This page relates to the year 1938 Gregorian Calendrier.
- the Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to the International Office Nansen for the refugees.
- February 25th: Lord Halifax replaces Anthony Eden with the Foreign Office.
- 2 - March 13rd: Third large “Lawsuit of Moscow”. Nikolaï Boukharine, Alexeï Rykov and Khristian Rakovski is among the defendants. March 13rd, eighteen marked is condemned to died and is carried out at once.
- April 1st: Marketing of the instant coffee “Nescafe” developped at the point in 1937 by the researchers of the company Nestlé, in Switzerland.
- May 14th: The Suisse obtains the neutral statute of country.
- May 23rd: Great Britain ensures France of sound supports in the event of German attack but refuses to support the Czechoslovakia with the risk to engage a world war.
- July: Declaration of Copenhagen in (neutrality of the the Benelux countries, the Scandinavia and the Baltic States).
- July 16th: Failure of the International Conference on the refugees. The States refuse to facilitate the immigration of the Juifs of Germany.
- In September, creation of Office of the High Commission to the Refugees (HCR) by the Company of the Nations.
- September 27th: Launching of the steamer Queen Elisabeth .
- September 29th: Agreements of Munich.
- October 3rd: Churchill pronounces a violent one indictment against the Accords of Munich.
- November 24th, Soviet Union: Lavrenti Beria takes the head of NKVD.
the United Kingdom: The real wages increased by 12,9% since 1920. The incomes less unequally appear distributed at the end of the Thirties, but the concentration of fortune is always uneven (2% of the population have a fortune of more than 5000£, 75% of the population has only 5% of the national wealth). England ensures 19% of the world commerce of manufactured goods. The total industrial production is higher of 43% than that of 1932 (11% of the world industrial production). It is particularly constant by its most innovative branches (car, aeronautics, electric household appliances, synthetic fibers). 400 000 employees work in aeronautics.
Germany - Austria
- January 20th: Dissolutions of the organizations of catholic Youths of Bavaria.
- January 26th: The Gestapo is charged by Himmler with interning “refractories with work”.
- January: Decree allowing the Gestapo to send in camps all those of which the tendencies threaten the people and the State.
- February 4th: Adolf Hitler alters the military high-command and takes the command of the Reichswehr.
- February 12th: Hitler launches an ultimatum to the Austrian chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg so that the national-Socialists find their freedom and so that their chief is named Minister of Interior Department. The two governments will have to consult each other on any question of foreign politics.
- February 15th: after having required in vain supports it Italy, France and Great Britain, the Austria accepts the German conditions.
- March 3rd: Kurt von Schuschnigg invites the Austrians to vote at the time of a referendum for the independence of the country.
- March 10th: Hitler orders the mobilizations of the German troops of Bavaria.
- March 11th: The Austrian chancellor Von Schuschnigg resigns, Arthur Seyß-Inquart succeeds to him.
- Night of the 11 to the March 12th: The German troops invade the Austria.
- March 13rd: Anschluss . Hitler proclaims the annexation of the Austria in Germany. Austria is reduced to the condition of simple “walk” of Reich, Ostmark, is managed by Statthalter, governor dependant on Berlin - the reactions of France and the United Kingdom are limited to a verbal protest.
- April 10th: A plebiscite legalizes the fastening of Austria in Reich Nazi with 99,75% of the voices of the Germans and the Austrians. The opponents and the Juifs are immediately tracked and interned.
- May 11th: Construction of the Rhine-Danube channel.
- May 13rd: Anschluss (annexation) official of Austria by Germany.
- May 26th: The chancellor Adolf Hitler inaugurates the factory Volkswagen which produces the new car of the people, which will have a world success the “Coccinelle”.
- May 28th: Hitler orders the construction of the Ligne Siegfried along the Western border of Germany.
- June 1st: Heinrich Himmler orders in the “Kripo” rafler the asocial : beggars, Gypsies, vagrants, procurers, male prostitutes.
- 29 - September 30th: Agreements of Munich.
- In October, Construction of the camp of Ravensbrück.
- October 14th: Hermann Göring announces the aryanisation of the Jewish goods and the internment of those in camp of work.
- November 7th: Assassination of the German adviser of embassy in France von Rath by a Polish Jew. Goebbels takes this pretext to start the night of Crystal.
- November 9th: Night of crystal. The near total of the synagogs and more than 7000 Jewish trade are destroyed.
- November 12th: The Jews are constrained to pay a billion Reichmarks as compensation for the assassination for von Rath, to support the repair of the damage and are excluded from any marketing activity, the liberal professions, the administrative offices and industrial and are expropriés.
- December 3rd: Himmler takes new measures against the Jews which do not have any more access to the public places apart from certain hours.
- December 8th: Decree of Heinrich Himmler on the repression of the “plague gypsy”.
- December 13rd: Construction of the Concentration camp of Neuengamme close to Hamburg by a Kommando of Sachsenhausen.
the number of unemployed in Germany falls to 200 000.
Central Europe & Balkans
- January 18th: Pretexting disorders, the king Carol II of Romania abolishes the parliamentary mode and establishes a royal dictatorship.
- February 10th: The patriarch Miron Cristea form a government of national union in Romania (end in 1939).
- February 11th: The Constitution is suspended and the parties are prohibited in Romania.
- February 20th:
- the king Carol II of Romania grants a new Constitution which reinforces the royal prerogatives and replaces the Parties by a “Face of national rebirth”.
- Hitler threatens the Czechoslovakia if the Sudètes are not attached to Reich.
- March 5th: The President of the tchécosclovaque Council Hodja proclaims that the borders of the Czechoslovakia are intangible.
- 12 - March 13rd: After the Anschluss, the Hungary approaches the Germany in the hope of the revision of the Traité of Trianon thanks to its support. The government Kálmán Darányi promulgates the first antijuive law in May.
- April 21st: Green plan, developped at the point by Wilhelm Keitel and Hitler which envisages the attack of the Czechoslovakia.
- May 1st: The German party of the Sudètes causes riots in Czechoslovakia.
- May 12th: Maxime Litvinov declares with Georges Bonnet which the Soviet Union is ready to help the Czechoslovakia if the Poland or the Romania opens their borders to him.
- May 14th: Government Béla Imrédy in Hungary (fine in 1939). It tries without success to be released from the pressure of Reich.
- May 21st: Czechoslovakian partial mobilization.
- May 23rd: The Great Britain ensures France of sound supports in the event of German attack but refuses to support Czechoslovakia with the risk to engage a world war.
- July 16th: The general Ludwig Beck request with the commander-in-chief of the Army Walther von Brauchitsch to try to dissuade Hitler to attack the Czechoslovakia.
- July 18th: Germany informs Great Britain which it is decided to finish with the question of Sudètes.
- July 31st: The Bulgaria sign a non-aggression pact with the Greece and other powers of the British Empire.
- August 3rd: A special correspondent of Great Britain arrives at Prague in the capacity as mediator.
- August 10th: After the failure of the attempt at Beck, the military chiefs join in Hitler.
- August: At the time of an interview with Hitler with Kiel, the Hungarian dictator Miklós Horthy refuses to join an attack against the Czechoslovakia.
- September 1st: The party German of Sudètes and the British mediator disallow the proposals of the Czechoslovakian government.
- September 13rd: The state of siege is proclaimed in Sudètes. The British mediator decides in favor of the fastening of Sudètes in Reich.
- September 15th:
- September 16th: The Czechoslovakian government dissolves the German party of the sudètes and launches a warrant for arrest against the leader pro-Nazi Konrad Henlein.
- 22 - September 24th: Meet Hitler-Chamberlain with Godesberg.
- September 23rd: General mobilization in Czechoslovakia.
- September 27th: Hitler sends an ultimatum to Prague, claiming the annexation of the provinces where one speaks German. He affirms that once solved the question of Sudètes, Czechoslovakia will not interest it any more.
Of the 28 to the September 30th: Conference of Munich (Agreements of Munich) joining together Germany, Italy, France, and the the United Kingdom at the request of Chamberlain - the ultimatum of September 27th is accepted, officializing the abandonment of the Sudètes (Czechoslovakia) in Hitler - France betrays Czechoslovakia with which it had made from the agreements to guarantee its borders. Mussolini gives its support to Hitler, but hopes to be able to preserve some time European balance. Czechoslovakian the Prime Minister Syrovy, who had not been even invited, is placed in front of the accomplished fact.
- Of the 29 to the September 30th: Hitler seizes immediately the provinces of the Sudètes, and the political opponents are tracked. Czechoslovakia loses a territory of 30 000 km ², populated of 3 million inhabitants and its fortifications, its defenses natural as well as important economic resources.
- September 30th: The Poland takes Teschen.
- November 2nd: The Hungary recovers Slovak territories.
- November 5th: Resignation of the president de Tchécoslovaquie Edvard Beneš and of the Syrovy Prime Minister. A new right government is formed by the president Emil Hácha. That marks the end of the First Czechoslovakian Republic.
- November 6th: Autonomous Slovak government of Joseph Tiso. Self government of Ruthénie of Andre Brody.
- November 14th: Failure of the negotiations on the new layout of the borders between the Hungary and the Czechoslovakia.
- November 30th, Romania: The chief of the Guard of iron, Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, is imprisoned and carried out. The continuous party its terrorist activity.
- November: Creation of the Volksbund in Hungary, league Nazi attracting the German minority.
- February 1st: Government of Rudolf Béran in Czechoslovakia.
In one month, the Czechoslovakia lost 4,8 million inhabitants, of which a quarter are Czech and Slovak, a third of its territories and a quarter of its industrial potential.
- Romania: the share of industry in the national revenue accounts for 30% compared with 38% for agriculture. 70% of the metal production are intended at the Rumanian State (armament).
- National revenue of 94 dollars per capita in Romania, of 76 in Greece, 81 in Bulgaria, of 106 in Yugoslavia, 108 in Hungary and 246 in France.
- the national revenue per capita reaches 120 dollars in Hungary, that is to say approximately 70% of the European average. The volume of the industrial production increased by 28% compared to 1913, the number of the workmen of 16%, the share of industry in the national revenue reaches 36%. But because of the poor state of agriculture, transport, the trade and the craft industry, Hungary, strongly involved in debt, remains a poor country, and progress of industry could not draw it from the stagnation in which the diving its reduction in 1920, then the world-wide crisis.
See also: 1938 in France
- January 8th: Catch of Teruel by the Republican Spanish.
- February 22nd: Resumption of Teruel by the Pro-Franco ones.
- March 9th: Fuejo del Trabajo which institutes the organization supporter of corporatism of the company.
- March 13rd: France reopens its borders with the transit of weapons towards the republican zone.
- Mars: Nationalist offensive in Aragon.
- April 5th: The socialist minister Indalecio Prieto leaves the ministry for defense without to have been able to dam up the communist and Soviet influence in the army.
- April 15th: The pro-Franco forces reach the the Mediterranean and cut the republican Spain into two.
- the May 4th, the the Vatican recognizes the nationalist government of Franco in Spain.
- May 25th: War of Spain, with Alicante the bombardment of the Central Market by Italian aviation caused the death of 313 people.
- In July, the pro-Franco ones continue their push in the Aragon, take again Teruel and enter to Castellón of Plana, dividing into two the republican zone.
- July 24th: Large last offensive republican with the Battle of Èbre which finishes the November 16th by a republican defeat and 70 000 victims.
- October 29th: Of good-byes of the foreign volunteers of the international Brigades with Barcelona parades.
- November 15th: Departure of the international brigades (35 000 men). Suspension of the Soviet military aid to the republicans.
- November 23rd: Beginning of the pro-Franco offensive in Catalonia.
- April 1st: Pie XI disapproves the standpoint of the Austrian bishops in favor of the Anschluss.
- April 14th: In front of the protests against the Anschluss emanating even from the fascistic leaders, Mussolini tries to approach the democracies and sign with the Great Britain the “Agreements to Easter”.
- May 9th: Hitler proposes in Mussolini a military alliance.
- August 3rd: The Minister for Education Giuseppe Bottai prohibits the inscription in the schools of the Juifs coming from the foreigner.
- September 1st: Creation of a Superior council for demography and the race.
- October 7th: The Large Council of the Fascisme adopts new anti-semites measures.
- November 2nd: The Great Britain recognizes officially the Italian Empire.
- November 10th: Laws anti-semites in Italy.
- December 14th: The House of Commons is transformed into Room of the beams and the corporations which gathers the National council of PNF, the National council of the corporations, the Duce and the members of the Large Council of the Fascisme.
- December 22nd: The Italy denounces the Franco-Italian agreements of Rome.
- April 14th: Agreements of Easter. The Great Britain is committed obtaining SDN the annexation of the Ethiopia by the Italy in exchange of the guarantee of the British interests in Saudi Arabia and with the Yemen.
The Middle East & Arab world
- January 6th: In Palestine, the British forces of occupation make a massacre in the village of Atil, close to Tulkarem, against the women and the children Palestinian S. They invade the Mosquée S and tear the Coran S.
- April 2nd: Defeat of the nationalist party Wafd with legislative in Egypt.
- October 22nd: Gabriel Puaux, French High-Commissioner in Syria. He refuses to take account of the opinions of the Parliament on the amendments accepted by Jamil Mardam Bey. He promulgates decrees modifying the personal statuses of populations, thus authorizing a Moslem to change religion or a Moslem woman to marry a not-Moslem, which involves a strong working class unrest. The Prime Minister of Syria Jamil Mardam Bey resigns the February 18th 1939 and a new government resulting from the national block succeeds to him.
- November 9th: Arrival of Jewish German in Palestine following the Night of crystal.
- November 10th: Died of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. İsmet İnönü succeeds to him in like president of Turkey.
- With the end of the year, the Palestinian revolt starts to be blown.
- December 26th, Iraq: The army withdraws its confidence with the government Jamil Al-Midfai and supports the return of Nuri have-Said, which forms a new government.
Egypt: The king Farouk Ier watch its will to use the theses of the Panarabisme to serve the regional ambitions of Egypt, in particular in the Palestinian file. It lets develop a propaganda in favor of the attribution of the Califat with the Egyptian sovereign and encourages work showing that the viceroys of Egypt of the XIXe century are the precursors of Arab nationalism.
Asia & India
- As from the summer, violent ones engagements burst between Soviet and Japan board in Eastern Siberia, then in Mongolia.
- October: In front of the Japanese advance, Tchang Kaï-chek transports Nankin the capital to Hankou then to Chongqing in the Sichuan.
- October 21st: The Japanese troops occupy Canton.
- November 3rd: The Japanese government specifies its “doctrines of the new order in Eastern Asia”.
- Fine of the Japanese attack against the China: Japan occupies Beijing, Shanghai, Nankin, Qingdao.
- Siam: The chief of the government, Phibun Songkram, gives to the country the name Thailand .
- Schäffer Forwarding with the central Tibet financed by Himmler (1938 - 1939).
- linguistic Congress of Surakarta to develop the orthography, the grammar and the vocabulary of a language indonésienne adapted to the modern life ( Bahasa Indonesia ).
- the the Indies Dutchwomen produce 7,4 million tons of oil.
- 84 000 ha of palm tree with oils are planted on the whole of the Indies Dutchwomen.
- 1 630 000 Indonésiens work in the industry, of which 120 000 in the large companies, 840 000 in average industries and 670 000 in the factories in residence. They are processing industries of the agricultural produce (mill with rice, factories of rubber, the, factories of coffee torrefaction, sugar refineries, etc) or of light industries of consumer goods (cotton, soap, paper, cigars, cigarettes, beer, margarine, shoes, colors, tires, bicycles, agricultural machinery, etc).
Oceania & the Pacific
- January 26th: “Day of Mourning” ( Day off Mourning ) organized with Sydney in collaboration with the AAL ( Australian Arboriginal League ) and the APA ( Arborigines Progressive Association ), to deplore the 150 years of occupation of Australia by the British. The Aborigènes of Australia assert rights of citizens.
The United States
- May 20th: Air postal service between New York and Marseilles brought into service by the Side American.
- June 23rd: Strict regulation of air transport by a federal authority, the Civil Aeronautics Board (1938 - 1978). This organization endeavors to minimize competition, to freeze the status quo with the profit of the large companies, which generates high tariffs.
- June 25th: Wages and Hours Act . Fair Labor Standards Act . The law fixes a minimum wage on the federal level, of the maximum schedules (48 H per week) and prohibits trade inter-States definitively produces it Travail of the children.
- November: The republicans progress to the bys-election for the renewal of the Congress.
the aggravation of the recession led Roosevelt to decrease by half the expenditure of public works.
- New Agricultural Adjusment Act (A.A.A.): quotas of setting on sale of the agricultural produce, bringing together of the prices of the parity thanks to compensatory allowances, loans against the storable surpluses of harvests.
- March 18th: The president of the Mexico Lázaro Cárdenas exproprie Oil companies, which involves the rupture of the diplomatic relations with the Great Britain until in 1942. The the United States orchestrate the world boycott of the new business Petróleos Mexicanos (Pemex) during thirty years.
- March 30th: Lázaro Cárdenas reorganizes the official party of the Mexico, which becomes the Parti the Mexican revolution (PRM), organized on the basis of functional representation around four sectors: peasants, workmen, soldiers and the popular sector (mainly of the civils servant).
- May 11th, Brazil: The integralists (extreme right-hand side) try to seize the power by the force but fail. Their leader Plínio Salgado must exile himself and its movement is dismantled.
- July 21st: End of the War of Chaco. The Bolivia loses the plain of the Chaco but guard an access to the river Paraguay.
- July 28th, Brazil: Died of the cangaceiros (gangster) Virgulino Ferreira da Silva, said Lampião.
- August 7th: Eduardo Santos, president in Colombia (fine in 1942).
- August, Mexico: Creation of the National confederation of the peasants ( Confederación Nacional Campesina , CNC).
- September: Rupture of the diplomatic relations between Berlin and Rio (end in June 1939) caused by the action of the AO ( Auslandsorganistation ), section of the Nazi party abroad.
- December 9th: VIIIe Pan-American conference of Lima. Signature of a Declaration of continental solidarity.
Taken again economic activity in Latin America because of the rise of exports.
- University of the Brazil, with Rio.
Chronologies sets of themes
- Aeronautical : 1938 in aeronautics
- Railroads : 1938 in the railroads
- Sport : 1938 in sport
- Sciences & technology : 1938 in science
- July 11th: Commencement of the American radiophonic series “Mercury Theater one the Air”, putting in the high-speed motorboat Orson Welles at CBS.
- October 30th: The radiophonic adaptation of the War of the Worlds of H.G. Wells by Orson Welles causes the panic of the listeners. The invasion of the Extraterrestre S is of such a realism that thousands of people take panic and flee their residence.
- Painting : January 17th: International exhibition of surrealism, organized by André Breton.
Births in 1938
- January 1st: Gianni Drago, Architect and Sculptor Italy contemporary N.
- January 5th: Juan Carlos, king d' Espagne
- January 7th: Roland Topor, painter and Draftsman French
- January 13rd: William B. Davis, Canadian actor
- January 18th: Anthony Giddens, British Sociologist
- January 23rd: Georg Baselitz, German painter
- January 25th: Vladimir Vissotsky, Russian Singer († July 25th 1980)
- January 31st: Béatrix of Orange-Nassau, queen of the Netherlands
- February 18th: Louis-Marie Ball, Archbishop of Lyon.
- February 19th: Choekyi Gyaltsen, tenth Panchen Lama (1938 - 1989).
- March 1st: Pierre Bénichou, Journalist French
- March 17th: Rudolf Noureev, Austrian Dancer Russian then († January 6th 1993)
- March 25th: Daniel Buren, painter French
- April 8th: Kofi Annan, secréatire general of the Nations Linked, Nobel Prize of Peace 2001
- April 30th: Larry Niven, states-unien author of Science fiction
- May 5th
- Jerzy Skolimowski, realizer, actor, poet, scenario writer and painter Polish
- Barbara Wagner, Canadian artistic skater
- May 10th: Marina Vlady, French Actress of Cinema
- May 28th: Jerry West, champion of Basketball, American
- July 3rd: Bolo Yeung, Chinese actor
- July 18th :
- July 20th: Diana Rigg, British actress
- July 24th: Eugene James Martin, American painter († January 1st 2005)
- July 27th :
- July 28th :
- Curro Girón, Matador venuezuelien († January 28th 1988).
- Saïd Ben Mustapha, politician and diplomatic Tunisia N.
- July 30th: Habib Ben Yahia, politician Tunisia N
- August 9th: Rod Laver, Australian tennis player
- August 20th: Christian Jean-Wolf, first French spationaut
- September 15th: Janusz A. Zajdel, writer Polish of Science fiction († July 19th 1985)
- September 23rd
- October 17th: Evel Knievel, American stuntman († November 30th 2007)
- October 26th: Bernadette Lafont, Actress
- October 29th :
- November 5th: Joe Dassin, American Singer of French expression († August 20th 1980)
- November 10th :
- Giacomo de Pass, artist painter, Sculptor, Lithographer, Italian Draftsman
- Fethullah Gülen, thinker and Moslem writer.
- November 19th: Ted Turner, creator of the chain CNN and the network TBS
- November 30th: Jean Eustace Realizer and Actor of Cinema
- December 11th: Enrico Macias, Singer French.
- December 12th: Connie Francis, American Singer
- December 17th: Jean-Claude Drouot, actor, Belgium
nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
Death in 1938
- January 21st: Georges Méliès, French realizer.
- February 11th: Kazimierz Twardowski, philosopher Polish (° October 20th 1866)
- March 13rd: Nikolaï Boukharine, intellectual, revolutionist and Soviet politician (° October 9th 1888)
- April 7th: Suzanne Valadon, model and painter Frenchwoman.
- April 12th: Feodor Chaliapin, Russian opera singer (° 1873).
- June 15th: Ernst Kirchner, German painter.
- July 4th: Suzanne Lenglen, French champion of tennis.
- October 22nd: Sir Robert Mond, chemist, industrialist and British archeologist (° September 9th 1867).
- October 24th: Ernst Barlach, German sculptor of which work at summer destroyed by the Nazis.
- November 10th: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, president of the Turkey.
- November 21st: Leopold Godowsky pianist Polish naturalized American (° February 13rd 1870)
- December 15th: Valéry Tchkalov, Soviet aviator (° February 2nd 1904)
- December 27th: Emile Vandervelde, Belgian politician.
Beats-smg: 1938 Be-X-old: 1938 Map-bms: 1938 Simple: 1938 Zh-yue: 1938 年
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