This page relates to the year 1956 Gregorian Calendrier.
Institution of the Club of Paris to treat the debts due to governmental creditors. In agreement with the the IMF, it re-spreads the refunding of the countries involved in debt over one long period, after the adoption of economic measurements of stabilization.
Movement of the Non-aligned countries
- May 16th: Visit Soekarno with the the United States.
- July 18th: Birth of the movement of not aligned with Brioni: Tito, Nasser and Nehru.
- August 28th: Visit Soekarno in the USSR.
- January: Visit of the queen Elisabeth II of the United Kingdom to the Nigeria.
- January 1st: Independence of the Sudan, granted by the the United Kingdom.
- January 31st: Victoire of the African democratic Gathering with the legislative ones: it gains 7 seats out of 8 in AOF and 2 seats out of 4 in AEF. Felix Houphouët-Boigny, president of GDR, enters the government Guy Mollet.
- June 23rd: Vote Loi-cadre Removes iron by the French Parliament on autonomy in Africa black Frenchwoman (ANF). It equips the colonies with AOF and AEF of a broad autonomy, with an assembly elected by the vote for all, chaired by the governor, but whose vice-president could be indigenous.
- June 30th: Intellectuals Congolese publish “Proclamation of African conscience”. They require the total emancipation of the Blacks. A true political bomb. Publication in reaction of Proclamation of the ABAKO, which affirms its opposition to colonization and its will to preserve the autonomy of Kongo like various ethnicities.
- September 19th: Foundation of the PAIGC, Left African for independence Guinea and Cape Verde by Amilcar Cabral.
- December 13rd: The Togoland is integrated into the coast of gold (Ghana).
- December: Foundation of the MPLA, Popular liberation movement of Angola by Mario de Andrade and Agostinho Neto.
nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
the Republic of South Africa withdraws UNESCO while complaining that certain publications of the Organization interfere in the racial problems of the country.
- Modibo Keïta is elected mayor of Bamako.
- Revolt against the French authorities with the Cameroun (1956-1960).
- Appearance of black political parties to the Belgian Congo. They result for the majority from ethnic associations formed as the political parties were prohibited.
- Call of the CGT, CGTA and the Railwaymen of AOF to the creation of a unified autonomous labor union. Division of the CFTC and creation of the CATC, which plans to create a single trade union for all the AOF.
- 300 000 inhabitants with Dakar.
- January 28th: The generals Guillaume and Zeller resign to protest against the slowness of the sending of reinforcements in Algérie.
- February 6th: Guy Mollet goes in Algérie, it is decried (tomato jets!) by colonists.
- Guy Mollet yields in front of the manifestation of the Inhabitants of Algiers. There will be no general governor, but a minister resident in Algeria. Catroux, considered favorable to the Moslems, is abandoned for Robert Lacoste.
- February 9th: Robert Lacoste minister-resident in Algeria.
- March 2nd: Independence of the Morocco.
- March 12th, Algeria: Guy Mollet poses for precondition to the negotiation the pacification and the organization of elections. The National Assembly votes special capacities with her government.
- March 20th: Independence of the Tunisia by the protocol free-Tunisian which abolishes the Traité of Bardo. Lamine Pasha Bey takes the title of Rolls Ier but must yield the place to the republic one year later (July 15th 1957).
- April 7th: Spain reassigns the Spanish Morocco with the Morocco. The fate of Tangier is regulated in October.
- April 21st: Rallying with FLN of Ferhat Abbas and Ahmed Francis, leader moderated nationalists, and of Tewfik el-Madani, representing oulémas. All three go to the Cairo.
- May 8th:
- the French government decides the recall of 50 000 reservists. The whole of the French troops in Algeria passes to 380 000 men.
- the European population expresses against the new minister resident Robert Lacoste, considered to be too liberal.
- May 27th: Thousands of suspects are stopped in the Casbah of Algiers.
- August 10th: In reaction to the attacks made by FLN, of the “counter-terrorists” place a bomb in the kasbah of Algiers, which makes several tens of death.
- August 20th: A secret congress of FLN to the Soummam, in Kabylie, is organized, mainly by Abane Ramdane, which structure the Armée with national release (ALN) and trains a National council of the Revolution (CNRA) of 34 members is elected there to direct the policy of the FLN which must be applied by a Coordination committee and of execution (the CEC) of five members; the Army of national release (ALN) is unified under the direction of Krim Belkacem.
- June 19th: Execution with Algiers of the first members of FLN condemned to death.
- July 27th: Discovered Oil with Hassi Messaoud in Algeria by SN REPAL (Elf Aquitaine).
- October 20th: The sultan of Morocco Mohammed Ben Youssef receives Ahmed Ben Bella and four other leaders of the FLN. At once, the negotiations free-Morrocan women are suspended by the French government.
- October 22nd: The plane which transported Rabat to Tunis Ahmed Ben Bella and the other leaders of the FLN are constrained to be posed in Algiers where the five men are stopped. The president of the Guy Mollet Council covers this initiative due to the military authorities of Algiers. Tunisia and Morocco recall their ambassadors to Paris.
- October 24th: Massacre French colonists in the area of Meknès in Morocco, in reprisals with the arrest of the leaders of the FLN.
- December 5th: The General advices of Algeria and the controls municipalities like the metropolitan communes are dissouts.
- December: FLN eliminates its rival, the Algerian National movement (MNA).
- December 30th: “Attacks on immigrants” occur at the conclusion of the burial of Amédée Froger, president of the Federation of the mayors of Algeria, assassinated by the FLN.
the Algérie includes/understands a strong minority of European origin: 1 000 000 inhabitants vis-a-vis the 9 000 000 of Moslems. 400 000 French soldiers engaged in the Algerian conflict.
- Argentinian June 9th, : Failure of an insurrectionary rising directed by the general Juan Jose Valle with for objective restoring the legal government of Juan Perón. The soldiers create a commission on the defense of the democracy, charged to purify the landscape in favor of its slags peronists.
- July 28th: Manual Prado Ugarteche, president of Peru (fine in 1962).
- the general Odría agree to organize free elections with the Peru. The winner, Manual Prado, liberalizes the mode, opening one period of convivencia which appears by the legalization of the Communist party and the American revolutionary popular Alliance. Its economic program, in the continuity of its predescessor, is worth some successes to him.
- August 6th: Hernán Siles Zuazo, president MNR of Bolivia (fine in 1960). It is constrained to implement a program of fight against the deficits caused by the former redistributive policies. The social agitation which results met from it the country at the edge of the civil war. Siles must mobilize the army to pacify the country.
- September 1st: Camilo Sandpapers Enríquez (preserving), president of Ecuador (fine in 1960).
- September 29th: Dictatorship of Shine Somoza Debayle with the Nicaragua (fine in 1963).
- December 2nd: Fidel Castro, with 81 companions whose his/her brother Raúl and Argentinian the Ernesto “Che” Guevara unloads with Cuba aboard ship the Granma to try to reverse Batista. It is a failure and only a handle of men can flee in the Sierra Maestra with the Castro brothers and Che.
With the Honduras, the promulgation of the law of defense of the democratic regime allows the prohibition of the Communist party.
- January 31st: Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, president of the Brazilian Republic (fine in 1961).
- Decided to promote “50 years of progress in five years”, Kubitschek manages to mobilize the Brazilian ones around the modernization of the country, symbolized by construction in four years of a capital news and futuristic, Brasilia in the fields of the architect Oscar Niemeyer. The developpementism makes progress the industry of 10% per annum, at the price of a considerable public debt.
- Increase in inflation and devaluation (excess demand, insufficiency of the offer).
- the minister Celso Furtado creates and directs the Sudene (superintendence of Nordeste) in charge of the establishment of industries around Recife, Bahia and Fortaleza.
the United States
- February 3rd: The University of Alabama is forced to accept its first black coed, Autherine Lucy, but this one will not be able to follow the courses.
- February 21st: Martin Luther King and 24 other pastors is shown to prevent the buses of Montgomery from functioning.
- Spring: Divert partisans of desegregation to the primary educations. Anxious, of moderate off moult as opposite militant segregationists with the stop Brown v. Board Education of 1954.
- November 6th: Re-election of Dwight D. Eisenhower (republican) like chair of the United States with 57,4% of the voices against Adlai Stevenson (democratic) 42%.
- November 13rd: The Supreme court of the United States judge the Racial segregation in the contrary buses with the Constitution.
- December 31st: Doctrines Eisenhower: American assistance with the modes which would feel exposed with a communist aggression.
Apogee of the birthrate (25 ‰ in 1956-1957).
Asia & Indian world
- April 27th: Elections in Burma. The Burmese National front unified which gathers the movements on the left, obtains 30% of the voices and 47 of the 250 seats of the National Assembly.
- June 13rd, China: Beginning of the Countryside of the Hundred Flowers. In the spirit of the Soviet destanilisation, the Chinese government asks the intellectuals to criticize the leaders of the party and the State, the currency being: “That hundred flowers flower harmoniously and compete bruyamment hundred schools”.
- December 12th: Japan: adhesion with UNO. The the United States are opposed to the entry China in UNO.
- Deng Xiaoping becomes General secretary of the Chinese Communist party. As of 1957, it pitilessly pursues the intellectuals who believed in the countryside of the Hundred Flowers.
- Déneutralisation of Taiwan.
- Standardization of the relations nippo-Soviet.
- Kim Tubong, rival of Kim It-sung, is eliminated.
- 80% of the economic potential of the North Korea destroyed east. The discipline “Spartan” of Pt and the rigorous framing of the company North-Korean allow a considerable rectification and a development right before 1960. The policy of the development plans allows the rebuilding of an important industrial sector. This economic policy rests, starting from 1956, on a movement of mobilization of the workers the CH' ollima undong , the movement of the Horse stealing . The workmen are invited to produce at increased intervals.
- March 20th: Government of Ali Sastroamidjojo, which brings together representatives of PNI, of Masjumi and Nahdatul Ulama (end in April 1957). PKI grants to the government a favorable prejudice.
- December 20th: In reaction to progress of the PKI, Masjumi adopts an attitude violently anticommunist and the “colonels” (Ahmad Hussein, Mauluddin Simbolon, Barlian) cause movements of dissidences to Sumatra in December 1956 and January 1957. The rebellion works towards political ends: resignation of the government, rupture with the Communists, pro-Western foreign policy. The Bateng council, which takes in hands part of the center of Sumatra, enters in conflict with the Communists, and carries out the arrest of the leader of the trade union of the workers of the oil of the basin of Parkanbaru, conceded with the American company Caltex. The government shows the foreign powers to intervene in the interior political life and suspends the rebellious officers. It however decides to take account of certain justified claims.
the share of the small producers in exports increases (they produce in 1956 413 646 tons of rubber against 262 506 with the large plantations).
- Five-year plan (1956 - 1960). It is difficult to apply it, most of the economy depending on foreign assets. The profits transferred abroad represent about one the third of the whole of the investments planned for this plan. The Republic cannot invest in its economy the incomes of exports and the production of the food crops less quickly increases only that of the intended products to export.
- Pondichéry is integrated into the India.
- States Reorganization Act , which cuts out India of 14 linguistic States and 6 territories. Hyderabad disappears with the profit from 4 new States.
- Law on the right of the widows as regards heritage ( Hindu Succession Act ).
- Resolution defining the categories of activities according to the part which the State must play there: the sectors of defense and heavy industry fall within the competence of the State; in other sectors (communication, chemistry, etc), the public companies and private can develop jointly and a third group is entirely left with the private one. A Commission of planning is charged to work out the concrete objectives for the development of each sector concerned.
- the Tibetans raise and take actions of Guérilla against the Chinese mode. Mao Zedong declares a few months later that “Tibet was not yet ready for the establishment of a Communist regime”. the CIA sets up a secret operation of formation at the United States and delivery of weapons and radio operator material at the guerilla of the East. Beijing sends 150 000 men in the Kham, supported by air raids. Resistance Tibetan is decimated and the Chinese army includes in blood the control of Kham.
- a committee is founded to establish the bases of a constitution Tibetan. The Dalai Lama is named president and the Panchen-lama first vice-president of the country.
- the Dalai Lama is authorized to go in India to celebrate the 2500° birthday of the birth of the Bouddha. It meets Nehru which does not give him any support.
- Mars: Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej carries out a destalinization limited in Romania and a relative disengagement with respect to the Block.
- April 17th: Dissolution of the Cominform, liaison office and of information between the Communist parties of Eastern Europe founded in 1947 into full Cold war.
- June 20th: Visit Tito with Moscow. An official statement celebrates the friendship soviéto-Yugoslavian and affirms the existence of various ways towards socialism. It is the end of the official crisis between the two countries.
- Visit of Khrouchtchev to Belgrade, followed by an agreement of cultural exchanges, a Soviet loan of 84 million dollars and the cancellation of the debt of Yugoslavia, which rises to 90 million dollars.
- July 18th: Visit Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and of the Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser in the residence of Tito with Brioni.
- October - November: Anti-Soviet demonstrations in Romania during the Hungarian revolt.
- December: Working wage increase in Romania after the Hungarian revolt. The investments of the Plan are reduced to the profit of the consumer goods. In the countryside, the obligatory deliveries are abolished and braked collectivization.
the USSR cancels the remainder of the war debts which had by the Romania (700 million dollars).
- additional Deportations in Lithuania and growing Pole and Russian immigration with Vilnius.
- 14 - February 25th: XXe congress of the Communist party of the Soviet Union: beginning of the “Destalinization”. “Peaceful coexistence”. Several Communist leaders, whose Khrouchtchev denounce marked Stalin violently to have replaced the collegial direction by the worship of the personality, arrests and massive deportations of thousands of people, the execution without lawsuit and investigation the honest ones and innocent Communists, not to have prepared suitable defense against the German invasion of June 1941, causing the useless death of hundreds of thousands of soldiers. The portraits of Stalin are withdrawn from the public places, the renamed institutions and localities bearing its name and the rewritten books of history.
- February 25th: Khrouchtchev denounces behind closed doors the crimes of Stalin.
- April 17th: Suppression of the Cominform.
- May 13rd: The Minister of Interior Department announces the end of the deportations in Siberia, except for serious political offenses. The concentration camps would be replaced in the 18 months by prisons and camps of work.
- May 14th: The USSR announces a reduction of its military manpower of 1,2 million men.
- August 15th: Re-establishment of the Price Lénine, reward with the scientists, artists and writers.
- June 28th: Bloody riots with Poznań where the workmen express to claim better wages, free elections and the departure of the Soviet troops (50 000 demonstrators, 53 died and several hundreds of wounded).
- October 19th: Following a popular mobilization ( Polish October , 13 - October 20th) against the direction of POUP, Wladislaw Gomulka is elected first secretary of the Polish unified working party and is committed reforming the Poland (political of decollectivisation, end of the censure of the press, release of the cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, cancellation of part of the Polish debt, granting of new appropriations), in spite of the “temporary” maintenance of Soviet troops on the Polish ground. Visit surprised Nikita Khrouchtchev.
- March 29th: Rehabilitation of László Rajk, former Foreign Minister carried out in 1949 under the charge of Titoism and treason.
- July 4th: The former Prime Minister Imre Nagy is excluded from the Communist party.
- July 18th: Crisis within the PC: severely criticized, the first secretary Mátyás Rákosi resigns and is replaced by Ernö Gerö. János Kádár becomes assistant secretary.
- October 6th: National funeral of László Rajk. 200 000 people claim the return of Imre Nagy to the government.
- October 14th: Imre Nagy is reinstated within the Communist party.
- October 19th: Beginning of the Insurrection of Budapest. The opponents with the government benefit from the tensions between the Poland and the Soviet Union to rebel. The students express against the obligatory courses of Russian and of Marxism-Leninism and, associated to the trade union of the writers, they affirm their support for the Polish anti-Soviet movement. The workers unite with them to require the return of Nagy to the post of Prime Minister.
- 23 - October 30th: Insurrection of Budapest. The Hegedüs Prime Minister, incompetent to manage these demonstrations (more 100 000 people), requests the reinforcement of the Soviet troops. The police force opens fire on crowd. The insurrectionists manage to paralyze the Soviet tanks while launching Kingpins. The Party of the workers interposes and obtains the replacement of Hegedüs by Nagy (October 24th) and of Gerö by János Kádár (October 25th), previously imprisoned for nationalism.
- October 27th: Imre Nagy forms a government of national front.
- October 28th: After five days of hesitation, Nagy lines up at the sides of the demonstrators announcing the end of the system of sole party and the behavior of elections. He promises economic reforms, releases the cardinal László Mindszenti, requires the withdrawal of the Soviet forces and orders the cease-fire.
- October 31st: The Soviet , in agreement with the other communist countries, decide to crush the Hungarian revolution of the councils .
- November 1st: Too much trustful in the Western support, Imre Nagy proclaims the neutrality of the Hungary and its withdrawal of the Warsaw Pact. The order is restored.
- November 3rd: Nagy forms a government in which the Communists are minority. The USSR promises concessions, but the demonstrations begin again.
- 4 - November 12th: Crushing of the Hungarian insurrection by the Soviets: 200 000 men and 2 000 tanks are committed.
- November 4th: Blow of Budapest . Eight Soviet divisions, supported by aviation, take by storm Budapest and crush the insurrectionists in spite of their calls to the helps addressed to the Westerners.
- November 7th: János Kádár, brought in the vans of the Red Army , announces the formation of a revolutionary government . A new communist dictatorship is established with János Kádár as chief of the party renamed Parti of the Hungarian socialist workers.
- November 13rd: End of the crushing of the Hungarian insurrection. Hundreds of Hungarian are carried out, of the thousands imprisoned while close to 200 000 flee in Austria. Imre Nagy takes refuge with the embassy of Yugoslavia.
- November 14th: Washington immediately draws aside any idea of intervention in Hungary.
- November 22nd: First assessment:
- Imre Nagy, the Prime Minister, and forty-eight from his partisans is removed by the KGB and is taken along in Romania. Nagy will be condemned and hung with the agreement of the new Kádár Communist leader.
- On the whole, 18 trucks filled of corpses will have been removed place of the Parliament.
- the cardinal Mindszenty, former primacy of Hungary imprisoned of 1948 with 1955, takes refuge with the embassy of the the United States where there will remain locked up until in 1971, year when he will be able to leave the country.
- In spite of the judgment of the USSR by the western powers and the the United Nations, Hungary remains during several years under monitoring.
- December 9th: Dissolution of the working councils and the committee nationals and arrest of their chiefs.
- January 6th: Engagement of the American actress Grace Kelly to the prince Rainier III of Monaco.
- February: Cold wave in Western Europe.
- February 29th: OEEC creates a charged commission to develop a cooperative project between the Member States in the nuclear field.
- March 9th, Cyprus: The archbishop Makarios, leader independence Cypriot favorable to the énosis, is assigned with residence with the Seychelles by the British authorities . Its deportation starts as of the following day a general strike in the island.
- April 19th: Marriage of the prince Rainier III of Monaco with Grace Kelly.
- 29 - May 30th: The Conference of Venice makes it possible to open negotiations for the creation of the EEC and Euratom. Second report/ratio Spaak, recommending the creation of the EEC and Euratom.
- July 25th: The Italian steamer “Andrea Doria”, after a collision with the Swedish ship “Stockholm”, sinks in the Atlantique, off the coasts of the New England. The two ships transported more 1 600 passengers, but the drama made only 51 died.
- August 8th, Belgium: A fire probably due to the firedamp in the mine of the wood of Cazier with Marcinelle, close to Charleroi, makes 262 victims. The origin of this accident was a succession of dysfunctions following an human error: a badly committed carriage was reassembled, it tore off a conduit of oil, an electric control. An electric arc was carried out paring fire, the whole poked by a torn off conduit of compressed air.
- Spain: Clashes between the SEU phalangist and the democratic union of the students, who lead to the disavowal of the most intransigent phalangists but also to the reference of the “catholics of government”. Deficit of the trade balance (1 billion peseta-but), inflation (15,5%), reduction in the gold reserves of the state. Social inequalities.
- Portugal: Students invade the National Assembly which prepared to vote a law removing the election, acquired since 1945, with the functions of responsibility inside associations. The project is withdrawn.
- May 21st: The firm Farbwerke Hoechts (FRG) starts to produce heavy Eau.
- August 17th: the constitutional court of Karlsruhe prohibits the Communist party.
- November 5th: Beginning of the rationing of the gasoline with the the United Kingdom during the Crisis of Suez (end in May 1957).
- the chancellor of the Exchequer, Harold MacMillan, wants to encourage the British to moderate their consumer expenditure. For that, it envisages in its budget of traditional measurements like an increase in the taxes and a better remuneration of the saving, but, also it proposes a loan-lottery, in the form of Treasury bonds without interest, but every three months a first prize of 1 000 pounds is attibué by drawing lot. Only 40 million Books is thus subscribed, whereas 50 million was initially envisaged.
- February 27th - March 4th: Official trip of the president of the Republic Giovanni Gronchi with the the United States.
- May: Administrative elections. The two socialist parties reinforce their position.
- June 17th: The general secretary of the Italian Communist party Palmiro Togliatti exposes his design polycentrist of the communist movement. He affirms the independence of the NCV with regard to Moscow.
- August 27th: Pietro Nenni and Giuseppe Saragat, leaders of the two socialist parties, meet with Pralognan in the Vallée of Aoste and provide the foundations of an agreement.
- October 6th: The pact of unit of action between Socialists and Communists is replaced, at the request of the Socialists, by a pact of consultation.
Creation of the ministry for the industries nationalized with for goal to direct 60% of the investments of State towards the the Mezzogiorno.
See also: 1956 in France
Oceania & the Pacific
The Middle East & world arabo-Moslem
- June 14th: Government Asali in Syria (fine in 1958).
- December 31st: John Dulles presents to the general secretary UNO, Dag Hammarskjöld, the Doctrine Eisenhower for the Middle East. The United States will be opposed to any Soviet aggression in the area and will provide an economic aid to the countries which will make the request of it. The Arab countries, except for the Egypt and of the Syria, adopt the doctrines Eisenhower (1957).
- From 1956, Israel undertakes operations of diversion of water starting from the Lac of Tibériade.
- the Crise of Suez creates a strong movement antibritannic in Iraq. Violent demonstrations burst and are repressed hard.
Nasser, become president of the Republic - he was the only candidate - (at the beginning of 1956), turns to the western powers to finance its construction project of the stopping of Aswan. France and Great Britain refuse, and the United States conditions their assistance to an agreement with Israel. Nasser is favorable, but tergiversates there. Washington then decides to be opposed to the financing of the project but agrees to grant a loan with the help of the control of Egyptian finances. Against any waiting, Nasser accepts. It does not remain any more with the Americans but to be repudiated.
- May 22nd: The American Secretary of State John Dulles threat to stop the assistance with the construction of the stopping of Aswan if the Egyptian government accepts the Soviet assistance.
- June 23rd: Nasser becomes president of the republic of Egypt.
- July 19th: Refusal of the the United States to finance the construction of the Stopping of Aswan in Egypt. In order to make pressure on the Egyptian government, the US government, followed by Great Britain and BIRD, announces that the United States will not take part in the financing of the stopping of Aswan
- July 26th: In response with the refusal américano-British, Nasser announces with Alexandria the nationalization of the Company of the Suez Canal. The incomes drawn from the exploitation of the channel will be used to finance the construction of the stopping. Nasser denounces the British presence with the Middle-East and supports the nationalist movements of Algeria.
- July 31st: At the time of a meeting with Anthony Eden and the French Minister for the Foreign affairs Christian Pineau, John Dulles expresses the American reservations as for an military intervention in Egypt. The United States decides however to freeze the Egyptian financial assets and suspends their food aid.
- August 8th: The Soviet Union recognizes the nationalization of the channel like legitimate.
- August 16th: A conference joining together 22 country meets in London. Egypt made there represent by the USSR and India. John Dulles proposes the creation of an international organization in charge of control and management of Suez Canal.
- September 6th: French aviators and parachutists arrive at Cyprus to ensure the protection of the French nationals in Egypt.
- September 9th: Nasser rejects the Dulles plan.
- September 21st: Guy Mollet informs the Israeli government that France is ready to undertake an united action against Egypt, while closes in London the second International Conference devoted to the business of Suez: the creation of an association of users, presented by Eden and Calf, is approved, but the divergences increase between partisans of the military intervention (France and Great Britain) and those of conciliation (the USA).
- October 22nd: An agreement is concluded with Sevres between France, Great Britain and Israel which prepare the operation “musketeer”, intended to invade Egypt.
- October 29th: Release of the War of Suez (fine the November 6th), condemned by UNO. Israeli troops penetrate in Egypt and advance in the the Sinai.
- October 30th: France and Great Britain address an ultimatum to Egypt and Israel, summoned to withdraw their troops to 16 km on both sides of the channel. The United States requires of the Safety advice to condemn the Israeli attack and to require an immediate cease-fire. France and Great Britain oppose their veto.
- October 31st: Egypt rejects the ultimatum: beginning of the Franco-British bombardments.
- November 2nd: Catch of Gaza by the Israeli forces. The Syria and the Jordan break the diplomatic relations with France. The United States votes for with the USSR a resolution of UNO against France and the United Kingdom which have just engaged in Egypt, requiring the dead halt of the combat
- November 5th:
- Forwarding of Suez (end the November 7th). Plan telescopes: troops are parachuted on Port-Saïd and go towards the channel.
- the the United States make pressure on their allies.
- Boulganine requires the withdrawal of the French, British troops and Israelis of Suez.
- November 7th: During the Crisis of Suez, the general meeting of UNO adopts a resolution calling the the United Kingdom, the France and Israel to withdraw without delay their troops of Egypt. The United States multiplies the pressures on the Pound sterling to force Anthony Eden with a cease-fire. The intervention of the United States, the USSR and UNO cause the military end of the operations (end of the British presence in Egypt).
- December 15th: The troops of the the United Nations occupy the canal zone.
Nasser expels all the Juifs “French” or “English”, as well as the last suspects of collusion Zionists, that is to say 8 000 people, while 3 000 others are interned and driven out the following year.
Arts & cultures
- September 27th: With alternate Barcelona (Spain), S of Curro Girón and his/her brother Rafael Girón, Matador S venuezueliens.
- September 30th: With Seville (Spain), alternate of Jose Eslava Cáceres known as “Pepe Cáceres”, Matador Colombia N.
- October 13rd: With alternate Saragossa (Spain), of Jaime Ostos, Spanish Matador.
- October 19th: With alternate Barcelona (Spain), of Antonio Borrero Morano known as “Chamaco”, Spanish Matador.
- February: Exposure of Arman to Paris.
- July 2nd: Exposure Tinguely to Paris.
- Publication by Salvador Dali of her opuscule “cuckolds of the old modern art” in which it undertakes to say its four truths to the modern art .
- the artist Richard Hamilton carries out joining " Just what is it that makes Today' S Homes so different, so appealing? " (" What is what can return well our homes of today so different, if tempting? ")
Sciences & technology
See also: 1956 in science
See also: 1956 in aeronautics
See also: 1956 in the railroads
Sports & discovered
- the Tour de France cyclist is gained by French Roger Walkowiak, second French Gilbert Bauvin and third the Belgian Jean Adrianssens, mountain Luxemburgish Charly Gaul, better sprinter Stan Ockers.
- November 22nd: Beginning of the Olympic Games of Melbourne in Australia.
- November 30th: Floyd Patterson becomes world champion of the heavy trucks to boxing by beating archie Moore by K.O with the 5th round with Chicago.
Births in 1956
- January 1st :
- Sergei Avdeyev, Russian Cosmonaut
- Christine Lagarde, Lawyer of businesses, political Woman French, Minister for the Economy, the Finances and the Employment.
- January 3rd: Mel Gibson, American Actor
- January 14th: Etienne Daho, Musician French
- January 18th: Elli Medeiros, Singer Uruguay
- January 29th: Jan Jakub Kolski, Realizer, Scenario writer and Photographer Polish
- February 11th:
- February 13rd: Chris Newton, tennisw Australian
- February 19th: G. David Low, American astronaut
- February 26th: Charlélie Seams (Bertrand Couture), French singer (resident U.S.)
- March 1st: Dalia Grybauskaitė, Lithuanian political woman, European Commissioner
- March 11th: Curtis L. Brown, American astronaut
- March 18th: Edward Zentara, actor Polish
- March 19th: Manchu, illustrator of Science fiction
- March 26th: Milan Jelić, Serb politician († September 30th 2007)
- March 27th: Leung Kwok-Hung, appointed pro democracy HongKong board
- April 2nd: Marc Caro, draftsman, French realizer
- April 13rd: François Schuiten, Belgian draftsman of Cartoon
- April 15th :
- April 16th: David McDowell Brown, American astronaut († 2003)
- April 18th: Eric Roberts, American actor
- April 25th: White Dominique, French actress.
- April 28th: Paul Lockhart, American astronaut
- April 30th :
- May 4th: Michael L. Gernhardt, American astronaut
- May 13rd :
- May 23rd: Antoinette Batumubwira, political woman, Minister for the Burundi
- May 27th: Giuseppe Tornatore, scenario writer and Italian realizer
- May 28th: Bernard Sotta, French mathematician
- June 2nd: Mark Polansky: American astronaut
- June 5th: Richard A. Searfoss, American astronaut
- June 6th
- June 11th: Simon Plouffe, Québécois mathematician
- June 23rd: Markus Fuchs, riding Switzerland, world champion
- June 26th: Bernard A. Harris, Jr., American astronaut
- June 27th: Sultan Salman Al-Saud, Saoudi spationaut
- July 5th: Fabienne Serrat, French skier
- July 9th: Tom Hanks, American movie actor
- July 28th: Guadalupe Larriva, political, old Ecuadorian woman first woman Minister for the Ecuador
- August 2nd: Michele Bernier, French humorist
- August 6th: To wrap Root, artist, type-setter and writer Québécois
- August 7th: Kent V. Rominger, American astronaut
- August 23rd: David A. Wolf, American astronaut
- August 28th: Benoit Peeters, French writer and scenario writer of Cartoon.
- August 31st: Masashi Tashiro, Artist of Television Japan board.
- September 4th: Kóstas Karamanlís, Greek Prime Minister since March 20th, 2004
- September 9th: Anatoly Artsebarsky, Ukrainian cosmonaut
- September 16th :
- September 22nd: Jean-Claude Servais, scenario writer and Belgian draftsman of cartoon
- September 26th: Linda Hamilton, American actress
- September 29th: James D. Halsell, American astronaut
- October 8th: Janice E. Voss, American astronaut
- October 13rd: Chris Casing, American Scenario writer , creator of the televised series The X-Files
- October 15th: Patrick April, Belgian politician French-speaking
- October 16th
- October 17th: Mae C. Jemison, American astronaut
- October 18th :
- Martina Navratilova American champion of tennis of Czech origin
- Isabelle Autissier French navigatrice
- October 25th: Matthias Jabs, guitarist of the group of German hard rock Scorpions
- November 2nd: Frederique Bredin, political woman French former minister
- November 14th: Kenneth D. Bowersox, American astronaut
- November 19th
- November 26th: Bruno Carrette, humorist French
- February 1st: Claire Chazal, journalist Frenchwoman and presenter French TV
- December 5th: Rosalía Arteaga, political woman, former Vice-president and elected president of Ecuador
- December 7th: Krystian Zimmermann, pianist and leader Polish
- December 9th :
- Leslie Cheung, actor and Chinese singer of HongKong († 2003, 47 years)
- Jean-Pierre Thiollet, French author
- December 14th: Hanni Wenzel, alpine skier of the Liechtenstein, Olympic champion in 1980.
- December 18th: Reinhold Ewald, German spationaut
- December 23rd: Michele Alboreto, Italian racing driver
- December 28th: Nigel Kennedy, British Violonist
- December 29th: Ptiluc, Belgian author of Cartoon
- December 31st: Martin Fettman, American astronaut
Death in 1956
- January 13rd: Lyonel Feininger, painter and draftsman.
- January 23rd: Sir Alexander Korda, British scenario writer of Hungarian origin.
- February 6th: Christian Henri, French, inventor of the Cinemascope.
- February 13rd: Jan Łukasiewicz, logician Polish (° December 21st 1878).
- February 22nd: Paul Léautaud, French writer
- March 17th: Irene Joliot-Curie, French physician.
- March 18th: Louis Bromfield (59 years), American novelist.
- April 13rd: Emil Nolde, German painter expressionnist.
- May 13rd: Alexandre Fadeïev (Алекса́ндрАлекса́ндровичФаде́ев) (born in 1901), Russian novelist .
- June 8th: Marie Laurencin, French painter.
- July 22nd: Curnonsky, French gastronome.
- July 23rd: Alessandro Anzani, pilot of motor bikes, manufacturer of engines.
- August 11th: Jackson Pollock, American painter.
- August 14th: Bertolt Brecht (58 years), German playwright.
- August 24th: Kenji Mizoguchi, Japanese realizer.
- August 25th: Alfred Kinsey, scientific American.
- October 7th: Clarence Birdseye, inventive American.
- October 10th, Suez: David Seymour, photographer.
- October 15th: Jules Rimet, founder of the Red Star, president of the French federation of football, then of FIFA.
- October 26th: Louis Rose tree, French racing driver.
- November 5th: Art Tatum, pianist of jazz.
- December 6th: Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, lawyer and Indian politician.
- December 8th: Jimmy Angel, aviator and American explorer.
Beats-smg: 1956 Be-X-old: 1956 Map-bms: 1956 Simple: 1956 Zh-yue: 1956 年
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