This page relates to the year 1948 Gregorian Calendrier.
- January 1st: Coming into effect of GATT.
- December 9th: Convention for the prevention and the repression of the crime of genocide (adopted by the General meeting of the United Nations)
- December 10th: The General meeting of the United Nations, joined together with Paris, adopts the Universal declaration of the Human rights.
- UNESCO recommends to the Member States to make education primary obligatory and universal.
- February 4th: The Romania sign with the the Kremlin a treaty of friendship and assistance with the Soviet Union.
- 21 - February 23rd: Congress of unification of the working parties with Bucharest, which gives the day to the Rumanian working Party with a program Marxist-Leninist. Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej becomes first secretary of the Rumanian working Party (fine in 1955).
- February 25th: “Blow of Prague” in Czechoslovakia.
- March 18th: The Bulgaria sign a treaty of friendship and assistance with the USSR.
- March 28th: The democratic Face led by the Communists gains the Rumanian near total of the seats to the elections. Petru Groza directs the government (fine in 1952). Proclamation of the Popular republic of Romania.
- April 13rd: The Romania adopts a new Constitution, on the model of that of the USSR.
- June 12th: Under constraint, the Parti social democrat Hungarian is combined with the Communist party, constituting the Parti of the Hungarian workers.
- June 28th: Rupture between Tito and Stalin (Yugoslav Schism). To a meeting in Bucharest, that Yugoslavia boycotts, the Kominform condemns Tito and the Yugoslav Communist party, shown major deviations compared to the orthodoxe communist line. It excludes the Yugoslavia from Cominform. A congress of the Yugoslav party reaffirms its honesty towards the USSR, but re-elects Tito which Soviet hoped to reverse.
- June: Nationalization of industries, the mines, the banks, the insurances and transport in Romania. 90% of the industrial production pass to the State. A Commission of planning of State is setting-up in July.
- August 4th: Decree separating the Churches from the State in Romania.
- August 18th: Conclude conference of Belgrade on the the Danube in which the Western countries and the countries under Soviet influence take part. The Soviet project was adopted, which holds for the Coastal states the control of navigation.
- August 25th: World congress of the intellectuals for peace, with Wroclaw by the world Movement of the partisans of peace. Among the members of the delegation of the PCF appear Picasso, Fernand Leger, Paul Éluard and Irene Joliot-Curie.
- August 31st: Died with Moscow of the politician Andrei Jdanov.
- September 5th: Dismissal by the Central committee and exclusion of Wladislaw Gomulka, general secretary of the Communist party in Poland (replaced by Boleslaw Beirut). As from September, the Polish Communist party purging its rows of thousands of Communists known as national.
- October 1st: The patriarch proclaims the reunification of the Rumanian orthodoxe Église.
- November 3rd: A trade agreement between the Hungary and the Soviet Union envisages the Soviet raw material deliveries against agricultural produce and industrial Hungarian.
- December 14th, Poland: Socialists and Communists amalgamate to form the working Parti unified Polish (POUP), dominated by the judéo-Stalinist Communists.
- December 27th: Arrest of the cardinal Jozsef Mindszenty, Catholic primacy of Hungary.
- the ecclesiastical schools are nationalized, the removed convents and in the tread of the countryside which precedes the lawsuit by the Mindszenty cardinal, 225 catholic priests and monks are stopped and condemned.
Purgings in the USSR (1948-1952).
- 20 - February 27th: Blow of Prague , the Czechoslovakia rocks in the communist camp with the support of the Soviet diplomacy.
- Following the conflict within the Czech government in connection with the systematic appointment of Communists within the administration and the police force, 12 noncommunist ministers resign of the government to cause a confrontation, but the attempt fails (February 20th). The Communists are always in majority with the government and the control which they exert on the working police force and militia makes it possible them to organize street demonstrations. The Prime Minister Klement Gottwald and the Minister of Interior Department Vaclav Noek mobilize the police force and proclaim the state of siege to Prague (February 23rd). Turning over the situation, they require the resignation of the ministers not-Communists to form a new government. The president Edvard Beneš, patient and frightened risks of civil war, capitulates and names a new government dominated by the Communists. Many leaders of the opposition are exiled, like Ripka.
- March 10th: Jan Masaryk, ex-minister of the Foreign affairs, commits suicide (the circumstances of its death are discussed).
- March 11th: The Parliament votes the nationalization of the factories of more than 50 paid and of the agricultural properties of more than 50 ha. In April, all industry is nationalized.
- May 30th: Elections on single lists give 86% of voice to the Communist party.
- June 7th: Edvard Beneš resigns. He dies the September 3rd.
- June 14th: Klement Gottwald is elected president of the Republic (fine in 1953).
- In June, Czechoslovakia becomes a “People's democracy” satellite of the USSR. Agriculture is collectivized, the churches attacked and subjected to restrictions, education and the cultural life and intellectual reorganized according to the Marxist principles. The lawsuit of the war criminals is the occasion of an amalgam between fascists and anticommunists, who are imprisoned or sent in camps of work. Between 1949 and 1954 more 40 000 people will be considered for attack to the state security and 178 carried out. The Church, the Jews, the intellectuals and the former chiefs of the middle-class parties will be the first concerned.
- January 1st:
- Creation of the the Benelux countries, customs union enters the Belgium, the Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
- Nationalization of the railroads to the the United Kingdom.
- January, Portugal: Dissolution of the MUD ( Movimento de Unidade Democrática ), organization opposed to the mode of Salazar.
- March 1st: Reopening of the border enters the Spain and the France.
- March 17th: Treaty of Brussels: Western military alliance (France, the United Kingdom, the Benelux countries).
- April 1st: Beginning of the distribution of the American assistance within the framework of the Marshall plan.
- April 16th: Foundation in Paris of the OEEC (European of economic cooperation, future Organization OECD) by 16 country and the zones of allied occupations in Germany and with Trieste. It will have to distribute the American assistance provided under the Marshall plan.
- May 7th: Opening of the Congress of $the Hague or “Congress of Europe” for linked Europe, under the presidency of Winston Churchill which will lead to the creation of the the Council of Europe (May 9th 1949).
- July 5th, the United Kingdom: Application of the law on the National service of health (Aneurin Bevan). Nationalization of the hospital sector which is integrated in a great “national service of health” which exempts all the medical care free.
- August 20th: Strategic defeat of the communist guerilla Greek in the Grammos mounts.
- August 23rd: Foundation with Amsterdam of the World Council of Churches which gathers the representatives of the Churches Protestant, Anglicans and orthodoxe.
- August 25th, Spain: Interview between Free and two wire of the late king Alphonse XIII, Jacques de Bourbon (1908 - 1975), “duke of Anjou and Segovia” and Jean de Bourbon (1913 - 1993), “count de Barcelone” (one of the applicants to the throne) on board the Yacht Azor , wet with broad of Saint-Sebastien. It is agreed that the young person Juan Carlos de Bourbon (born in 1938, wire of Jean de Bourbon) and his/her Alphonse brother (born in 1941) would continue their studies in Spain. Jacques de Bourbon asks that it is the same for its two sons, for Alphonse (born in 1936) and Gonzalve (born in 1937), but Franco refuses.
- September 4th: Advent of the queen Juliana of the Netherlands, girl of the queen Wilhelmine who has just abdicated.
- September 8th: Dedication of the abbey news of the Abbey of Orval, in the Belgian province of the Luxembourg.
- October 16th: End of the civil war in Greece.
- October 26th: The signatories of the treaty of Brussels approve the principle of an Atlantic Alliance.
Law on nationality, granting without restriction the right of residence on the “citizens of the the United Kingdom and the colonies”.
- 392 million £ of subsidies is given to the British farmers.
- Launching of the Marshall plan: the British economy receives 1,9 billion $ during the first two years. The industrial production accounts for 30% with the top of its level of pre-war period, exports begin again, reducing the balance of payments deficit to 120 million £ in 1948 (- 80%).
- February 20th: Free-anglo-American agreement stipulating that all the production of the Saar of coal will return to France.
- March 20th: In dissension with the measurements taken in the Western zones of occupation, the Soviet delegate leaves the Council of interallied control set up by the Conférence of Potsdam and which ceases from now on functioning.
- April 1st: Removal of the customs duties and the visas between France and the the Saar.
- April 5th: An American military tribunal discharges Alfred Krupp and 11 other industrialists German, of the charge of war crimes.
- June 4th: Publication of the agreements of London fixing the future political statute of the FR of Germany. A constituent Assembly and a federal government must be set up.
- June 20th: In West Germany, reforms monetary (replacement of the Reichsmark by the Deutsche Mark).
- June 24th: Beginning of the Blockade of West Berlin by the Soviets following the monetary reform (end the May 12th 1949).
- June 28th: Installation by the Westerners of an airlift with West Berlin to circumvent the blockade.
- October 19th: An free-anglo-American agreement puts an end to the dismantling German industry.
- December 5th: Victoire of the social democrats to the municipal elections in the three Western sectors of Berlin. The Communists called with the boycotting.
See also: 1948 in France
January 1st: Promulgation of the Constitution. The president of the Republic is elected for seven years by the Parliament. The capacity is with the hands of the Council of Ministers and the two Rooms (Housees of Commons and Sénat) elected by the universal direct suffrage. The president of the Council is appointed by the president of the responsible Republic in front of the Rooms. A Constitutional court and a Superior council of the magistrature are envisaged. The Christian Democrat insists that the Accords of Lateran of 1929 are included in the Constitution.
- 5 - January 10th: Life congress of the Italian Communist party with Milan.
- March 20th: Tripartite declaration (France, Great Britain, the United States) on the problem of Trieste. The three powers require that the free territory be returned to Italy.
- April 18th: Victoire of the Christian Democrat (48,5% of the voices) to the parliamentary elections. The democratic Popular front of NCV and PSI joins together obtains 31%. Alcide De Gasperi form a coalition government with the liberal social democrats (PSLI), and the republican . It practices a center policy, open to the social progress but careful.
- May 11th: Luigi Einaudi is elected president of the Republic.
- June: Extraordinary congress of the Italian Socialist party with Genoa.
- June 29th: Italy adheres to the Marshall plan.
- July 14th: An attack against the communist leader Palmiro Togliatti gives place to big demonstrations in all the country.
- July: The government abolishes the rationing of milk and the meat.
- Creation of the monarchical national party by Alfredo Covelli and Achilles Lauro, established well in the the Mezzogiorno.
the economy of Italy suffered from the war. Industry, after years of protectionism, is obsolete. The tiny companies its (90% employ less than five people), two million people are with unemployment. Italy receives an important help of the United States (Marshall plan) what enables him to support the lira, to develop the iron and steel industry and the cement factories and to attenuate the deprivations of the post-war period. The stability of the currency gives confidence to the Italians who invest in the national development. The enormous resources of cheap labor of the South move in mass towards industries of North. Many these workers are craftsmen, who adapt easily to the industrial techniques. The economic growth reaches 6% in an eclectic economic system per annum, or cohabits the liberalism and the intervention of the State, without plan of harmonization. IRI, enormous holding of State established during the Fascisme remains in place, controlling the air lines (Alitalia), the car (Alfa Romeo), naval constructions, BTP, the machine tools, the banks and institutions of credit.
- February: Riots with Accra and in other cities of the Coast of Gold. The nationalist leader Kwame Nkrumah is imprisoned (1948-1950). The British government is constrained to start constitutional reforms (1950).
- 4 - April 11th: Elections faked in Algeria.
- April 10th: Creation of UPC (Union of the Cameronian populations). It militates for the acquisition of immediate independence and the reunification of both Cameroun and maintains the privileged relations with the PCF. Rising of Ruben Um Nyobe for the independence of the Cameroun.
- June 4th: The come to power of the nationalist party in South Africa multiplies measurements of Apartheid (separate development of the races). Daniel François Malan is named Prime Minister (fine in 1954). The doctor Hendrik Verwoerd (1901-1966) will be the project superintendent of the policy which must transform South Africa into a white State.
- July 22nd: Lawsuit with Tananarive of the leaders of MDRM. Six marked capital punishments its (October 4th), of which those of the deputies Raherivelo Ramamonjy and Justin Bezara. The deputy Rabamananjara is condemned to the forced labors with perpetuity. Condemned to death will be pardoned on July 15th, 1949.
- July: Agreement between the Patriarchate Copte and the Ethiopian Church: the chief of the Church, Abouna, traditionally an Egyptian named by the patriarch, will be from now on an Abyssinian, always approved by the Patriarchate, which receives the capacity to devote bishops.
- September 27th: Léopold Sédar Senghor resigns of SFIO.
- First mention of the parliamentary group of Independent of Overseas (IOM), gathering men of different horizons like Sédar Senghor (Senegal), Jean Aubame (Gabon) and Nazi Profit (the Upper Volta), of the Algerians, the inhabitants of the French Coast of Somalis, originating in the other overseas territories (New Caledonia, India) as well as elected officials of the French areas. They use the parliamentary operation to obtain economic, social projections then political in the French colonies.
- November 1st: Foundation of the therapeutic Community of Bredbo, on the initiative of the prophet and healer Albert Atcho. It will develop in the Années 1960 into low Ivory Coast and with the Ghana.
New Constitution with the Nigeria.
- the Sudan anglo-Egyptian obtains representative institutions having to lead to autonomy.
- Riots and strikes in AOF and Ivory Coast.
- Riots and strikes with Zanzibar. Riots and strikes with the Buganda.
- Riots and strikes with Bulawayo in Southern Rhodesia.
- Revolt with the Mozambique against the sale of the workers autochtones to the South Africa. Repression.
- Launching with Luanda of the movement Vamos Descobrir Angola .
- Creation of the Colonial Development Corporation (CDC).
- the Belgium supports with the Belgian Congo the creation of a class “of evolved/moved” and proceeds to a certain “indigenisation” of the administration.
- Foundation of the University of Ibadan to the Nigeria.
- a tropical Cyclone devastates the Meeting.
- January 21st: Adoption of the fleurdelized like official flag of Quebec by Maurice Duplessis.
- July 22nd: Newfoundland becomes it tenth Canadian province at the conclusion of a referendum (the second in less than two months) with very a small majority (officially on April 1st 1949).
- July 28th: The National union of Maurice Duplessis gains the general elections with the Quebec.
- August 9th: Publication of the total Refusal, proclamation which denounces artistic and moral conformism in Quebec.
- November 15th: After the withdrawal of the Prime Minister Mackenzie King, Louis St-Laurent succeeds to him until in 1957.
the United States
- January 12th: The Supreme court proclaims that Blancs and Blacks are equal in front of teaching.
- February 25th: Martin Luther King is named Pasteur Baptist.
- March 31st: The American Congress approves the Marshall plan of assistance in Europe.
- May 3rd: The Supreme court of the United States invalidates the laws, contracts and other texts prohibiting the Blacks from being landowners.
- June 11th: The Senate adopts the “resolution Vandenberg” which makes it possible the government to conclude from military alliances in times of peace. It marks a big step in the integration of the United States in the Western defense system.
- November 2nd: Re-election of Harry S. Truman (D) like chair of the United States with 49,6% of the voices against Thomas E. Dewey (R) 45,1%. It adopts a vast program of social reforms, the Fair Deal : improvement of the Social security, legislation advanced on the civic rights, minimum wage increase, programs social housing, health insurance, abolition of the Loi Taft-Hartley, reinforcement and modernization of supports farm prices, subsidies with the instruction, etc
Light recession (1948-1949).
- 750 000 television receivers in the United States.
- February 15th: Rómulo Gallegos, elected president of the Republic of the Venezuela (end in November).
- March 30th - May 2nd: IXe inter-American conference held with Bogotá.
- April: The confrontations between liberals and conservatives in Colombia open one period called Violencia , which makes more 150 000 dead (1% of the population) between 1948 and 1953. The liberal Gaitán involves his troops of one opposition at the preserving State with an opposition at the very short State. The April 9th, it is assassinated in Bogotá, which causes fatal riots during three days ( Bogotazo ).
- April 30th: Creation with Bogotá of OAS (OAS): Organization of the American States charged with maintains peace and peaceful resolution of the disagreements between the countries of the continent. Signature of an American treaty of Pacific regulation (pact of Bogota), of an economic convention, two conventions on the political and civic rights of the woman and of 46 resolutions, of which that of “Safeguarding and defense of the democracy in America” which states clearly that Communism is incompatible with the democracy.
- July: Encouraged by the United States, the Parliament Chile votes of it a law for the permanent defense of the democracy which enables him to make the Communist party illegal.
- September 1st: Gallo Plaza Lasso, president of the Ecuador. Democracy until 1960.
- October 29th: Military coup d'etat to the Peru, reaction of the rich person growers of cane with sugar against the policy of reorientation of the development model installation by Prado (1939-1945) and Bustamente (1945-1948). Dictatorship of the general Manual A. Odría, which hastens to give the economy of the country on the rails of mono-export. It puts a term at the democratic opening. The American revolutionary popular Alliance is put out the law, its leader Haya of Torre takes refuge with the embassy of Colombia for five years.
- November 24th: Rómulo Gallegos is relieved by the soldiers in Venezuela. Dictatorship of Marcos Pérez Jiménez.
- December 15th: Coup d'etat to the El Salvador. Dictatorship of Mr. de Córdova.
the Partido Comunista Brasileiro is put out the laws by Eurisco Dutra.
- Creation of the Economic commission for the Latin America and the Caribbean (CEPAL) whose Raúl Prebisch becomes the general secretary. She recommends the substitute industrialization of imports.
- February: Civil war in Costa Rica. The elections oppose Calderón, constant by the Communists and the Church, and the opposition which gathers the oligarchy of the coffee planters ( cafetaleros ) and social democracy around three poles (anticommunism, anticalderonism and defense of the clearness of the vote). The candidate of the opposition, the Ulate journalist, is declared victorious. He is shown of fraud and the Congress cancels the elections. The partisans of Ulate take the weapons under the direction of Jose Figueres Ferrer against the Communists and the army. Winner one month later, Figueres signs the pact of the Embassy of Mexico which puts an end to the confrontations, then the pact of Ochomogo with the Communist leader Manuel Mora. The Communists agree to deposit the weapons if the social guarantees are preserved. Figueres answers that he intends to extend these guarantees.
- on May 1st is signed between the winners the Ulate-Figueres pact for a return to the normal. A junta directed by Figueres will control for 18 months, will plan the accession of Ulate to the capacity and will organize elections for a constituent Assembly.
- June 19th: Figueres announces the nationalization of all the banking system. The Communist party ( Vanguardia Popular ) and the party of Calderón ( Partido republicano nacional ) are seen prohibiting their participation in the elections of December.
- the Costa Rica is the first country has to abolish the army.
Asia & Indian world
- June 5th: Signature between the French authorities and the former emperor Bảo Đại of an agreement recognizing the unit (abandonment of the Cochinchine) and the independence of the Vietnam within the framework of the French Union (treated Bay of Along).
China: The Communists take the top after having overcome the best nationalist troops in Mandchourie (offensive of the January 5th and the September 12th). They take the capital of Mandchourie the October 20th. Decisive battle around Xuzhou of November 1948 to January 1949, the disadvantage of the nationalists. The nationalist forces are concentrated for the defense of Beijing the November 22nd. For 12 days the state of siege has been founded with Shanghai. The December 18th, the communist troops encircle Beijing.
- January 30th: Gandhi is assassinated by a Brahman extremist with Delhi. A million people witness the following day her cremation.
- February 4th: Independence of the island of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) within the the Commonwealth.
- September 11th: Died with Karachi of the Pakistani politician Ali Jinnah.
the Parti the Congress is transformed into a true political party while prohibiting its members from belonging at the same time to another political training. The Congress Socialist Party becomes the Socialist party then. The Congress affirms a center identity, although in its center a left wing cohabits which takes as a starting point Nehru and a right wing directed by the sardar (commander) Vallabhai Patel (1875-1950), which occupies in the Nehru government the wallets of Minister of Interior Department and vice Prime Minister. The Congress dominates the other parties. Only the Communist party has a certain influence.
- the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel works with integration in the Indian Union of the 554 princely States. The 216 smallest principalities are quickly integrated into the close provinces. When whole areas consist of princely States, the authority is entrusted to a prince elected by his pars, the rajpramukh which is the equivalent of a governor of province. Other States, for various reasons, are managed directly by the central capacity. Three larger, the Hyderabad, the Mysore and the Cachemire remain like distinct entities.
- to rebuild the economy of the India disaster victim after the Second world war, Nehru supports the installation of an mixed economy based on the development of heavy industry and the infrastructures. The planning and the protection of the interior market are two different of its priorities. A regulation ensures the majority control of the private companies the Indian capital.
- Launching of “Community rural development” in the Uttar Pradesh, before being integrated in the foreground. In each village, a farmer remunerated by the administration must put himself at the service of the village and incite the other villagers to voluntarily implement local projects of development. The results are weak.
- January 4th: Official independence of the Burma, which refuses to belong to the the Commonwealth. U Naked (Buddhist and uncommitted), becomes the Prime Minister for the Burmese Union. Beginning of the exodus of the inhabitants of Indian origin. The ethnicities of the Shan S and the Karen S are included in the “federal” republic and Aung San obtains to one crushing majority of seats to the constitutional Parliament.
- March 28th: Beginning of the insurrection started by the Communists of the Burmese White Flag, with 25 000 partisans, armed with disparate equipment. The White Drapeau establishes its HQ with Pyinmana (current Naypyidaw) and a military Face with Pégu where it begins ambushes.
- In December, the Burmese army drives out the communist guerilla of Pyinmana. 3 000 partisans go, which carries a decisive blow to the guerilla.
- the Malayan Union takes the name of federation of Malaysia.
- communist Insurrections in Malaysia. The guerilla spreads himself in the campaigns (1948-1960). The Malayan Communist party (MCP), which had played a crucial role in resistance against the Japanese during the Second world war begins the armed struggle. The MCP wants independence immediate. Operating starting from the jungle, 4 000 men of the maquis, in Chinese majority, badger the British. The state of emergency is proclaimed in July. It will take eleven years for the militiamans, trained by the Templer general, and with the quotas British, Australian, New Zealand, to reduce the guerilla faintness.
- January 17th: Armistice signed aboard American ship Renville in roads of Surabaya. The territory of the Republic indonésienne is limited to the highlands of Sumatra and to the central part of Java. A Dutch blockade of the republican territories causes enormous economic problems and does nothing but increase the popular discontent with regard to the policy with the Republic, which negotiates with the Dutchmen instead of attacking them militarily. The Dutchmen multiply the autonomous States in the “external possessions”.
- September 18th: Communist rising missed against the leaders of the Republic with Surakarta and Madiun. The revolt is repressed.
- December 19th: Second police operation. Being unaware of the lines of cease-fire of UNO, the Dutchmen attack the Republic again, capturing its capital Yogyakarta, stopping and exiling the majority of its top-ranking executives, including Soekarno and Hatta. In spite of the success of the Dutch attack, the republican resistance of the guerilla and the pressure of the international community (Ceylon, India, Pakistan) force the Dutchmen to compromise.
- February 16th: Proclamation of the Popular republic of North Korea.
- May 10th: Election of an assembly and a president (Syngman Rhee) in South Korea.
- August 15th: Proclamation of the Republic of Korea. End of the American occupation of the South Korea.
- August 25th: Elections in North Korea.
- September 10th: Creation of the democratic Popular republic of Korea (the North Korea) marking the scission with the South Korea involving tensions leading to the War of Korea. Kim Il Sung becomes the Prime Minister about it. Seoul is indicated like capital and the party recognizes the South only like one lost province.
- In December, evacuation by the Red Army with the north of Korea. Political changes and economic important are carried out by the Communist party. Already before the foundation of the RPDC, the elements moderate had been eliminated. The Churches, the opposition parties are prohibited or absorptive, the program of the party is defined: reunification, collectivization of the grounds and nationalization of industries.
- September 24th: Soichiro Honda creates the company Honda Motors.
- Creation of the Zengakuren, national union of associations of students.
- New constitution
- Law on the Eugénisme allowing in fact many women of having recourse to the abortion.
- Great strike of the railroads Japanese. MacArthur, initially favorable to the rebirth of the Japanese Communist party, is turned against him.
- Six death sentences are pronounced by the international military tribunal of Tokyo against the political leader and soldiers, among whom old the Prime Ministers Hirota Kôki and Hideki Tojo (carried out the December 23rd). The emperor Hiro-Hito is discharged the November 12th.
Oceania & peaceful
- January 15th: An Iraqi delegation led by Salih Jabr goes to London and sign the treaty of Portsmouth by which the British commit themselves evacuating their military bases in exchange of the continuation of the military cooperation with the Iraq in the event of war. The treaty east accommodated with hostility in Iraq and involves violent demonstrations. The regent gives up the treaty and returns the Jabr government to the profit of Nuri His' id the March 3rd.
January - February, Palestine: The main part of the Arab forces are concentrated in the area of Jerusalem under the command of a nephew of the Mufti, Abdel Kader Al-Husseini. In January, a force auxiliary of volunteers, depend on the LEA and directed by Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, gives an opinion in the north of Palestine. There is no coordination with the forces of the mufti. On the whole, the Arab forces represent 8000 combatants. The Arab strategy consists in breaking the communications between Jewish establishments. The forces Zionists are two to three times more, equipped better and more organized (Irgoun, group Stern, Jewish Légion, Haganah). Their strategy is defensive while waiting for the British withdrawal planned for the May 15th. As of April, the Zionists take the advantage in the main cities. The Arab populations flee the zones of combat, and the intervention of the Arab countries appears inevitable.
April-May: To ensure the safety of the zones of Jewish establishments, the Zionists conceive the Plan Daleth which recommends eliminations of the forces present in the Jewish part and in the zones which could be annexed: Haïfa is taken the April 22nd after a massive bombardment of the city by the Haganah which involved the exodus of the population organized by the British. Beginning May, he remains only 4000 Arabic against 70 000. Cleaning of the road Tel-Aviv - Jerusalem by the destruction of the Arab villages.
- April 26th: The Jewish Agency form a provisional government in Palestine which David Ben Gourion directs while violence develops between militants Zionists and Arabic.
- May 13rd: Catch of Jaffa after an attack violate Irgoun stopped by the British. Massacre Arabs. At the time of rendering, there remain only 5000 Arabs on 80 000. Galileo attacks to reinforce the positions vis-a-vis the future intervention of the Arab countries. Escape of the Arab civilians towards the Syria and the Lebanon.
- May 14th: Proclamation of the State of Israel by David Ben Gourion the day when expires the British mandate.
- May 15th: Beginning of the first Israeli-Arab war (fine the June 20th 1949). Israel is invaded by the armies Egyptian, Iraqi, Lebanese, Syrian and transjordaniennes of the Arab Ligue (24 000 men against 30 000 Israelis).
- the king Abdallah Ier of Jordan is on the point of sending the Arab legion in the West Bank. Its expansionist aimings are criticized by the other Arab countries.
- In front of the popular pressure and the arrival of the first Palestinian refugees, Farouk Ier of Egypt gives the order to enter in war against Israel without referring about it to the government and in spite of the hostility of the soldiers. The army is badly prepared and in spite of some successes in the the Sinai (Nasser), it is beaten. Attacked on its territory, it is saved only by the British threat of intervention in the event of not-evacuation of the Sinai.
- May 17th: The new State of Israel is recognized of swears by the Soviet Union and de facto by the the United States. Under the American pressure, an embargo on the sales of weapons is implemented, but the USSR and Czechoslovakia deliver weapons to Israel.
- May 16th: The Syrian army inserts the Israeli lines in Galileo and is contained only the May 20th. In the South, the Egyptian army quickly occupies the area of Gaza, the Negev and reached the the West Bank. The progression towards Tel-Aviv is slowed down by a strong Jewish resistance. The Iraqi army gives an opinion in the north of Jerusalem and threatens the littoral.
- May 19th: The Arab legion intervenes with Jerusalem to protect the Arab populations. After violent one engagements, the Israelis fold up themselves.
- May 26th: Creation of Tsava Haganah Israel (Tsahal): “the army of defense of Israel” (official birth the May 31st).
- May 30th: Whereas the Israeli territory is cut into two by the Arab armies, the count Folke Bernadotte is sent in Israel like mediator.
June 10th: The Syrians operate a new progression.
- the Arabs and the Israelis accept a cease-fire the June 9th, manpower the June 11th. This truce reinforces the Israeli positions with the arrival of the Soviet weapons (60 000 men, with an aviation against 35 000 Arabic). Bernadotte proposes a plan of division of Palestine (the West Bank annexed to the Jordan, economic union between Israel and Jordan, Arab Jerusalem and Haïfa free port). Its proposal is refused by the two parts.
- July 8th: Rupture of the truce by the Arab armies. The “ Guerre the Ten day old” sees the success of Tsahal (national army Israeli) in the area of Jerusalem and in Galileo. The Arab States accept a cease-fire the July 18th.
- In August, Bernadotte proposes a new plan (internalisation of Jerusalem, return of the refugees and exchanges of territories supporting the formation of blocks more homogeneous), supported by the United States and Great Britain but rejected by the Arab countries and Israel which refuses to leave the Negev with the Arabs.
- September 17th, with Jerusalem, the Swedish Count Folke Bernadotte, mediator of UNO is assassinated by a group of dissenting Zionists of the faction Lehi.
- September 23rd: Formation with Gaza of an Arab government by the Mufti.
- October 15th: Rupture of the cease-fire. The Israeli army launches an offensive against the Egyptian army which will end in the occupation of the Negev.
- October 27th: Iraqi offensive in the area of Nablus.
- February 1st: Abdallah organizes a congress of notable Palestinian with Jericho which votes the union between the Jordan and the the West Bank.
- December: The chief of the Egyptian government decides to dissolve the Muslim brothers with the end of the year. He is assassinated the December 28th.
One estimates between 600 000 and 760 000 the number of Palestinian refugees over the period 1948 - 1949. Mid-May, 2 with 300 000 Palestinians flee the engagements, mainly in the littoral zones. During the Ten day old War (July), 100 000 others will be clearly expelled by the Israeli army (area of Jerusalem and Galileo Western, annexed by Israel). Following the offensive of October against Egypt, 130 000 Arab civilians are expelled, mainly towards the Gaza Strip. The conquest of the Galileo involves the exodus towards the Lebanon of a few tens of thousands of people. Israel refuses the return of the refugees on his territory. The December 11th, UNO adopts the resolution 194 (III) which says that very taken refuge the right has to turn over at his place and that a compensatory allowance must be to pay by Israel with those which refuse to return. The Commission of conciliation charged to apply the resolution runs up against the refusal of Israel. The Commission proposes the annexation by Israel of the Gaza Strip to rehouse the refugees there. Israel and Egypt refuses. With Lausanne, Israel accepts the return of 100 000 refugees, the Syria accepts 300  of it; 000 and the Iraq 350 000.
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