This page relates to the year 1953 Gregorian Calendrier.
- April 8th: The nationalist leader Kenya N Jomo Kenyatta is condemned to 7 years of prison for his participation in the organization of the revolt of the Mau Mau.
- August 10th: The British create the federation of Fédération of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, ensuring the 290 000 White a dominant position, whereas the Asian minorities have a big role in the economy and that the Blacks are most numerous (7,5 million). The Nyassaland African Congress (NAC) is opposed highly to this federation (end the December 31st 1963).
- August 15th: The Glaoui, pasha of Marrakech, supported by the colonists and the administration, takes the head of a movement of antidynastic opposition and makes proclaim a new religious leader with the Morocco, Ben Arafa.
- August 20th: Arrest and exile on order of the French Residence of the sultan of the Morocco Sidi Mohammed Ben Youssef to have recommended a revision of the mode of Protectorate to the detriment of the French authority. It is replaced by Ben Arafa, which will not have any authority. Serious deterioration of the free-Morrocans ratios. Terrorism anti-European and police repression develop.
Exile of the kabaka Mutesa II, supreme authority bugandaise, for two years. A party is formed, the Kabaka Yekka, to support it. State of emergency.
- Famine with the Tanganyika (fine in 1954).
- Dryness and famine in Ethiopia.
- Hailé Sélassié Ier sign with the United States a treaty of mutual defense. They bring to him a help for the rebuilding of the country.
- Creation of the colony of the Niger.
- Life Panafrican Congress of Kumasi, organized by Kwame Nkrumah.
- Strike in Guinea.
- Revolt with São Divided into volumes. Repression.
- the students speak , booklet published at African Présence which requires independence.
- Development plans in the Portuguese colonies (1953 - 1958 and 1959 - 1964).
- Foundation of the France-Maghreb committee by Louis Massignon, which seeks to bring closer Christianity and Islam.
- Oran account 119 000 Moslems and 173 000 Europeans. 282 Moslems are provided education for in secondary education, for 5836 Europeans.
- June 13rd: The general Gustavo Rojas Pinilla seizes the power in Colombia with the support of the political parties to put an end to violence (end in 1957). But the situation is worsened in the campaigns. Rojas Pinilla wants to destroy the system bipartisan, which causes the immediate reaction of the two traditional parties.
- July 26th: Strikes coeds with Cuba. Missed barracks of Moncada in south-east attacks, with Santiago of Cuba, by Fidel Castro and 165 young partisans.
- August 2nd: Land reform in Bolivia, inspired by the Mexican Constitution of 1917. It carries out the nationalization of the grounds and affirms the principle according to which “the ground belongs to that which cultivates it”. Two million Indians, who lived under a feudal mode, is released. Nearly 10 million hectares are distributed to 200 000 families, especially in the highlands.
- August 10th: Louis Stephen the St. Lawrence (liberal) is re-elected Prime Minister of Canada.
- October 10th: At the time of its lawsuit, Fidel Castro makes a long discourse “the history will exonerate me”. It purges 11 months of prison in the island with the Pines then profits from a general amnesty conceded by Batista and flees towards the Mexico.
- November 8th: Jose Figueres To shoe, president of Costa Rica.
- 4 - December 8th: Western summit with the Bermuda.
Mexico: obtaining the female right to vote
the United States
- January 7th: the president Harry Truman reveals that the United States has the bomb with hydrogen a few days before finishing its mandate with the presidency. He prevents that a war would involve the destruction of the USSR (Strategy of the massive reprisals, 1953-1954). The explosion less than one year after a Soviet thermonuclear bomb inaugurates the era of the “balance of terror”.
- January 20th: Beginning of the republican presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower (fine in 1961). John Foster Dulles is named Secretary of State.
- the Eisenhower Administration chooses the “average way” of “conservatism progressist”. Its first cabinet, composed of businessman (eight millionaires and a plumber), wishes to join again with the economic liberalism quasi-total, the government ensuring only monetary stability. It succeeds in removing without disastrous effects the wages and price control as of the first months, but the recession which involves the end of the Guerre of Korea the constrained one, in front of the extent of unemployment (3,8 million, 6% of the active population), with tax reductions not very compatible with its objective of balance in the budget (3100 million deficit in 1953/1954, 4200 in 1954/1955).
- June 19th: Ethel and Julius Rosenberg is carried out on the electric chair with the prison of Sing Sing. They were shown to have delivered, in 1944, with the Soviets of the atomic secrecies coming from the National laboratory of Los Alamos, where they worked.
- July 27th: Armistice in Korea devoting the status quo handle. The United States lost 30 000 men and 115 000 were wounded.
the major part of the American assistance moves towards the countries in the process of development (23 billion dollars on 27 of 1953 with 1961).
- the Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to American George Marshall.
Asia & Indian world
- January: Fourth operation of the Kuomintang, against the China starting from the Burmese bases, which turns to the disaster. On the 30 000 engaged men, 6 000 only will survive.
- March 25th: UNO condemns Taiwan and obtains repatriation out of Burma of the troops of the Kuomintang starting from the November 7th.
- June 2nd: The prince Akihito, heir to the throne of the Japan, visit Europe at the time of the crowning of the Queen of England
- July 27th: In Korea, signature of the armistice with Panmunjeom, on the line of demarcation enters the representatives of UNO, those of the China and the North Korea, which marks the end of the Guerre of Korea. South Korea is opposed to the text which recognizes the partition. A military government carried out by Park Chung-hee control surface by decree the South Korea until October 1963.
- September, Indonesia: Disorders in the country of Atjeh under the direction of Dauh Beureuh in connection with the Darul Islam.
- October, Burma: The two communist movements of guerilla (White Flag and Red Flag) are combined and launch riots in the capital Rangoon.
- November 9th: Independence of the kingdom of the Kampuchea, obtained peacefully by the prince Norodom Sihanouk.
- November 20th, War of Indo-China: Release of the Operation Beaver within the framework of the Navarre plan. Thousands of parachutists occupy Ðiện Biên Phủ which will be transformed into fortified camp. The goal of the operation is to constitute a base for the reconquest of the Thai country and to prevent a new invasion of the Laos by the forces of the Việt Minh.
the India recognizes the fastening of the Tibet to the China, and withdraws the garrisons which it maintained at the border Tibetan. The Dalai Lama is elected vice-president of the National congress of the people, which constitute the Chinese legislative assembly.
- the India invites the Dalai Lama to come to attend the ceremonies which commemorate the 2600e birthday of the birth of the Bouddha. The relations between India and China worsen.
- a commission is in charge of the recutting of the States of the India on a linguistic basis (1953 - 1956). Constitution of the Andhra Pradesh.
- India turns to the Soviet Union to counterbalance américano-Pakistani alliance. Between 1953 and 1959, the volume of the exchanges between the two countries is multiplied by fifteen.
- the Dutch military mission in Indonesia, shown to support certain hostile movements with the republican government is dissolved. All the conferences which must decide fate of the Western New Guinea fail.
- Increase in sino-Soviet assistance to the Việt Minh at the end of the War of Korea.
- January 14th: Tito becomes the president of the popular Federal republic of Yugoslavia.
- March 5th: The death of Stalin, the conflicts working and the dissatisfaction with the farmers, the intellectuals and the students lead the Czechoslovakian leaders to liberalize the mode.
- March 21st: Antonín Zápotocký becomes president of the Czechoslovakian republic.
- 16 - June 17th: Riots of East Berlin. The state of siege is proclaimed. In spite of the intervention of the Soviet armoured tanks, the insurrection of extends to other cities and in particular to Leipzig (June 17th).
- June 23rd: To alleviate the situation, the East-German government proceeds to the revision of the standards of productivity which had summers the independent factor of the insurrection of East Berlin.
- July 2nd: Resignation of Hungarian the Prime Minister Mátyás Rákosi.
- July 4th: The new Hungarian Prime Minister, Imre Nagy, announces a “new political course for his country”. The new Hungarian government liberalizes certain aspects of its policy. Imre Nagy launches a new less strict economic program (development of agriculture and industries of consumer goods, stop of the forced collectivation) and the government grants the amnesty to certain prisoners and removes the camps of internment. The reformists run up against Stalinist within the party that continuous Rákosi to direct.
- September 25th: The cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, archbishop of Warsaw and primacy of Poland, is interned in a monastery (fine in 1956).
- the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact take again the diplomatic relations with the Yugoslavia.
- In Yugoslavia, the maximum size of the private pieces is limited to 10 ha.
- the artists, the intellectuals, the students and the workmen Polish require governmental reforms and a greater freedom with respect to the USSR.
- January 12th: Arrest with Moscow of nine “terrorist doctors”, almost all Jewish, shown to have made an attempt on the life of several leader Soviet. Advertisement of this “Plot of the white blouses” mark the beginning of a campaign anti-semite.
- February 12th: The USSR breaks its diplomatic relations with Israel.
- March 5th: Died of Joseph Stalin.
- March 14th: Nikita Khrouchtchev becomes secretary of the Central committee of the PCUS, within a collegial direction. It succeeds Stalin starting from the March 20th.
- March 28th: Announces of a broad amnesty. A collegial direction takes the orders of the country: Gheorghi Malenkov, elected secretary of the party, with the presidency of the council (fine in 1955), Molotov with the Foreign affairs, Lavrenti Beria inside (end in June), Vorochilov with the presidency of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet, Nikolaï Boulganine and Lazare Kaganovitch at the posts of Deputy Prime Ministers.
- August 12th: The USSR explodes its first Bombe H.
- September 7th: Nikita Khrouchtchev is named first secretary of the PCUS. It succeeds Malenkov. The adoption by the Central committee of his report/ratio on the reorganization of agriculture and the breeding marks the end of the Stalinist era on the economic plan.
- June 26th: Beria is eliminated for criminal activities and opposites with the party. He judged, is condemned to died and carried out the December 23rd. Several other dignitaries, friends of Beria, will be carried out in 1954.
- Night of the January 31st with: floods affecting the areas of the the North Sea. Storm in Zealand. 1.835 victims are counted. The Dutch public authorities adopt radical measures to ensure securié of the area (Plan Delta in 1958).
- February 25th: Charles de Gaulle gives an opinion against CED.
- April 21st: Revision of the Constitution in Denmark: it institutes a single Room (Folketing) and envisages the recourse to the referendum.
- June 2nd: Sixteen months after the death of his/her father Georges VI, Elisabeth II, is crowned queen of the the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth - First international retransmission of an event on line by television.
- September 6th: Election of the 2nd the Bundestag in West Germany.
- Legal settlement between the Spain and the the Vatican which legitimates the pro-Franco mode . “The Catholic religion is the only religion of the Spanish nation”.
- Portugal: First development plan (1953 - 1958).
- the Parliament approves the new electoral law in spite of a strong opposition of the Socialists and Communists (“law swindler”). The related party or parties having the majority of the votes will have 60% of the seats.
- the Socialist Pietro Nenni proposes to take part in a governmental experiment of opening on the left with the Christian Democrat.
the Christian Democrat, divided by its right wing, loses forty deputies to the elections (40% of the votes). It obtains only 48,9% of the voices with its allies and cannot profit from the majority law. Alcide De Gasperi constitutes its eighth government then prefers to be withdrawn after an unfavourable vote of the Parliament. Way is led to the right wing of cd. of which principal leaders, Pella, Scelba and Segni follows one another the presidency of the Council. Incompetent to resist the pressures of the catholics or the leading classes, they are enlisent in a sometimes tinted opposition to progress of relents fascistic. The Italians ignore the political life more and more.
- August 17th: Giuseppe Peeled, president of the Council (fine the January 12th 1954).
- September 13rd: At the time of a speech to the Capitole, Pella proposes a plebiscite in the whole of the free Territoire of Trieste (TLT) to know the will of the inhabitants.
- October 8th: By a joint statement, British and Americans affirm to want to return to the Italians the administration of the zone has free Territoire of Trieste.
- 4 - November 6th: Trieste is the theater of bloody demonstrations, violently repressed by the Anglo-American police force.
Strong inequalities underlined by a parliamentary commission on misery: average revenue per capita of inhabitant and 349 000 liras with Milan and of 66.563 with Agrigente. 5 million small farmers divides 874 949 ha while 520 owners share 875 701 ha. The income per head of the Italians is approximately of 40% of that of the French, of 35% of that of the Belgians, 60% of that of the Germans. The emigration continues with 150 000 departures per annum.
See also: 1953 in France
Oceania & the Pacific
The Middle East & world arabo-Moslem
- January, Syria: The opponents Hourani, Bitar and Aflaq flee with the Lebanon. The party of Hourani and the Ba' HT decide to amalgamate.
- May 2nd:
- Hussein of Jordan is crowned king.
- Majority of Fayçal II of Iraq. The political life in Iraq continues to be dominated by his/her uncle Abdul Illah and the Prime Minister Nouri Saïd.
- May: Travel to the the Middle East of the American Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, which preaches the conclusion of alliance with the Arab countries clearly dissociating traditional relations between the Arab East and the colonial powers.
- June 18th: The General Mohammed Naguib proclaims the Republic in Egypt. The the United Kingdom agrees to withdraw its troops of the zone of the Suez Canal and to hasten the emancipation of the Sudan.
- July 11th: Adib Chichakli is elected president of the Republic of Syria with 99,6% of the voices.
- Chichakli proposes opening of negotiations secret with Israel. It accepts the reinstalment of 80 000 Palestinian refugees in Syria and suggests a division of the demilitarized zone of the Lac of Tibériade. Israel refuses this compromise which would allow a return of Syria in the zone of the the Jordan.
- August 19th: Violent riots with Teheran. The partisans of the shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, supported by the CIA, reverse the Iranian nationalist leader Mohammad Mossadegh which is stopped. The shah, who had taken refuge in Rome, returns to Teheran.
- August 28th: The infiltrations of Palestinian refugees on the territory Hebrew starting from the the West Bank are transformed into true operations of commando. The Israeli army constitutes an irregular military unit, the Unité 101, ordered by Ariel Sharon, and intended to operate takeovers by forces on the Jordanian territory. In October, a raid of the Unité 101 causes the death of 63 Arabs. As from the summer 1954, the Arab legion manages to control the Palestinian infiltrations and the Israeli raids cease.
- August: Johnston plan, presented by the American ambassador to manage an Israeli-Arab agreement by the means of the management of water. All the rivers of north would be gathered towards the Lac of Tibériade from which the networks would leave irrigation towards the south. The water stock made up would be distributed between Israel, the Syria and the Jordan. Israel claims a more significant part, including water of the Litani to the Lebanon. The Arab States refuse insofar as all the rivers are on their territories.
- September: Israel installs a Kibboutz in the demilitarized band of el-Auja and asserts the sovereignty of the territory.
- October 4th: Resignation of Israeli the Prime Minister , David Ben Gourion.
- October 9th: First base of NATO in Turkey.
- October 16th: Election legislative in Syria: the Liberation movement main road gains 60 parliamentary seats out of 82. The traditional parties clash for the capacity, letting develop new radical forces.
- November 9th Died of Abdel Aziz Ibn Saoud. His/her son Saoud succeeds to him on the throne of Saudi Arabia while its second wire Fayçal takes the title of crown prince.
- Saoud will be shown less reconciling that his/her father towards the Americans, reproaching them their policy of opening towards the Egypt and the Yemen, republicans. Saoud extravagant, close to the life Bedouin and is made little to direct the country. His/her Fayçal brother is an austere Moslem, monogamist, equipped with qualities of, former a Foreign Minister statesman of his father and large expert of the Western countries.
With the autumn, the Egyptian mode takes a definitely populist and authoritative way. A revolutionary tribunal, chaired by Sadate, is made up to judge and condemn the principal personalities of the old mode. The relationships of the capacity with the Muslim brothers worsen.
In Iran, the Pétrole remains nationalized but its marketing turns over between the hands of a consortium of international companies. The Americans enter the consortium which succeeds Anglo-Iranian Oil to a total value of 40%.
Arts & cultures
- March 8th: With Castellón of (Spain) Planed, alternate of Antonio Chenel Alabaladejo known as “Antoñete”, Spanish Matador.
- October 21st: Museum Guggenheim with New York (Frank Lloyd Wright).
- October 24th: With alternative Valence (Spain), of Handbook Jiménez Díaz known as “Chicuelo II”, Spanish Matador .
- Retrospective cubist with the Museum of Modern art in Paris.
- Lisbon: Foundation Gulbenkian with goal charitable, artistic, educational and scientific.
Sciences & technology
See also: 1953 in science
See also: 1953 in aeronautics
See also: 1953 in the railroads
- the champion Rocky Marciano preserves its championship of the world of the heavy trucks at boxing by beating
- the May 15th, Jersey Joe Walcott by K.O with the 1st round with Chicago.
- the September 24th, Roland Starza by stop of the referee to the 11th round with New York.
- May 29th: Sir Edmund Hillary, New Zealand bee-keeper and the sherpa Tensing Norgay reach for the first time the top of the Everest to 8.850 Mr.
- the Tour de France cyclist is gained by French Louison Bobet, second French Jean Malléjac and third Italian Giancarlo Astrua, mountain Spanish Jesus Lorono, better sprinter Switzerland Fritz Schaer.
- detailed Article: 1953 in sport
Births in 1953
January 1st: Douste-Blazy, Foreign Minister
- January 6th: Malcolm Young, guitarist of the group AC/DC
- January 9th: Ahmed Shah Massoud, politician and Afghan soldier († September 9th 2001)
- January 10th: Bobby Rahal, racing driver American.
- February 2nd: Christiane Taubira, French political woman, appointed
- February 3rd: Joelle Mogensen, singer of origime cosmopolitan of the group It was once († May 15th 1982)
- February 9th: Michele Rivasi, French political woman, founder of the Commission of independent research and information on the radioactivity
- February 11th: Stephen Thorne, candidate American astronaut († May 24th 1986)
- February 25th: Michel Joscht, French writer
- March 3rd: Zico, Brazilian footballer
- March 5th :
- March 16th :
- March 27th: Patricia C. Dunn, American businesswoman, ex-chairman of Hewlett-Packard (HP) of 2005 to 2006
- March 28th: Nickel silver Ndadaye, president of the Burundi († October 21st 1993)
- April 14th: “Manzanares” (Jose María Abellán Frauds), Spanish Matador
- April 27th :
- April 29th
- May 6th: Tony Blair, British politician
- May 9th: Beatrice Schönberg, journalist Frenchwoman, presenter television
- May 16th: Pierce Brosnan, actor Irish
- May 22nd: François Bon, French writer
- May 29th: Danny Elfman, type-setter and American actor
- June 7th: Johnny Clegg, South-African singer, militant against the Apartheid
- June 11th: Jose Bove, country French and militant Altermondialiste
- June 13rd: Jean de Gaulle, French politician, appointed UMP since 2002
- June 20th :
- June 21st: Benazir Bhutto, political woman, former Prime Minister for the Pakistan
- June 22nd: Cyndi Lauper, American singer
- July 1st: Jadranka Kosor, Croatian political woman, vice-president of the Parliament of Croatia
- July 6th: Renata Indzhova, Bulgarian political woman, Prime Minister for the Bulgaria
- July 14th: Dorothée, singer and stimulating French TV for children
- July 30th: Aleksandr Balandin, Russian cosmonaut
- August 9th: Christophe Salengro, artist French
- August 15th: Wolfgang Hohlbein, German author of science fiction
- August 17th: Robert Brent Thirsk, Canadian spationaut
- September 2nd :
- September 12th: Anne Chopinet, First woman entered with X, Polytechnic school, president of ERAP
- September 21st: Marc Pajot, French navigator
- September 22nd: Ségolène Royal, political woman French candidate with the presidential elections of 2007
- September 27th: Subdued Amritanandamayi, more commonly called Amma, large holy of the India of today.
- October 4th: Tchéky Karyo, French actor
- October 7th: Tico Torres, American beater
- October 12th: Serge Lepeltier, French political personality
- October 15th: Günther Oettinger, Minister-president of Bade-Wurtemberg
- October 27th: Michael A. Baker, American astronaut
- October 30th: Alexander Poleshchuk, Russian cosmonaut
- November 1st: Nancy J. Davis, American astronaut
- November 3rd: Kate Capshaw, American actress
- November 14th :
- Dominique de Villepin, former French Prime Minister
- Patrick Sebastien, imitator, humorist, actor, singer, French producer-organizer
- November 23rd: Francis Cabrel, French singer
- December 3rd: Robert Guédiguian, actor and realizer French
- December 4th :
- December 6th: Masami Kurumada, celebrates Mangaka Japanese author inter alia Saint Seiya
- December 8th: Kim Basinger, American Actress
- December 9th: John Malkovich, realizer and American actor
- December 27th: Jose Ortega Cano, Spanish Matador .
- December 28th: Richard Clayderman, French pianist
- December 30th: Daniel T. Barry, American astronaut
Death in 1953
- January 28th: Jerome Tharaud, French writer (° May 18th 1874)
- February 28th: Eleazar Sukenik, 63 years, Archeologist Israél IEN. Professor with the Hebraic University of Jerusalem. (° August 12th 1889).
- March 5th :
- Joseph Stalin (Joseph Vissarionovitch Stalin), president of the Soviet Union (° December 21st 1879)
- Sergueï Prokofiev, Russian type-setter (° April 23rd 1891)
- March 16th: Paul Frolich, militant Luxembourgiste (° August 7th 1884)
- March 23rd: Raoul Dufy, French painter (° June 3rd 1877)
- April 27th: Maud Gonne, actress and revolutionary Irish (° December 21st 1866)
- April 29th: Kiki, model, artist - the Queen of Montparnasse
- May 16th: Django Reinhardt, guitarist of Jazz French (° January 23rd 1910)
- June 19th: Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, spies (?) American condemned to dead (it ° September 28th 1915, him ° May 12th 1918)
- June 20th Death of Henri de Man, Belgian Politician.
- September 1st: Jacques Thibaud, French violonist
- September 28th: Edwin Hubble, the American astrophysicist (° November 20th 1889)
- October 11th: Morenito of Valencia (Aurelio Puchol Aldas), Spanish Matador (° March 26th 1914).
- November 2nd: To ballast Horton, dancer, choreographer and American pedagog.
- November 8th: Ivan Bounine, Russian writer and Nobel Prize of literature (° the October 22nd 1870).
- November 30th: Francis Picabia, French painter (° January 28th 1879)
Beats-smg: 1953 Be-X-old: 1953 Cbk-zam: 1953 Map-bms: 1953 Simple: 1953 Zh-yue: 1953 年
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