existing in the country were controlled.
- August 13rd: New incidents soviéto-Chinese, in the Xinjiang.
Introduction of the popular communes to the Tibet.
- Revolt of Nyemo to the Tibet, carried out by a woman, Trinley Chödron. Captured, it is carried out publicly with Lhassa with its partisans.
- Agreement between the Japan and the Soviet Union on the development of the Siberia.
- January 18th: Opening of the conference widened on the Vietnam with Paris.
- June: Formation of the provisional revolutionary Government (GRP) in the South Vietnam.
- July 25th: War of Vietnam: Richard Nixon lance the “Doctrines Nixon” of progressive disengagement. It is the beginning of the “vietnamisation” of the war.
- August 4th: War of Vietnam: With Paris, in the apartment of the French intermediary Jean Sainteny, Henry Kissinger, representing the the United States and Xuan Thuy, representing the Vietnam, begins secret negotiations for peace. These negotiations will end up failing.
- September 2nd: death of the president Ho Chi Minh. One initially makes believe that it took place on September 3rd. In the absence of a leader emblematic, the collegial direction of the Vietnamese Communist party maintains the system socialist.
- September 5th: War of Vietnam, Massacre of Lay Mỹ: the lieutenant William Calley is put in examination for the massacre of 109 Vietnamese civilians at My Lai.
- September 16th: New withdrawal of the the United States to the Vietnam (35 000 men).
Oceania and the Pacific
The Middle East
January 1st: The Fatah gives its definition of a future independent and democratic Palestinian State, of which all the citizens would be equal, whatever their religion.
- : Yasser Arafat is named president of PLO at the time of Ve CNP. Under its impulse, the PLO develops a whole of civil services (health, teaching, finances). Pensions are versed to the families of the martyrs. The PLO is transformed into a true State, financed by the diaspora and oil monarchies of the Golfe.
- Syria: Hafez el-Assad, Minister for Defense, places his close relations at the stations - keys of the army. In February, it sets in motion a first procedure of elimination of its adversaries.
- Iraq: Starts again question of the claim of the Chatt-el-Arab by the Iran and the Iraq. Iran denounces the treaty of 1937 and calls into question the rules of navigation on the river. Iraq answers by financing the opposition to the mode of Teheran. The Kurdish of Iraq are constant in return by Iran.
- March 17th: Golda Meir becomes Prime Minister of Israel.
- April: The Iraqi Ba' HT creates the Arab Front of release (FLA).
- May 30th: The Tapline ( Trans-Arabian Pipeline Company ) is sabotaged in Syria by PFLP.
- June 23rd: Nasser starts a War of attrition against Israel in the area of the Suez Canal. It sets up the plan “Granite”, which must neutralize Israeli aviation and allow the reconquest of the the Sinai. Israel retorts by airborne raids then massive bombardments on the channel and the gulf of Suez. He manages to destroy the anti-aircraft materials of Egypt.
November 3rd: Agreements of Cairo. Following the operations of commando of Palestinian groups of the south of the Lebanon against Israel, the question of the place of the Palestinians becomes a subject of political division major. Nasser proposes a mediation which leads to the agreement of the Cairo. Lebanon accepts the presence armed in the Palestinian camps and authorizes the operations of guerilla in the south.
December 9th: Rogers plan. William P. Rogers, Secretary of State of Richard Nixon, presents a peace plan: evacuation of the the Sinai according to a calendar determined by Israel and the Egypt, introduction of peace enters the two countries, creation of demilitarized zones close to the borders.
- December 18th: Rogers subjects a plan of payment of payment of the Cisjordanian question according to the same principles. The project is refused by Israel which impels an American opinion campaign against the Rogers plan, which loses the support of Nixon. Under the influence of Kissinger, Nixon engages towards a policy of force against Egypt, carried out by Israel.
- the the Middle East accounts for 37% of the worldwide production of Pétrole.
Arts & cultures
- June 24th: With Alicante (Spain), alternate of Dámaso González, Spanish Matador.
- October 12th: With Madrid, in the arenas of Vistalegre, alternate of Curro Vázquez, Spanish Matador.
- The Beatles and the creative one of mode Mary Quant (the inventor of the Miniskirt) is seen conferring the Order of the British empire in thanks of their contribution to the re-establishment of the foreign trade of the country.
Sciences & technology
See also: 1969 in science
See also: 1969 in aeronautics
See also: 1969 in the railroads
- Rod Laver gains for the second time the Grand Slam of tennis, for the first time at the professionals.
- the Belgian cyclist Eddy Merckx gains its first Tour de France.
Births in 1969
- Aly Keita, musician Mali in
- January 3rd: Michael Schumacher, racing driver German (F1)
- January 5th: Marilyn Manson, American singer
- January 13rd: Stefania Belmondo, basic skier Italy
- January 14th: David Eric Grohl, beater of the group Nirvana, singer of the group Foo Fighters
- February 8th: Adrien Duvillard, skier French
- February 11th: Jennifer Aniston, American actress
- February 17th: David Douillet, judoka French
- February 28th: Robert Sean Leonard, American actor
- May 1st: “Joselito” (Jose Miguel Delgado Stream), Spanish Matador
- May 6th: Manu Larcenet, author of cartoons French
- May 25th: Anne Heche, American actress
- June 5th: David Luguillano, Spanish Matador
- June 14th :
- Guiga Lyes Ben Laroussi, fugitive Tunisia N sought by Singapore and Interpol
- Steffi Graf, German tennis player
- Jackson Richardson, Handball or French
- June 15th: Cédric Pioline, tennis player French
- June 16th: Bénabar, singer French
- July 5th: Marc-Olivier Fogiel, Stimulating TV, French
- July 24th: Jennifer Lopez, actress and American singer
- August 14th: Tracy Caldwell, American astronaut
- August 16th: Miguel Rodríguez, Spanish Matador .
- August 18th: Edward Norton, American actor
- December 9th: Bixente Lizarazu, footballer French Source: " Quid" 2002. -->
- December 21st: Julie Delpy, actress, director, French singer Source: Wikipedia -->
- December 27th: Jean-Christophe Boullion, racing driver French (F1)
- December 28th: Linus Torvalds, programmer Finnish, promoter of the operating system Linux
to also see: : Category: Birth in 1969
Death in 1969
- January 19th: Jan Palach, student with Prague, immole by fire places Wenceslas to protest against the invasion of the Czechoslovakia by the Soviet Union in 1968
- January 29th: Allen W. Dulles, American diplomat , former director of the CIA
- February 2nd: Boris Karloff, British actor
- February 20th: Ernest Ansermet, Swiss leader
- February 27th: Marius Barbel, anthropologist, ethnologist, Canadian folklorist (° 1883)
- March 12th: Andre Salmon, writer French
- March 26th: John Kennedy Toole, American writer
- March 28th: Dwight Eisenhower, soldier, the 34e President of the United States (° October 14th 1890)
- April 6th: Jean Fieux, French engineer
- April 26th: Morihei Ueshiba, founder of the Aikido
- May 19th: Coleman Hawkins, musician of American Jazz
- June 14th: Wynonie Harris, Singer of Blues and Rhythm and American blues. (° August 24th 1915).
- June 22nd: Judy Garland, American actress
- July 3rd: Brian Jones, British musician Rolling Stones
- July 5th: Walter Gropius, architect, designer and German town planner
- July 24th: Witold Gombrowicz, writer Polish (° August 4th 1904)
- August 9th: Sharon Touches, actress American. She was assassinated.
- September 2nd: Ho Chi Minh, president of the Vietnam
- October 12th: Sonja Neighed, artistic skater and Norwegian actress
- October 21st
- December 22nd: Josef von Sternberg, American realizer
- December 26th: Louise de Vilmorin, French novelist
- Alexandra David-Néel, exploring Frenchwoman
See also: : Category: Death in 1969
Beats-smg: 1969 Be-X-old: 1969 Map-bms: 1969 Simple: 1969 Zh-yue: 1969 年
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