This page relates to the year 1952 Gregorian Calendrier.
- 20 with the February 25th: Conference of Lisbon:
- Readjustment of the military objectives of NATO.
- Acceptance of the project of European Community of defense (CED).
- Decision to install with Paris the seat of NATO.
- September 10th: The Federal republic of Germany and the State of Israel sign with Luxembourg the agreement on German repairs in favor of Israel.
- November 10th: Resignation of the General secretary of UNO, Trygve Binds.
- November: The Spain is allowed with UNESCO.
- December 12th: World congress of the people for Peace, with Vienna, by the World council of Peace.
- March 10th: Stalin proposes a reunification of the Germany, which would be then independent of the two blocks.
- May 27th: In reaction to the Convention of Bonn, the East-German government orders the reinforcement of the line of demarcation with the creation of No man' S 5 km broad Land.
- May: Purge within the Rumanian Communist party. Anna Pauker is eliminated from the Political office. Vasile Luca is imprisoned, considered in 1955, is condemned to died and its sorrow commuted to twenty years of prison. Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej directs the Rumanian government (fine in 1965).
- July 22nd: Constitution of the Popular republic of Poland.
- August 14th: Mátyás Rákosi, Prime Minister in Hungary.
- September 24th: New Constitution, proclaiming officially the Romania people's democracy resting on dictatorship of the proletariat.
- October: XIXe congress of PCUS, the first since 1939.
- November: The Yugoslav Communist party is renamed Ligue of the Communists of Yugoslavia at the time of its Life Congress.
Creation of a Hungarian autonomous region with Târgu Mureş for capital in Transylvania.
- economic Austerity measure in Romania. Great steelworks are built and the mining extraction is developed considerably.
- the United States provides military equipment to the Yugoslavia.
- 80% of the Soviet trade is carried out with the satellite countries.
- November 20th: Purge in the Czechoslovakian Communist party. Its principal members, such Rudolf Slánský (former general secretary of the Party), Vladimír Clementis (former Foreign Minister of the Czechoslovakia) are accused of conspiracy trotskist - titoist - Zionist and condemned to died after their consents forced during public lawsuits with anti-Jewish character. Artur London, survivor of these lawsuits, will describe of them the mechanisms in its novel the Consent .
- November 27th: Beginning of the Lawsuit of Prague aiming at the judgment of Rudolf Slánský and thirteen other dignitaries of the Communist party.
- December 3rd: Execution of Rudolf Slánský and nine other co-defendants.
- May 26th: Convention of Bonn. Germano-allies agreements between the France, the Germany, the the United States and the fine United Kingdom putting at the statute occupation of the the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), which finds its external sovereignty.
- May 27th: With Paris, signature of the treaty instituting the European Community of defense (CED), by the six countries of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). The creation of an integrated European army, under command supranational, makes possible the rearmament of FRG without reconstitution of an autonomous army.
- June 30th: End of the Marshall plan.
- September 10th: First meeting of “the common Parliament of the European Coal and Steel Community” (ECSC) with Strasbourg.
- September 12th: Etienne Hirsh becomes general Commissaire in the Plan and succeeds Jean Monnet.
- October 23rd: The agreements of Paris create the Western European Union, opened with old overcome: the Italy and the FRG.
- November 19th: Conservative governments in Greece of the marshal Alexander Papagos (fine in 1955).
See also: 1952 in France
- February 6th: The king George VI is found died in his bed. His/her daughter Élizabeth Alexandra Mary succeeds to him the throne of the the United Kingdom and the the Commonwealth and takes the name of Elisabeth II of the United Kingdom.
- February 26th: The Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill announces that the United Kingdom manufactured its first atomic bomb.
- May 2nd: With the the United Kingdom, entry into commercial service on BOAC of the Quadriréacteur Long mail Makes 1.
- October 3rd: First British nuclear test
- Law on housing deciding the construction of 300 000 dwellings per annum, supporting the houses.
- January: First congress of the social democrat Left with Bologna.
- November: Congress of the Christian Democrat to Rome. Alcide De Gasperi presents to the party the project of a majority electoral law.
- August - September, Kenya: Revolt Mau Mau ( Kenya Land and Freedom Army ), sect politico-nun which opposes by terror the presence of the White, caused by the inequality in the distribution of the grounds and the loads to the beginning of the year.
- September 15th: The Moslem Érythrée, Italian colony since 1890, is federate with the Ethiopia, Christian woman copte, as an autonomous region following a decision of UNO of 1950.
- October 20th: The state of emergency is proclaimed with the Kenya. Repression forces by the British, who makes approximately 15 000 dead (1952-1955). The nationalist leader Jomo Kenyatta is imprisoned (1952 - 1961).
General strike in British central Africa.
- Labor regulation of Overseas in France.
January: Riots with Bizerte. The general resident makes stop Bourguiba and the leaders of the Néo-Destour. UGTT starts a general strike. In counterpart, the foreign legion rakes the Cape Bon (rapes, plunderings and murder). The resident requires Lamine Bey the resignation of the government in which Néo-Destour takes part. The not obeying bey, the resident makes stop the Prime Minister and three other ministers (March 25th).
- March 26th: Arrest of the ministers Tunisia NS. A wave of arrests breaks on the country. The nationalists take the maquis ( fellagas ) and their terrorism faces the terrorism of European secret organizations ( the Red Hand ).
- September 9th: Into a letter addressed to the president Vincent Auriol, the Bey de Tunis rejects the plan of political reforms proposed by France.
- December 5th: The secretary of UGTT, Farhat Hached, is assassinated by the Red Hand with the complicity of the police force. The bey refuses to collaborate with the general resident and engages a strike of the seal.
- 7 - December 8th: Riots of Casablanca to the Morocco with the news of the assassination of Farhat Hached. The general resident dissolves the Istiqlal and stops the chiefs of them.
Morocco: on 706 doctors, 11 are Moroccan. On more than 200 architects, only one is Moroccan.
- : Vincent Massey is first Canadian of birth to be reached the station of governor of Canada.
- March 10th: With Quebec, beginning of the strike of Louiseville
- July 16th: Maurice Duplessis is re-elected with the Quebec.
- July 25th: Beginning of the television of Radio-Canada. The regular programming is scheduled for September.
- August 4th: Beginning of the first “rush towards the uranium” of the history. The territory which surrounds the mining city of Uranium City (Saskatchewan) is distributed between private companies which will have to deliver to the State the ores extracted.
The United States
- April 15th: First flight of the bomber Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, with the the United States.
- November 1st: Explosion of the first Bomb H by the United States.
- November 4th: Dwight Eisenhower (R) is elected president of the the United States with 55,1% of the voices against Adlai S. Stevenson (D) 44,4%. Its partisans exploit the Maccarthisme, the cost of the Guerre of Korea and various scandals which splash the Administration. The republicans return to the capacity after twenty years of democratic administration.
- the Nobel Prize of physics is granted to Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell for their work on the phenomenon of Magnetic resonance of the electron.
- average annual growth rate falls to 2,5%.
- March 1st: Election of a collegial executive in Uruguay.
- March 10th: With Cuba, coup d'etat of Fulgencio Batista which seizes the power whereas he had promised free elections to contain the social movements and the dissatisfaction with the army obliged to repress the strikes. It itself will be reversed by Fidel Castro at the time of the cuban revolution in January 1959.
- April 9th: In Bolivia, coup d'etat of Victor Paz Estenssoro.
- Revolution of the left forces in Bolivia (1952 - 1964). A popular revolt carries to the capacity the leaders movimientistas (revolutionary Nationalist movement). The army, 8000 men vis-a-vis the 50 000 militiamans of the MNR, is demolished and practically dismantled. Paz Estenssoro, elected president the April 15th, maintains it under the strict control of the MNR.
- June: Land reform with the Guatemala. It aims at the not cultivated grounds of the great fields and excluded the properties from less than 200 ha. 600 000 ha its redistributed. It meets the right-wing opposition and especially that of the United Fruit Company (UFCO), of which 85% of the immense grounds are not exploited. The proposals for a compensation for the government are based on the tax declarations of the company which underestimated the value of its possessions considerably. The government of the United States takes the defense of the UFCO and shows Guatemala to follow policies antiaméricaines and to be with the pay of the Communists.
- July 21st: Adoption of the vote for all in Bolivia. The MNR starts a process of incorporation of the popular layers to the revolutionary mode. It supports the creation of trade unions like the Bolivian working Power station (COB, April 17th) and the National confederation of the country workers of Bolivia (CNTCB, July 15th 1953). The new Bolivian mode frees the Indians and imposes a Land reform.
- Argentinian July 26th, : Died of Perón, the very popular wife of the general Avoided, at the 33 years age. The mode is radicalized, attacking with the aristocracy and the Catholic church. The relations with the army are degraded.
- August 16th: Dictatorship of Héctor Trujillo in Dominican Republic (fine in 1960).
- September 1st: Velasco Ibarra (populist), president of Ecuador (fine in 1956).
- November 3rd: Carlos Ibáñez del Campo is elected president of Chile (fine in 1958).
- February 1st: Adolfo Ruiz Cortines succeeds Miguel Alemán Valdés, with the presidency of the Mexico.
- December 2nd: The dictator of the Venezuela Marcos Pérez Jiménez cancels the elections, organizes a plebiscite and declares that he wants to remain with the capacity indefinitely (fine in 1958). The opposition parties (illegal) protest vigorously.
- December 31st: Victor Paz Estenssoro carries out the nationalization of the mines of tin and created the Bolivian mining Company (COMIBOL).
the Bolivia is the poorest country of South America. The life expectancy with the birth is about 40 years and the rate of elimination of illiteracy does not exceed 30%. The three quarter of the population live agriculture but the rare cultivable grounds are with the hands great landowners resorting to the pongueaje, practical feudal of forced labor accompanied by personal services free, however prohibited in 1945. A powerful mining sector ensures the export earnings and maintains the inhuman work conditions.
Asia & Indian world
- January 11th: The general Raoul Salan becomes commander-in-chief of French forces in Indo-China with died of the marshal Jean de Lattre de Tassigny.
- March 4th: The China shows the American to have recourse to the bacteriological Guerre in Korea.
- Mars: The White Flag Burmese (communist guerilla) counter-attack in the areas of Sagaing and Pyinmana (current Naypyidaw), then is put in rout in May by the governmental army.
- April 27th: Signature of a peace treaty enters the Japan and nationalist China.
- May 13rd: Opening of the first session of the Rajya Sabha (in Hindi राज्यसभा) - the the Council of the States - which is the Upper House of the Indian Parlement.
- June 23rd: Bombardment of the North Korea by the the United States.
- August: The Kuomintang Chinese launches its third operation bound for the China, with the 30 000 men which it has in Burma.
- October 30th: French offensive under the command of the general Salan at the time of the Lorraine operation where 30 000 men are engaged against the supply bases of the Vietnamese soldier-minh.
- October: The peace negotiations stop in Korea and will not be re-enlisted before April 1953.
- December: Defeat Việt Minh with the Battle of Na San.
nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- India: Working class unrest supported by the Communist party in country telugu after a regionalistic leader gandhien fasted until death for the creation of a separate State.
- Increase in the cost of the War of Indo-China. Financial aid of the United States in France.
- the Nahdatul Ulama (the Council of Ulemas) separates from the Masjumi. It is resulting from an association of professor of religious teaching (1926) which is devoted to the defense of Islam against survivals hindouists. More preserving than Masjumi on the religious level, it is located at the center on the political plan and social.
- Creation of a company indonésienne of navigation, Pelni. The KPM, financed by capital foreigner, however ensures most of the traffic between the islands.
- the industrial sector accounts for 10% of the national revenue in Indonesia.
Oceania & the Pacific
The Middle East & Arab world
- January 1st: The king of Jordan Talal gives a Constitution to the country in which the government is responsible before the Parliament.
- February 18th: The Turkey integrates NATO.
- August 12th: The Jordanian leaders and the family members royal worry about the liberal reforms of the king Talal and deposit it for health reasons. His/her son Hussein seizes the power.
- September 19th: With the Lebanon, the Head of the State Béchara el-Khoury resigns following a political crisis relating to the opportunity of the entry of Lebanon in a military alliance with the Westerners. The Maronite Camille Chamoun succeeds to him (September 22nd). It follows a pro-Western policy and is hostile with the Arab unit.
- September - October: Social disturbances with Al Basra then in the big cities Iraq iennes. This rising, called Intifada H, is repressed by the army. The martial law is proclaimed and the prohibited political parties.
Georges Habache, Palestinian taken refuge Christian, founds with Beirut the Arab National movement (MNA) and settles with Amman. The MNA is of tendency panarabe: the release of the Palestine must be done by the realization of the Arab unit.
- January 25th: Black Saturday. Confrontations with the Cairo between British and police soldiers Egyptian make about fifty victims.
- February 26th: Demonstrations burst in Cairo against the Western presence. The government wafdist issues the martial law and represses the movement.
- February 27th: The king Farouk returns the government, suspends the Parliament and turns over to a personal exercise of the capacity.
- 22 - July 23rd: Egyptian monarchy is reversed by members of the committee of the free Officers. The Council of the revolution is trained and entrusts the direction of the country to the general Mohammed Naguib.
- July 23rd: Return to the Constitution of 1923. Ali Maher form a government, but the real capacity is with the hands of the Council of the revolution. The free Officers divide. The left wing and Nasser claim a return to the democracy and legislative elections are announced. A land reform is promulgated, limiting the land and buildings to 80 ha by owners and 125 by families. In front of the hostility of the old political community, the Council carries out many arrests.
- July 27th: Farouk abdicates in favor of his/her son Fouad and leaves Egypt.
- August 24th: The British troops evacuate the Suez Canal.
- September 7th: Ali Maher resigns and Mohammed Naguib becomes chief of the government.
Arts & cultures
- September 29th: With alternate Barcelona (Spain), of César Girón, Matador venuezuelien.
- October 14th: with Marseilles (France), inauguration of the radiant quoted of the architect Le Corbusier.
- an intergovernmental conference called by UNESCO adopts universal Convention on the royalty.
Sciences & technology
See also: 1952 in science
See also: 1952 in aeronautics
See also: 1952 in the railroads
- June 5th: The champion Jersey Joe Walcott preserves his championship of the world of the heavy trucks at boxing by beating Ezzard Charles at the points in 15 round with Philadelphia.
- July 7th: the Paquebot United States seizes the blue Ruban while crossing the Atlantique into 3 Jour S 10 hour S and 40 minute S.
- July 19th:
- the Tour de France cyclist is gained by Italian Fausto Coppi (+ mountain), second the Belgian Stan Ockers and third Spanish Bernardo Ruiz.
- Olympic Games of summer in Helsinki. Emil Zátopek gains 3 gold medals in Athletics: detailed results.
- August 8th: Exploration of the Pit of Holy Pierre Martin (Tazieff, Casteret). Marcel Loubens finds death there.
- September 23rd: Rocky Marciano becomes the new world champion of the heavy trucks to boxing by beating Jersey Joe Walcott by K.O with the 13th round in Philadelphia.
- October 13rd: The first diffusion of a match of hockey on television of Radio-Canada.
See also: 1952 in sport
Births in 1952
- January 3rd: Gianfranco Fini, Italian politician.
- January 5th: Michele Jacot, Ski euse French.
- January 8th: Hamma Hammami, politician Tunisia N
- January 16th: L. Blaine Hammond, American astronaut
- January 24th: William F. Readdy, American astronaut
- January 26th: Frederic Lodéon, violoncellist, leader and organizer radio operator French.
- January 27th: Jacques Nikonoff, president of Attac.
- January 28th: Jean-Louis Murat, Composer-songwriter, artist interprets, musician
- : Jean Roucas, humorist and imitator French
- February 2nd: Christiane Taubira, French political woman, with Cayenne in Guyana.
- February 4th: Jenny Shipley, political woman New Zealander, Prime Minister of New Zealand
- February 5th: Daniel Balavoine, Singer French († 1986).
- February 19th
- Rodolfo Neri Calved, spationaut Mexican
- Ryū Murakami, writer Japan board
- Barbara Schnitzler, actress German.
- Christiane Reiff, German actress.
- February 22nd: James P. Bagian, American astronaut
- February 25th: Manili (Manual Ruíz Regalo), Spanish Matador .
- March 8th: Vladimir V. Vasyutin, Ukrainian cosmonaut († 2002)
- March 11th: Douglas Adams, British writer .
- March 22nd: Jean-Claude Mourlevat, French writer
- March 23rd: Kim Stanley Robinson, American author of science fiction.
- March 25th: Didier Pironi, racing driver and speedboat French († 1987)
- March 27th: Maria Schneider, French actress.
- April 2nd: Thierry the Lad, Humoriste French († November 13rd 1986).
- April 12th: Pierre Stolze, French author of science fiction
- April 22nd: François-Rene Duchâble, French pianist.
- May 1st: Richard Baquié, Sculptor French († 1996).
- May 6th: Chiaki Mukai, spationaut Japanese woman
- May 8th: Charles Camarda, American astronaut
- May 9th: Dick Annegarn, Singer Dutch French-speaking person.
- May 11th: Renaud, Singer French.
- May 14th :
- Donald R. McMonagle, American astronaut
- David Byrne (musician), American musician, cofounder of the group Talking Heads
- May 16th: Pierce Brosnan, Actor Irish.
- May 29th: Jean-Marc Zaorski, French photographer.
- June 5th: Carole Fredericks, Franco-American singer († June 7th 2001).
- June 7th
- June 8th: Valiant Jacques, French singer.
- June 12th: Russo Patricia, American businesswoman , managing director of Alcatel-Lucent
- June 20th: John Goodman, American actor.
- June 28th: Pietro Mennea, athlete, Italian.
- June 30th: Laurent Joffrin, journalist " New Obs" , French.
- July 2nd: Linda Mr. Godwin, American astronaut
- July 3rd: Andy Fraser, British musician, bass player of the group Free.
- July 4th: Nicole Ameline, French political woman.
- July 5th: Terence T. Henricks, American astronaut
- July 10th: Lee Hae-chan (이해찬, pronounce I Haî-tchan ), South Korean politician.
- July 12th: Robert Crushed, Matador French.
- July 15th: Daniel Mesguich, Actor and man of French theater.
- July 16th: Pierre Makyo, Scenario writer of cartoons.
- July 17th: David Hasselhoff, American actor.
- July 21st: Robin Williams, American actor.
- July 21st: Djamel Eddine Laouisset, University Algerian
- August 14th
- August 17th
- Thomas J. Hennen, American astronaut
- Kathryn C. Thornton, American astronaut
- Guillermo Villas, Argentinian tennis player
- August 18th
- August 23rd: Klaus-Dietrich Flade, German spationaut
- September 2nd: Jimmy Connors, tennis player.
- September 3rd: François Emmanuel, Belgian writer, member of the royal Academy of language and literature Frenchwomen of Belgium
- September 7th: Rene Vázquez Díaz, writer, playwright, journalist and translator Cuba in.
- September 9th: Lee M.E. Morin, American astronaut
- September 17th: El Niño of Capea (Pedro Gutiérrez Moya), Spanish Matador .
- September 19th: Simon Compaoré, Burkinabe politician
- September 20th: Patrick Bourrat, to defer TF1.
- September 25th: Christopher Reeves, American actor
- September 27th: Dumitru Prunariu, Rumanian spationaut.
- September 30th: Philippe Sternis, author of Cartoon.
- October 13rd: Michael R. Clifford, American astronaut
- October 14th: daN Ar Wern, Breton writer, Al LIAMM.
- October 20th: Dalia Itzik, political woman, former president of Israel
- October 25th: Samir Geagea, Lebanese politician.
- October 27th
- Roberto Benigni, actor and Italian realizer
- Francis Fukuyama, philosopher, economist and American researcher in political sciences of Japanese origin.
- October 29th: Valery Tokarev, Russian cosmonaut
- November 2nd: Michel Boujenah, actor (singer) - French humorist
- November 7th: Geraldo Alckmin, Brazilian politician
- November 24th: Thierry Lhermitte, French actor.
- November 27th :
- December 4th: Ronald Mr. Sega, American astronaut
- December 8th: Marc Barvais, Belgian politician of French language
- December 27th: David Knopfler, cofounder with his brother Mark of the British rock group To say Straits
Death in 1952
- January 4th: Constant Permeke (65 years), painter and Belgian sculptor
- January 25th: Sveinn Björnsson, president of the Republic of Iceland (° January 27th 1881)
- February 6th: George VI, king of the the United Kingdom
- February 14th: Maurice De Waele, Belgian racing cyclist (° December 27th 1896)
- February 19th: Knut Hamsun (92 years), Norwegian writer
- April 2nd, Bernard Lyot (55 years), French, inventive astronomer of the corographe.
- May 6th: Maria Montessori (81 years), doctor and Italian, creative pedagog of the “Houses of the Children” (° August 31st 1870).
- May 8th: William Fox, producing American of cinema, founder of the Fox Corp Film. (° January 1st 1879
- July 6th, Maryse Bastié (54 years), French aviatrice, holder of ten international records of distance and duration (air crash).
- July 17th: Charles Plisnier (55 years), Belgian novelist, socialist author of accounts of manners.
- July 26th: Eva Perón (32 years), Argentinian political woman, founder left female laborist.
- August 18th: Alberto Hurtado (52 years), Chilean priest, founder of trade union, canonized
- October 13rd: Gaston Baty, man of Theater
- November 9th: Chaim Weizmann, first president of the State of Israel.
- November 18th: Eugene Grindel known as Paul Éluard (56 years), French poet, founder of the surrealist group and poet of Resistance.
- November 24th: Camille de Morlhon (83 years), scenario writer and French scenario writer of the period of the Silent film. (° the February 19th 1869).
- December 4th: Giuseppe Antonio Borgese (69 years), political, critical journalist literary and Italian writer.
- December 5th: Farhat Hached (41 years), politician Tunisia N (° February 2nd 1914)
Beats-smg: 1952 Be-X-old: 1952 Map-bms: 1952 Simple: 1952 Zh-yue: 1952 年
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