This page relates to the year 1949 Gregorian Calendrier.
International or World
- April 4th: Signature with Washington of the Atlantic Pact, which creates a military alliance between 11 Western countries (NATO) the of which United States, the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy, Portugal, Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Canada.
- August 12th: Signature of the Geneva Conventions.
- February: The leaders of the African democratic Rassemblement are imprisoned.
- June 26th: Constitution of ABAKO. It is at the beginning a simple defense association of the language kongo, in particular vis-a-vis advanced lingana (language of the river trade), then will be politicized starting from 1954 under the direction of Joseph Kasa-Vubu.
- June 29th: Prohibition of the marriages mixed between Europeans and non-European in South Africa.
- October: In Gold Coast, the Coussey reform project returns autonomy to an unspecified date what causes disorders violent one.
- November 21st: UNO vote the independence of the Libya and the Somalia.
Creation of an Autonomous labor union of the railwaymen of AOF, by secession with the CGT.
decennial economic Development plan with the Belgian Congo.
Discovered oil with the Gabon on banks of the Ogoué.
- February 13rd: Beginning of the strike of asbestos with the Quebec (fine the June 30th).
- March 31st: Newfoundland enters the confederation like 10th Canadian province.
- June 27th: Election federal. Louis Stephen the St. Lawrence (liberal) Prime Minister of Canada.
- Abolition of the recourse to the the Private Council of London for the Canada.
the United States
- January 20th: Program Fair Deal announced by Harry Truman in its inaugural speech, which wants to be the prolongation of the New Deal .
- Failure partial of the Fair Deal in front of the economic conjuncture. The Congress with democratic majority but preserving vote the rise in the minimum hourly salary from 40 to 75 hundreds, reinforcement of the agricultural price maintenance and a construction schedule of several hundreds of thousands of residences. It extends the recipients of the Social security to 10 million new people and raises the services of 75% of them. He is opposed to the other provisions (abolition of the Loi Taft-Hartley, legislation on the civic rights, obligatory health insurance, plan aiming at replacing the agricultural price maintenance by compensation allowances to the farmers) and answers slowly the proposals of Truman intended to make profit the Third world from the scientific and industrial advance American.
- January 21st: Dean Acheson is named Secretary of State (fine in 1953).
- Be: 4,6 million unemployed, is 7% of the active population.
- September 22nd: The advertisement of the first Soviet nuclear explosion causes the decision of Truman of launching a policy of rearmament.
- Mars, Mexico: For the first time since expropriations of 1938, two American oil companies receive the permission to carry out drillings under the control of the Pemex.
- July 3rd, Mexico: The party of the government, renamed Left revolutionary institutional (PRI), gains a broad victory with the legislative elections.
- August 5th: A Earthquake of magnitude 6,8 fact 3 000 victims with Ambato in Ecuador.
- September 28th: Foundation of the PGT ( Partido guatemalteco LED trabajo ), Communist party of the Guatemala.
- November 8th: Figueres gives the capacity to Ulate to the Costa Rica (fine in 1953).
- November: The conservative Laureno Gómez is elected president in Colombia during an anticipated election in which the liberals refused to take part (beginning of mandate the August 7th 1950). The tension worsens.
- Boom of exports of Banana S in Central America, particularly with the Nicaragua, since 1944.
- May 16th, Japan: Creation of the market index tokyoïte Nikkei 225.
- In June, evacuation by the Americans of the South Korea.
- January: The Communists take Tianjin.
- January 22nd: Catch of Beijing (Beijing) by the Chinese Communists.
- January 23rd: The Communists crush the nationalists remained in the north of the Yang-tseu who go.
- April 23rd: Catch of Nankin (capital nationalist) by the army of the Chinese Communists of Mao Zedong.
- May 25th: Catch of Shanghai by the Chinese Communists.
- July: In front of the imminence of the catch capacity by the Communists in China, the government Tibetan expels all Chinese, including the tradesmen. The new Chinese government considers that the Tibet forms integral part of China and the Chinese radio declares that Tibet must be released “of the yoke British imperialist”.
- 21 with the September 30th: 1st Political advisory conference of the Chinese people (CCPPC), with Beijing ( Beijing ) (China), chaired by Mao Zedong, gathering 662 deputy.
- October 1st: Mao Zedong proclaims with Beijing the Popular republic of China, whereas Tchang Kaï-chek flees in the island of Formosa. Mao Zedong becomes the first President of the Popular republic of China. Zhou Enlai is named Prime Minister.
- October 7th: The invasion of the Tibet by China starts in the provinces of Kham and Amdo.
- October 14th: Catch of Canton by the Chinese Communists.
- November 23rd: The Soviet Union establishes diplomatic relations with Beijing and states with UNO not to recognize nationalist China more.
- December 8th: Fold with Taiwan of the Chinese nationalist government of Tchang Kaï-chek.
Chinese industry is ruined. The Mandchourie was plundered by the Russians. The railway network is for an unusable good portion. Years of which gallop inflations were right of the currency, the banking system and the business world. But for the first time since 1911, a strong mode dominates the whole of China. He proposes to rectify the country with methods put to the test in limited zones.
- January 1st, Indo-Pakistani War: Cease-fire with the Cashmere, between the Indian and Pakistani troops under the aegis of UNO. The Cashmere is cut into two. The India receives the State of Jammu-and-Cashmere (101 387 km ²), the Pakistan the Azad Kashmir (“free Cashmere”, 78 114 km ²).
- April: Admission of the India within the the Commonwealth.
- With UNO, India takes part in the constitution of the Afro-Asian group which condemns the action of France in Indo-China.
- Suppression of the agricultural operating system zamindari (the zamindar collected the tax on behalf of the government and enjoyed important capacities n the other hand).
- Blockade of Transbassac by the French troops with the beginning of the year to cut the supply rice of the Việt Minh.
- In February, mutiny of Naw Seng , captain of the 1st regiment Kachin, and victorious of the communist guerilla. It joint with the revolt of the Karen S of which it orders the troops in the center of the Burma.
- July 19th: Independence partial of the Laos within the framework of the French Union.
- August 3rd, Indonesia: After the Safety advice of the United Nations ordered a new cease-fire, Yogyakarta is evacuated and the governments indonésiens and Dutch give the order to put an end to the hostilities.
- August 8th: Independence of the Bhutan.
- August 7th: Kartosuwirjo proclaims in the western Java the creation of a Negara Islam Indonesia (" Islamic state indonésien"). The movement, called Darul Islam, will gain the southern of Célèbes and Aceh.
- September: The independence of the Vietnam is again proclaimed by France, with for Head of State Bảo Đại which installs its capital with Đà Lạt. The Việt Minh refuses to recognize it.
- November 2nd: Independence of the the United States of Indonesia. With the Conference of the Roundtable of $the Hague (August-December), the Dutchmen agree to transfer sovereignty on totality from Indonesia, except the Western New Guinea, in the federal republic of the United States of Indonesia (RUSI) before the end of the year. The union any symbolic system with the Netherlands will be dissolved officially in 1954.
- November 8th: Limited independence of the Kampuchea with respect to France.
- December 14th: A Provisional constitution of the United States of Indonesia is promulgated. They join together 16 confederated States.
- December 16th: Soekarno is named president of the federal republic of the United States of Indonesia.
- December 27th: With Amsterdam, the queen Juliana of the Netherlands and Mohammed Hatta carry out the transfer of sovereignty.
- December 28th: Effective independence of the Indonesia.
- December 30th: Vietnamese agreements free of the Bay of Along.
- December: Law on teaching in Indonesia.
The Middle East
- February 12th: The supreme guide of the Muslim brothers is stopped and carried out in Egypt. The organization is disorganized.
- March 30th: Coup d'etat in Syria of the officers Adib Chichakli and Husni Al-Zaim, related to the Arab socialist party of Hourani, encouraged by the CIA. They stop all the leaders of the country. Zaim is made appoint marshal and establishes many reforms aiming at laicizing the company and gives to the women political rights.
- the regent of Iraq Abdul Illah revival the project of “fertile Crescent” aiming to the Union with the Syria. The April 12th, Iraq and Syria negotiate to present a common force in the discussions of armistice with Israel. But in front of the joint opposition of the France, Egypt and the Saudi Arabia the Syrian president Husni Al-Zaim must give up the project of union. The project re-appears after the seizure of power by Hinawi in Syria, but fails finally because of the unpopularity of Great Britain in Syria, France with the opposition to the project and the threat of Israel to carry out supports it a preventive war.
- June 25th: Husni Al-Zaim is elected president of the Republic of Syria like one applicant.
- July 8th: Antoun Saadé, chief of the Syrian Popular party (PS) is assassinated by the Lebanese authorities after street battles to Beirut.
- August 14th: Husni Al-Zaim is reversed by another coup d'etat and is assassinated by an officer member of the PS. The new Head of the State, the colonel Hinawi, decides to control with members of the party of the people. Michel Aflaq, directing Ba' HT is named Minister for Education and Hourani with Agriculture.
- November 15th: The elections in Syria give 51 seats out of 114 to the party of the people.
- December 19th: A third coup d'etat is organized by Adib Chichakli in Syria.
the government of the king Farouk Ier of Egypt, under the pressure of the Muslim brothers, makes stop all the Juifs suspected of Zionism. 15 000 with 20 000 prisoners are charged on the boats and envoys with Marseilles. The young Zionists take again a boat in direction of Haïfa, after some time spent in refugee camps. In Israel, they still find refugee camps before being integrated in the new State.
- Abd Allah ibn Hussein proclaimed king of Jordan (1949 - 1951)
- the Great Britain threat to intervene against Israel which with penetrated in the the Sinai. The engagements stop the January 7th.
- January 25th: Election of the first Knesset, which gathers for the first time the February 14th. David Ben Gourion becomes Prime Minister.
- January 31st: The the United States recognize the State of Israel.
- February 24th: Signature of the armistice with Rhodos between the Egypt and Israel. Others will be signed the following months by Israel with the Lebanon (March 23rd), the Transjordanie (April 3rd) and the Syria (July 20th). Demilitarized zones are established, Jordan made of the territorial concessions in Israel, Syria evacuates the Palestine.
- March 4th: The Israeli forces launch a last offensive on the south of the Negev and reach the Red Sea. The British give an opinion with Akaba to protect the Jordan. The cease-fire east restores the March 11th.
- May 11th: Israel is allowed with UNO.
- August: Failure of the commission of conciliation to settle the question of Jerusalem.
Conference of bearing Lausanne on the question of the Palestinian Arab refugees. The Arab countries are ready to accommodate them officially if Israel subjects itself to the plan of division and accepts the reinstalment of 200 000 refugees on his territory. Israel refuses and declares that its territory is from now on that of the division plus the conquests of the war.
- the Clapp mission suggests the economic development of the area by a policy of great work based on the use of taken refuge labor. It creates UNRWA the December 8th ( United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East ), arranges charged to bring emergency helps and to program great work, financed by the United States. It realizes quickly that Israel and the Arab countries will not collaborate and that the refugees defend their identity and refuse any reinstalment out of on their premises. They are constituted in autonomous districts in the cities or camps. The agency is satisfied to bring of food aid, to ensure schooling and the medical framing.
- fine of the Greek Civil war
- April 14th: End of the last Lawsuit of Nuremberg against the former Nazis chiefs.
- April 20th: World congress of the Partisans of Peace, with Paris, of the World council of peace.
- June 23rd: Failure of the conference of the Four on the German peace treaty.
- January 25th: Creation in Moscow of the Comecon, or CMEA: The Council of mutual economic aid (body d'" entraide" economic enter the communist countries), gathering at the beginning the the USSR, the Bulgaria, the Hungary, the Poland, the Romania, the Czechoslovakia then the Albania in February.
- January: Annual Foreground in Romania, with for objective increasing the production of 40%.
- July: Special statute for the Jews in Romania, envisaging only one community by city and their meeting in a federation whose rabbinical Council is named by the minister of religion.
- July 13rd: The the Vatican excommunicates all the Communists: Poland: the Polish government undertakes the fight against the Catholic church whose influence is considerable in Poland. The schools and the goods of the Church are nationalized. Hundreds of priests are stopped.
- October: Nomination of the Soviet marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky at the post of minister of Defense in Poland by Bolesław Bierut.
- the USSR and its allies denounce the treaties of friendship with the Yugoslavia and prohibit to him to enter with the Comecon.
- the Yugoslavia makes sure financial aid of the Bank of import-export of the United States and the international Banque of rebuilding and development and signs a commercial treaty with Great Britain.
- the Bulgaria, following the creation of the State of Israel, recognizes the right of the Jews to the emigration.
- Collectivization of the grounds in Romania (1949 - 1962).
- the Polish Communist leaders develop industrial and economic objectives in agreement with the economic system and social of the USSR. The priority is given to heavy industry. On the other hand, the attempts at collectivization of agriculture fail and are finally abandoned.
- In Lithuania, the Communist regime closes the majority of the churches, off-sets a great number of priests and condemns the Lithuanians owners of religious icons.
- May 30th: Creation of GDR announces.
- October 7th: Proclamation of the German Democratic republic (GDR).
- February 3rd: Lawsuit Mindzenty in Hungary.
- May 15th: With the parliamentary elections Hungarian woman, only one list is proposed, composed exclusively of Communists and their partisans, that of the Popular front, which gains 96,27% of the votes.
- August 20th: Proclamation of the Popular republic in Hungary. The Parliament adopts the Constitution of the Hungarian Popular republic.
- September: Purge party of the Hungarian workers which reinforces the communist capacity. Lawsuit and execution of the former minister the interior László Rajk and several other members of the party. Hundreds of persons in charge and militants of the prewar clandestine party pass by torture and the prison.
- October 15th: Execution of the Hungarian minister László Rajk, for “Titoism”.
Campaign collectivization in Hungary (1949-1950). In 1953, approximately 20% of the peasants will work in Kolkhoze S.
- Hungary signs treaties of co-operation with the USSR and other communist countries, nationalize many industries, confiscate the goods of the peasants who do not accept collectivization. Thousands of opponents are sent in camps of work.
- July 14th: Explosion of the first Soviet atomic bomb (confirmed information in September).
- May 5th: Creation in London of the the Council of Europe, composed of the Council of Ministers, representing the governments, and of a representative assembly.
- May 9th: Beginning of the reign of the prince Rainier III of Monaco.
- October 16th: End of the civil war in Greece. Defeat of the communist partisans.
- Creation of an aeronautical base of NATO in Iceland.
- January: Introduction of the obligatory military service to the the United Kingdom. It will be removed in 1954.
- April 1st: Proclamation of the Irish Republic (Eire).
- May: Vote of a project of nationalization of iron and steel industry after eight month of parliamentary guerilla.
- September 18th: New monetary crisis. Devaluation of the Pound sterling of 30%.
- the Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to the Britannique Lord John B. Orr off Brechin.
- May 4th: Agreement of the Four Large ones on the lifting of the Blockade of Berlin.
- May 8th: First examination of the project of Fundamental law.
- May 12th: Lifting of the Blockade of Berlin.
- May 23rd: Adoption of the Fundamental law ( Grundgesetz ), which created the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The abolition of the capital punishment in Germany is registered there.
- August 14th: Election of the 1st the Bundestag . Victoire of the CDU (left Christian Democrat) and of the German Parti which collect 34,6% of the voices and 139 seats in front of the SPD (left social democrat) which gains 32,6% of the voices and 131 seats.
- September 15th: Election of Konrad Adenauer at the station of federal Chancellor (fine in 1963).
See also: 1949 in France
- 14 - March 16th: On a proposal from the government (March 11th), the Italy joined NATO following a long parliamentary debate.
- July 13rd: Publication of the decree by which the the Vatican excommunicates the Communists and their allies.
- : The government abolishes the rationing of the bread and the pasta products.
- October 30th: Following the ground occupation belonging to latifundia, violent demonstrations burst in Calabria. Other bloody demonstrations will have in November place and in December.
- November 7th: The social democrat Parti gives up the government coalition. Alcide De Gasperi proceeds to a rehandling.
- December: The government submits to the Parliament the first of a series of laws for the dismemberment of the latifundia and the Land reform.
the total productivity returns on the levels of before the war.
Oceania & the Pacific
Arts & cultures
- January: First collection of ready-made clothes of Pierre Cardin.
- March 29th: Jean Prouvost founds the weekly magazine Paris-Match .
- Jean Dubuffet presents his first exposure of rough art.
Sciences & technology
See also: 1949 in science
See also: 1949 in aeronautics
- March 1st: The champion Joe Louis announces that it withdraws boxing whereas it holds the championship of the weight-heavy world.
- March 2nd: First air round the world tour without stopover by a superforteress B-50 of the American army.
- April 22nd, Journal officiel de la R3epublique fran1caise: delegation of powers given to the French federation of play to XIII and suppression of that given to the French League of Rugby to XIII (ordinance and decrees 1945,1946,1949).
- June 22nd: Ezzard Charles becomes the new world champion of the heavy trucks to boxing by beating Jersey Joe Walcott at the points in 15 round with Chicago.
- the Tour de France cyclist is gained by Italian Fausto Coppi (+ mountain), second Italian Gino Bartali and third French Jacques Marinelli, sprinter the Belgian Stan Ockers.
- detailed Article: 1949 in sport
Births in 1949
- January 13rd: Rakesh Sharma, first Indian spationaut
- January 15th: daN Ar Braz, Breton Song writer and performer
- January 18th :
- Franz-Olivier Giesbert, French journalist.
- Philippe Starck, designer and architect French.
- January 19th: Robert Micrometer caliper, British singer
- January 23rd: Robert D. Cabana, American astronaut
- February 18th: Abdelghani Bousta, Moroccan politician
- February 22nd: Niki Lauda, Austrian racing driver
- February 23rd: Marc Garneau, astronaut and Canadian politician
- March 2nd: Eddie Money, American singer
- March 3rd
- March 4th: Francisco Ruiz Miguel, Spanish Matador .
- March 17th :
- March 22nd: Fanny Ardant, French actress
- March 25th: Philippe de Villiers, French politician
- April 4th: Bruno Mégret, French politician
- April 5th: Judith A. Resnik, American astronaut († January 28th 1986)
- April 6th: Horst Ludwig Störmer, German physicist Nobel Prize of physics 1998.
- April 13rd: Jean-Jacques Favier, French spationaut
- April 15th: Alain Minc, manager of French undertaking
- April 24th: Veronique Sanson, singer, author type-setter Frenchwoman
- April 25th: Dominique Strauss-Kahn, director of the the IMF
- April 28th: Jay Apt, American astronaut
- May 3rd
- May 6th: David C. Leestma, American astronaut
- May 15th: Frank L. Culbertson, Jr., American astronaut
- May 18th: Chris Seydou large dressmaker Malian
- May 21st: Arno Hintjens, Belgian singer.
- June 12th: Yuri Baturin, Russian cosmonaut
- June 15th: María Teresa Fernández of Vega, Spanish political woman, first vice-president of the government in Spain
- June 18th: Lech Kaczyński, politician Polish
- June 22nd: Meryl Streep, American actress
- June 25th: Patrick Tambay, racing driver F1
- July 26th: William Mr. Shepherd, American astronaut
- July 28th: Simon Kirke, British musician , beater of Free and Bad Company
- August 12th: Julien Lepers, presenter of television games French
- August 15th: Richard Deacon, British sculptor
- August 17th: Jean-Christmas Augert, French skier
- August 24th: Anna Fisher, American astronaut
- August 25th: Salif Keïta, musician and singer Malian
- August 29th: Igor and Grichka Bogdanoff, producers and French TV hosts, specialized in the scientific documents
- September 10th: Patrick Proisy, French tennis player
- September 16th: Hildegard Puwak, political woman, Minister for the Romania
- September 20th: Sabine Azéma, French actress.
- September 23rd: Bruce Springsteen, singer author and American type-setter .
- September 24th: Pedro Almodóvar, Spanish scenario writer
- September 30th: Michel Tognini, French spationaut
- October 21st: AsGrete Strøm-Erichsen, Norwegian political woman, former minister for the Defense of Norway
- October 30th: Jean-Marie Guéhenno, diplomatic French.
- October 31st: Terrence W. Wilcutt, American astronaut
- November: Will Ackerman, German Guitarist
- November 16th: Michel Daerden, French-speaking Belgian politician
- November 20th: Kenneth D. Cameron, American astronaut
- December 5th: Bruce E. Melnick, American astronaut
- December 14th: Cliff Williams, bass player of the group AC/DC
- December 17th: Paul Rodgers, British singer (Free)
- December 20th: Soumaïla Cissé, politician Malian
- December 21st: Thomas Sankara, African political leader.
- December 27th: Gerard Depardieu, French actor
Death in 1949
- January 6th: Victor Fleming, American realizer (65 years)
- January 10th: Emile Othon Friesz, French painter
- January 28th: Jean-Pierre Wimille, racing driver
- February 16th: Umberto Brunelleschi, painter, illustrator and Italian poster artist. (° June 21st 1879).
- August 11th: Margaret Mitchell (48 years), American novelist, author of Gone With The Wind (reversed by a taxi)
- September 7th: Jose Lenient, Mexican painter muralist.
- September 8th: Richard Strauss, German type-setter (85 years)
- October 28th
- October 29th: G.I. Gurdjieff, occultist Arménie N.
- November 19th: James Ensor, Belgian painter
- November 21st: Marie-Louise Manac' H, patron
- December 5th: Alfred James Lotka, mathematician and American statistician (° March 2nd 1880)
- December 15th: Alice Bailey, écrivaine esoterist and British occultist .
Beats-smg: 1949 Be-X-old: 1949 Map-bms: 1949 Simple: 1949 Zh-yue: 1949 年
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