This page relates to the year 1937 Gregorian Calendrier.
- AOF : In March, decrees of the Popular front authorizing the creation of black trade unions in AOF and conferring the right to them to negotiate collective agreements.
- Creation of a trade union of teacher in AOF under the aegis of Mamadou Konaté and Ouezzin Coulibaly.
- Algeria: The North-African Star becomes the Parti the Algerian people.
- Creation of the Istiqlal, left nationalist Morocco Ain.
- Creation of the International Commitee one African Affairs with the the United States.
- Creation of the Business school of Makerere, in Uganda. It reaches the rank of university gradually.
- January 1st: Somoza seizes the power with the Nicaragua and installs a dictatorship for 45 years (1937 - 1947, 1950 - 1956).
- August 13rd: A military conspiracy causes the fall of Rafael Franco with the Paraguay. The marshal Jose Felix Estigarribia, victorious of the War of Chaco, imposes a dictatorship (president in 1939).
- March 21st: Massacre of Pounce to Puerto Rico.
- November 10th: The president Getúlio Vargas, by a presidential coup d'etat, imposes a new dictatorship, which he baptizes the Estado Novo (new State).
- Elections with the presidency: the chief of the party integralist Plinio Salgado presents himself against protected from Vargas. The governor of São Paulo, Armando de Sales Olieveira, gathers all holding them of the Republica Velha. The exit of the poll appearing dubious, Vargas pretexts the discovery of the Cohen Plan, forged communist plot of all parts, to remove the elections, to dissolve the Congress and to give dictatorial capacities.
- It is the beginning of the Estado Novo (fine in 1945). The State of emergency is proclaimed and a new constitution is imposed by Vargas. A plebiscite was envisaged but will never be organized. The president legislates by decree. The press is subjected to the censure. A special police force is created to eliminate any resistance to the mode, with the need by torture. The political parties are dissolved. Vargas is based on the people and the middle-class of the cities against the great landowners and succeeds in neutralizing or disarming those of them which like coronéis local, make him opposition.
- Vargas offers to the leader of extreme right-hand side Plinio Salgado (integralist) a station with the government that this one refuses.
- Vargas sets up a mode supporter of corporatism directly inspired by the Italian Fascisme. The labor movement is completely framed by Estado Novo. A co-opted trade-union bureaucracy makes its appearance and the number of members passes from 180 000 in 1930 with 475 000 in 1945.
- Brazil produced 1 280 000 quintals of cocoa (2nd world rank).
- January 6th: Death of the Brother Andre.
- November 9th: The Duplessis Government adopts the law “of the lock” intended to fight Communism.
- Adoption of the Law of the reasonable wages (ancestor of the Law of the Minimum wage).
- Trolley bus of Montreal.
The United States
- January and May: Third law of Neutrality ( Neutrality Act ). The belligerent countries are enjoints to pay cash and to transport themselves on nonAmerican vessels the bought goods to the United States (clause “ cash and curry ”). The access of their ships is interdict with the American citizens.
- February 5th: Short Packing Plan . Roosevelt vainly tries to take the control of the Supreme court while making there name six new judges.
- Inversion of the attitude of the Supreme court after the rallying of two judges to the President. The Court consolidates a law fixing a Minimum wage in the State of Washington (March 29th), comes to a conclusion favorably about the constitutionality of the law Wagner (April) and approves that of the Social security (May 24th).
- March 3rd: Vote third law of neutrality.
- March 18th: Gas explosion in a school of New London to the Texas, causing the death of more than 400 victims in majority of the children.
- In April, law isolationist, known as of the “cash and curry”, imposed by American on those which would buy weapons to them, raised law in April 1943.
- May 6th, 7:30 of the morning: The German airship “Hindenburg” takes fire, is crushed and exploded on its arrival with the airport of Lakehurst in the New Jersey, causing the death of 36 people.
- May 24th: The bridge of the Golden delicious Spoils, connecting two banks of bay of San Francisco, is inaugurated. - A 1935 meters length, with a 69 meters height above bay, it is opened with circulation as of the May 27th.
- May 30th: Massacre Memorial Day: the police force draws on the strike pickets from the factories from the Republic Steel from Chicago and makes ten dead. The autopsy reveals that the strikers have killed summers whereas they fled.
- August: New deceleration of the businesses.
- October 5th: Speech of “forty” with Chicago. Roosevelt alarm the opinion by declaring “civilization” in danger. He proposes to stop possible hostilities the setting forty economic and diplomatic the States which would have ridiculed peace.
- the stay in strikes, started at the end of 1936 are spread in the country (400 000 strikers at March 1st). 447 stay in strikes in 1937 ensure the victory of CIO in metallurgical and automobile industries. Manpower of the trade unions pass from 3 million to 7,2 in the current of the year.
- Farm Tenancy Act : fight against poverty in the campaigns.
- July, India: The Indian National congress gains about half of the seats to the elections. It forms governments in the majority of the provinces, obtaining the absolute majority in 5 provinces out of 11.
- the Burma is separated from the British Empire of the Indies and obtains a partial autonomy.
- Since 1880, the rice plantations belonging to the French companies in Indo-China saw their surface passing from 11 000 ha with 800 000 ha. 45% of the production of rice are between the hands of the colonizer (80 000 colonists for 20 million inhabitants).
- December: The Japan leaves SDN.
- July 7th: Incidental of the bridge Marco Polo. Beginning of the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945).
- July 15th: Ultimatum of the Japan to the government of Nankin to require the independence of the Tchakhar (Inner Mongolia) and of the Hebei (Beijing).
- July 26th: The Japan invades the China: the towns of Beijing, Shanghai and Nankin fall to the hands from the Japanese, in spite of an energetic resistance. As of the end of the year, Japan dominates the Chinese coasts.
- July 29th: The Japan occupies Beijing.
- August: The Soviet Union sign a treaty of non-aggression with China.
- August 13rd - November 26th: Battle of Shanghai.
- August 26th: Japanese planes attack in the suburbs of Beijing the car of the ambassador of the the United Kingdom.
- September 22nd: At the request of Stalin, the Guomindang and the Communists are combined to make face with the Japanese.
- September 25th: Battle of Pingxingguan.
- 3 - November 24th: The conference of Brussels condemns the Japanese aggression in China.
- November 9th: The Japanese toupes take Shanghai.
- December 13rd: Put at bag of Nankin by the Japanese troops. The army of the Mikado is devoted to a slaughter on the civil population, massacring approximately 300 000 people.
The Middle East
- Revolt of the Kurdish alevis (1937 - 1938).
- May 29th: Under the pressure of the clerical and colonial mediums, Jamil Mardam Bey is constrained to accept amendments with the treaty reinforcing the minorities and satisfying the French economic interests. The sandjak of Alexandrette is separated from Syria and becomes an area under administration of SDN.
- Be: Resistance of the populations of three areas Syria (Djézireh, Alaouites, djebel Druze) to the government of Damas (fine in 1939).
- July 7th: Relationship of the Commission Peel recommending the division of the Palestine between Juifs and Arab
- a board of inquiry chaired by Lord Peel is charged to judge situation in Palestine. His report is published the July 7th. He recommends a division of Palestine: most of the littoral of the Galileo would return to the Juifs. In the center, a corridor connecting Jerusalem to the sea would remain under British domination. All the remainder of the country would form an Arab State amalgamating with the Transjordanie. The Peel plan is refused categorically by the Arab , which refuse to yield to the Jews the richest area on the economic plan. Some moderate propose a Palestinian unit State, with guarantee of the rights to the minorities and freedom of Jewish immigration in certain proportions, but the supreme committee claims immediate independence and the stop of immigration. The Zionists are divided, between moderated and radical, who decide to organize their own military force, the Irgoun. David Ben Gourion is favorable to the Peel Plan, but of many Zionists are opposed to it. They will be majority at the time of the congress Zionist of Zurich of 1937.
- September - November: The nationalists of all the Arab countries meet in the congress of Bludan, in Syria, in order to coordinate their action antisionist. Agitation begins again in Palestine but the British authorities adopt a policy of firmness and repression.
- the September 26th, the British police chief for the Galileo, shown to prepare the expulsion of the Arabs of the area, is assassinated. The British dissolve the Arab supreme committee and stop several of its members. The Mufti is raised of all its official functions and flees with the Lebanon where it remains under house arrest.
- the Grande revolt of the Arabs of Palestine bursts with end of the year. It extends to all the countries, particularly in the rural regions where armed bands tackle the transportation routes and Jewish establishments. In the big cities, revolted a time arrives to take the control of the old workings of the downtown area. Any marked Arab of collusion with the Zionists or the British is carried out. The Palestinian Druzes prefer to collaborate with the Zionists. Their villages are attacked by the Moslems. The repression of the British, joined by part of notable Arabic, is very hard. The martial law is established.
- June: The Socialists leave the government and their chiefs choose the exile.
- the August 11th, Bakr Sidqi is assassinated by officers arabists with Mosul.
- August 12th: The Prime Minister Hikmat Sulayman resigns under the pressure of the army.
- August 12th: Ghazi Ier entrusts the capacity to a former comrade in arms of Faysal, Jamil Al-Madfa' I, which amnesties the officers responsible for the assassination.
- July 5th: Convention Iran O Iraq ienne leaving the Chatt-el-Arab in Iraq. This agreement allows the signature of the Traité of Sa' dabad Teheran between the Turkey, the Iran, the Iraq and the Afghanistan the July 8th, which are committed not interfering into the contracting interior matters of the parties, to respect the established borders and not to support any act of aggression against the Member States of the pact.
- the king Ghazi IE R, during a radiophonic speech, is caught some with the British policy in the Gulf and claims the annexation of the Kuwait.
- At the time of its majority, the king Farouk Ier tries to impose an Islamic oath on its nomination. The government Wafd ist opposes it and the sovereign inclines himself.
- the Convention of Montreux repeals the capitulary system definitively in Egypt with transfer of competences of the commercial courts to the Egyptian courts. Alien companies are égyptianisées with introduction of quotas of employees and Egyptian frameworks. The Company of the Suez Canal must accept an increase in the royalty paid in Egypt and an increase in the Egyptian personnel.
- April 26th: Entry of the Egypt to SDN.
- the Prime Minister Mustafa year-Nahhas Pasha enters in conflict with the king on the question of the nomination of the senior officials. Two founders of the Wafd make scission and found the saadist group.
- the December 29th, the king revokes the cabinet and dissolves the room. A new government is formed by the liberal-conservatives of Muhammad Mahmoud Pasha.
- 23 - January 30th: Second large “Lawsuit of Moscow”, beginning of the “great terror” (Ejovschina).
- March 28th: The Italian Communists assemble themselves in congress with Lyon.
- April 24th: The king of the Belgians announces the return of his country to a strict neutrality.
- May 1st: With the favor of the dynastic crisis to the the United Kingdom, the free State of Ireland obtains a Constitution, reaches independence and takes the name Gaelic of Eire.
- June 29th: Taken refuge in Soviet Union, Béla Kun is Stalinist victim of the purgings with more than one hundred Hungarian Communists.
- July 26th: The Italian Communist party and the Italian Socialist party sign a pact of unit of action for better carrying out the fight against the Fascisme.
- September 28th: With Berlin, Mussolini celebrates alliance between the Italy and the Germany in front of 800 000 people.
- November 6th: Adhesion of the Italy to the Pact anti-Comintern. Mussolini gives green light to Hitler for the Anschluss.
- December 11th: The Italy leaves SDN.
- December 28th: Government of Octavian Goga in Romania (fine the February 11th 1938).
- the Guard of iron, left fascistic and anti-semite Cornelius Codreanu, gains 16% of the votes to the elections in Romania. Laws anti-semites are adopted, the Juifs start to be victims of pogroms.
- SDAP (socialist party) gives up the class struggle and disarmament with the Netherlands.
- economic Census in Italy (1937 - 1938): 4 162 000 workers in industry (850 000 of more than in 1927). They account for 30% of the active population and produce 34,1% of the gross income private (25,3% in 1921).
- Portugal: Law of Salazar limiting the investments foreigner.
- January 30th: The Reichstag renews the full powerss of Adolf Hitler for four years.
- February 6th: Launching of the Admiral Hipper , first heavy battleship of the navy of German war.
- March 21st: Encyclical MIT brennender Sorge condemning religious persecutions in the Germany Nazi.
- May 6th: Catastrophe of Hindenburg: the Zeppelin ignites and causes 36 dead.
- June 12th: Secret ordinance of Heydrich, prolonging in “detention of safety” the sorrows of the Jewish criminals.
- June 20th: Open letter of the Pilot of Jéhovah to the German people, which start an increased repression.
- July 1st: Arrest of Pasteur Martin Niemöller and 800 members of the confessing Church. It will remain in concentration camp until in 1945.
- July 15th: Reichswerke Hermann Göring rested by the State to gather all the companies owners iron ore and to start again the abandoned mines.
- August 5th: By circular of the Gestapo, the Témoins of Jéhovah conscientious objectors are placed in Concentration camp at the conclusion of their sorrow.
- November 5th: Protocol Hossbach envisaging the incorporation of the Austria and the Czechoslovakia to the Germany.
- December 23rd: The Juifs are excluded from the commercial professions and their goods are confiscated.
- In December, first concentration camp only reserved to the women with Lichtembourg.
See also: Spanish Civil war
- 6 - February 28th: Failure of a new pro-Franco offensive on Madrid: Battle of Jarama.
- February 8th: Catch of Malaga by the nationalists helped by the Italian task force. The population flees under the protection of the flotilla of André Malraux.
- Mars: Italian intervention. 70 000 men leave with a considerable material to support Franco which does not have whereas 25 000 men.
- 8 - March 18th: Battle of Guadalajara: defense of the Italian forces in the sector of Madrid.
- March 31st: Nationalist offensive with the Basque Country.
- April 19th: Decree transforming the Spanish Phalange into sole party in the national zone, the Phalange española tradicionalista there of mow JONS , whose Franco is the president.
- April 26th: Bombardment of Guernica to the Basque Country Spanish by the German aviation of the Legion Condor: 1 500 dead.
- May 3rd: Insurrection of the militants of the CNT and the POUM to Barcelona, which resist the attempt of the republicans to recover a switchboard that they held.
- May 6th: The anarchistic power station intervenes to put an end to this fratricidal fight. The working Party of Marxist unification|POUM]] east dissolves, its stopped leaders.
- May 17th: Francisco Largo Caballero, hostile with republican repression, leaves the direction of the government. The moderate Socialist Juan Negrín takes the head of the executive.
- June 19th: Nationalist success with Bilbao.
- July 1st: The catholic hierarchy publishes a “collective Letter” expressing its position in the war. It gives an officially opinion for the nationalists.
- In July, the forces republicans open faces with Brunete.
- August 4th: The absolute authority of Francisco Franco, Caudillo del Movimiento is proclaimed.
- August 26th: The pro-Franco ones take Santander.
- In August:
- the Communists put an end to collectivization grounds in Aragon.
- the republicans open faces with Belchite.
- October 19th: The pro-Franco ones finalize the conquest of the republican areas of the Atlantic zone and take Gijon.
See also: 1937 in France
The United Kingdom
- April 21st: Launching of the Royal Ark , first Aircraft carrier of the British navy of war.
- May 12th: Crowning of the king Georges VI of the United Kingdom.
- May 28th: Beginning of the ministry of coalition of Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister for the the United Kingdom, until in 1940.
- June 3rd: The duke of Windsor (ex-king Edouard VIII of the United Kingdom), wife Wallis Simpson for whom it has just abdicated throne of the United Kingdom.
- Increase in the military expenditure, which passes from 265 million £ in 1937 to 400 million in 1938 and 700 million in 1939. A third of the appropriations goes to the air force.
- the Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to the British Cecil off Chelwood (1864-1968), to founder and to president of International Peace campaign (international peace Campaign).
Oceania & the Pacific
- Production of capital equipment: The United States 41,7%, Germany 14,4%, the United Kingdom 10,2%, France 4,2%.
- Industrial production brought back to consumption per capita: The United States 268, the United Kingdom 198, Germany 165, France 108.
Note: The figures of the economy seem to announce the future events: Germany pack France rather easily, England, less productive but richer, is able to resist Germany, but only America is able to gain the war.
Religion and Philosophy
- March 21st: Encyclical MIT brennender Sorge of Black and white XI condemning the Nazism: first pontifical document avoiding Latin and adopting, considering the gravity of the subject, a modern language.
- Catholicism of the Jesuit De Lubac.
Arts & cultures
- January 30th: Albert Speer is charged by Hitler with the transformation with Berlin.
- May 1st: Museum of Arts and the popular traditions with Paris.
- Pablo Picasso painted Guernica on ordering of the Spanish government. Rene Iché carves Guernica the very same day drama and refuses to expose it even in gallery.
- May 24th, Paris: International exhibition Arts and Techniques, with the fresco of Raoul Dufy, the Fairy Electricity .
- Inauguration of the Museum of Modern art to the palate of New York.
- Creation of the Museum of the Man to the Palate of Chaillot.
- Creation of the Palate of Discovered the, with the Large palace.
- May 27th: With Seville (Spain), alternate of Pascual Márquez, Spanish Matador.
- July 19th: Hitler inaugurates with Berlin the exposure “degenerated Art”: fabrics (Paul Klee, Kandinsky…), are destroyed or sold with the biddings.
Italy: The youth organizations, hitherto depend on the ministry for the State education, pass under the direction of the party and are gathered within the GIL ( Gioventù italiana LED littorio ). The ministry for the Press and Propaganda, directed by Dino Alfieri, becomes the ministry for the Popular culture ( Minculpop ). It is charged with the press, education and the university.
Sciences & technology
See also: 1937 in science
See also: 1937 in aeronautics
Sports & discovered
- the Tour de France cyclist is gained by the French Roger Lapébie, second the Italian Mario Vicini and third Switzerland Léo Amberg, victorious of the classification of the mountain Félicien Vervaecke.
- Joe Louis begins a 11 years reign like world champion of the heavy trucks while beating:
- the June 22nd, James J. Braddock by K.O in 8 rounds with Chicago.
- the August 30th, Tommy Farr at the points in 15 rounds with New York.
- detailed Article: 1937 in sport
- the Cycle of Krebs is discovered by the biologist Hans Adolf Krebs.
Births in 1937See also the Category: Births in 1937
- January 8th: Shirley Bassey, British singer, interprets generic songs of three films of James Bond.
- January 18th: Luzius Wildhaber, Swiss lawyer, president of the European Court of the human rights from November 1st, 1998 to January 18th, 2007.
- January 30th: Boris Spassky, Russian player of failures then French
- January 31st: Philip Glass, American type-setter
- February 11th: Maryse Condé, écrivaine inhabitant of Guadeloupe
- February 12th: Victor-Emmanuel, prince d' Italie
- February 13rd
- Andree Brunin, French poet
- Sigmund Jaehn, German spationaut
- February 16th: Valentine Bondarenko, Russian cosmonaut († March 23rd 1961)
- February 21st: Harald V, king de Norvège
- March 2nd: Abdelaziz Bouteflika (عبدالعزيزبوتفليقة), president of Algeria starting from April 27th, 1999 - and re-elected in 2004
- March 6th: Valentina Terechkova, Russian cosmonaut, first woman in Space
- March 7th: Chicuelo (Rafael Jiménez Castro), Spanish Matador .
- March 8th: Juvénal Habyarimana, president of Rwanda
- March 9th: Bernard Landry, ex-first minister of Quebec
- March 24th: Romain Bottle, director, actor, humorist and actor French, founder with Coluche of the “ Coffee of the Station ”.
- March 30th: Warren Beatty, actor and American realizer
- April 12th: Igor P. Volk, Ukrainian cosmonaut
- April 22nd: Jack Nicholson, American actor
- April 26th: Jean-Pierre Beltoise, racing driver
- April 28th: Saddam Hussein, Head of State of the Iraq († December 30th 2006)
- May 8th: Thomas Pynchon, American writer
- May 13rd:
- June 1st: Morgan Freeman, American actor
- June 2nd: Robert Paul, Canadian artistic skater
- June 8th: Bruce McCandless II, American astronaut
- June 15th: Michele Cotta, journalist and writer Frenchwoman
- June 18th: Vitali Jolobov, Soviet cosmonaut
- June 27th: Joseph P. Allen, American astronaut
- July 3rd: Tom Stoppard, realizer, British scenario writer
- July 9th: David Hockney, painter and British engraver
- July 12th: Lionel Jospin, Prime Minister for the France
- July 23rd: Jose Subdued, Spanish Matador († July 27th 1971).
- July 28th: Francis Veber, French realizer
- August 5th: François Pluchart, writer, Critic Journalist and art French, specialist in the Contemporary art. († November 8th 1988)
- August 18th: Robert Redford, American actor
- August 20th: Jose Shine Cantero (known under the nickname of El Fary ), popular singer and Spanish actor .
- August 26th: Nina Companéez, scenario writer and French director.
- August 28th: François Béranger, French singer
- September 1st: Carmelo Bucket, Italian actor
- September 11th:
- September 19th: Jean-Pierre Andrevon, writer of Science fiction French.
- September 29th: Jean-Pierre Elkabbach, French journalist
- October 15th: Claude Erignac, prefect assassinated in Corsica
- October 21st: Edith Scob, French actress
- October 28th: Marie-Francoise Bucquet, pianist
- November 1st: Rafael Girón, Matador Venezuelan († April 25th 2001).
- November 12th: Richard H. Truly, American astronaut
- November 20th: Rene Kollo, German tenor
- November 22nd: Zenon Jankowski, candidate-spationaut Polish
- November 26th
- November 29th: Johan Holst, Norwegian statesman
- November 30th: Ridley Scott, British realizer
- February 1st: Vaira Vike-Freiberga, political woman lettonienne, President of the Latvia
- December 21st: Jane Fonda, American actress
- December 23rd: Karol J. Bobko, American astronaut
- December 25th: Marcel Maréchal, actor and director French
- December 31st: Sir Anthony Hopkins, actor and British realizer
- unknown Dates: Carmen Pereira, political woman, President of Guinea Bissau
Death in 1937See also the Category: Death in 1937
- January 30th: Henri Duvernois, French writer.
- March 8th: Howie Morenz, Canadian hockey player (° 1902).
- March 10th: Ievgueni Zamiatine, Russian writer (° 1884).
- March 12th: Charles-Marie Widor, Type-setter and Organist French (° 1844).
- March 15th: H.P. Lovecraft, writer states-unien (° 1890).
- March 28th: Karol Szymanowski (55 years), Polish type-setter (° October 6th 1882).
- April 29th: Wallace Hume Carothers, American chemist.
- June 2nd: Louis Vierne, Type-setter and Organist French (° 1870).
- June 8th: Jean Harlow, actress states-unienne.
- June 18th: Gaston Doumergue, former president of the French Republic (° 1863).
- July 11th: George Gershwin, American type-setter ( Rhapsody in blue , Year American in Paris , Porgy and Bess ) (° 1898).
- July 17th: Gabriel Pierné, French type-setter (° 1863).
- July 20th: Guglielmo Marconi, Italian physicist (° 1874).
- August 23rd: Albert Roussel, French type-setter (° 1869).
- August 31st: Albert Heim, Swiss geologist .
- September 2nd: Pierre de Coubertin, the renovating one of the Olympic Games (° 1863).
- September 26th: Bessie Smith, American Singer (° 1894)
- October 16th: Jean de Brunhoff, French, creative illustrator of Babar (° 1899).
- October 19th: Ernest Rutherford, physicist and British chemist (° 1871).
- November 2nd: Felix Gaffiot, qualified schoolteacher, creator of a dictionary Latin-French which refers (° 1870).
- November 11th: Joseph Paganon, Minister for IIIéme Republic.
- November 23rd: George Albert Boulenger, British zoologist of Belgian origin (° 1858).
- December 3rd: Attila József (32 years), Hungarian poet of popular inspiration, it commits suicide while being thrown under a train.
- December 28th: Maurice Ravel (62 years), French type-setter (° 1875).
Beats-smg: 1937 Be-X-old: 1937 Map-bms: 1937 Simple: 1937 Zh-yue: 1937 年
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