This page relates to the year 1934 Gregorian Calendrier.
- March 2nd: Foundation of the party Néo-Destour by Habib Bourguiba in Tunisia.
- September 1st: Launching of the black student with Paris.
- September 3rd: Bourguiba and the leaders of Néo-Destour are stopped and assigned with residence in the south of the Tunisia.
- October 8th: The party Néo-Destour east dissolves.
- December 5th: Border incident between the Italian Somalia and the Ethiopia which decides to carry the conflict in front of SDN.
- Famine in Ethiopia (fine in 1935).
- Completion of the railroad Congo-Ocean, 512 km between Brazzaville and Point-Black (cost: 230 million gold francs against 93 envisaged). 127 250 men have summers necessary to his construction. The death of 18 000 with 23 000 workmen on the building site alerts the public opinion in metropolis.
- Strike of the dockers of Mombasa.
- Creation of the Teacher training school of Katibougou.
- Creation of the Higher College of Yaba close to Lagos.
- Prohibition of the worship Nyabinghi.
- the Cuivre lost 70% of its value since 1928.
- Plus of 40% of the men of the indigenous city of Elisabethville (Lubumbashi) are without employment. More than 25% of the Nairobi ens are without employment.
- May 28th: Birth of the quintuplets Dionne (5 girls) in Corbeil (Ontario) in Canada.
- June 6th: Foundation of the national liberal Action (directed by Paul Gouin).
- October 26th: Foundation of the Rebuilding Party off Canada.
Creation of the Bank of Canada.
the United States
- : The island of Alcatraz to San Francisco becomes officially a federal prison.
- January: Re-establishment of convertibility-but of the dollar and adoption of a new parity. Devaluation of the dollar with 59,06% of its old value.
- February: Creation of the Export-Importation Bank intended to support the financing of exports
- March 24th: The United States grants autonomy to the Filipino , prelude to its Indépendance the July 4th 1946.
- March 31st: Birth of Richard Chamberlain.
- May 23rd: The gangsters Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow are killed by the police force in a ambush.
- Elijah Muhammad becomes the chief of the Nation of the Islam (Black Muslims) American.
- June 6th: Securities and Exchange Commission.
- June 22nd: The public enemy number one, John Dillinger, is killed with Chicago by FBI.
- August 31st: Vote first law of neutrality.
- Rise of the “demagogs”.
- the father Charles Coughlin, populist the Huey Pierce Long and the doctor Townsend recruit many followers.
- Recrudescence of the Ku Klux Klan.
- democratic Successes with the elections for the renewal of the Congress.
- open Lutte enters the United States and Mexico (1934 - 1938).
- Federal Housing Administration .
- Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (T.A.A.). The President is authorized to lower the customs tariffs up to 50%, realizing reciprocal concessions of the contracting countries.
- Johnson Act prohibiting any loan with a government not having honoured its former engagements with regard to the United States.
- American Liberty League . It gathers the tycoons of industry and their allies opposed to the policy reformist of Roosevelt.
- Work of the Commission Nye (1934-1935). It reveals that the United States would have entered in war in 1917 to help their bankers to recover their credits near the Allies.
- Dryness in the South-west of the United States.
- One ounce of gold = 35 US dollars.
- February 21st: The National guard of the Nicaragua, on order of Somoza, captures and carries out Sandino with Managua.
- July 16th, Brazil: Reform Constitution to found a mode supporter of corporatism. Getúlio Vargas runs up against the Communists ( Aliança Nacional Libertadora ) directed by Carlos Prestes and against the integralists, Brazilian fascists ( Ação Integralista Brasileira ) directed by Plinio Salgado. He is elected for four years chair Republic by the new National Assembly.
- August 7th: Alfonso López Pumarejo becomes president in Colombia (fine in 1938). It launches the “revolution goes from there” to consolidate the liberal influence on the State and to weaken the internal opposition of the liberal party. The State becomes the referee of the social conflicts and facilitates the creation of trade unions.
- August 21st: The navy leaves Haiti without having succeeds in consolidating the democracy.
- September 1st: Populist government of Jose María Velasco Ibarra in Ecuador (1934 - 1935, 1944 - 1947, 1952 - 1956, 1960 - 1961, 1968 - 1972).
- November 27th: Salamanca is reversed in Bolivia.
- February 1st: Jose Shine Tejada Sorzano, president of Bolivia (fine in 1936).
- February 1st: Lázaro Cárdenas, populist president of the Mexico (fine in 1940). : He arrives until 1940 to enraciner the honesty of the popular layers at the revolutionary mode thanks to a radical populism ( Sesenio ). He reinforces the presidency and consolidates the State vis-a-vis the caudillos such Plutarco Elías Calles which dominated the period 1924 -1934.
- Cárdenas starts again the distributions of grounds: from 1934 to 1940,18 million ha profit with 800 000 peasants by the traditional institution of the ejido , a structure of collective ownership which distributes the small holdings in usufruct to the families. allotted appropriation and, irrigation work is launched built transportation route.
- the Amendement Platt is withdrawn from the cuban Constitution.
- Decree founding the eight work hours day in Colombia.
- University of São Paulo.
- First Congress Brazilian Negro with Recife.
- March 1st: Puyi is proclaimed emperor of the Manzhouguo under the name of reign of Kangde (fine in 1945).
- January 21st: Earthquake in India causing the death of 50 000 people.
- February, Indonesia: Arrest and exile of Mohammad Hatta (1934-1942) and of Sutan Sjahrir.
- March 24th: The Loi Tydings-McDuffie envisages the creation of a the Commonwealth of the Filipino and promises independence after ten years.
- May 9th, Indonesia: Vis-a-vis the fall of the prices of the rubber, the Netherlands must accept an international convention fixing quotas for the production.
- September 21st: A typhoon made 4 000 died with Honshū with the Japan.
- October 1st, China: Encircled by the troops of Tchang Kaï-chek, the Communists give up the Jiangxi.
- Beginning of the Long walk, in China of North, the communist armies of the Jiangxi to the Shaanxi (end in October 1935), ordered by Mao Zedong which becomes chief of PCC during this walk. Ellr makes it possible the communist troops to return in liaison with the peasants.
- November 29th: After a serious defeat vis-a-vis the nationalists in the north of the Guangxi, the Red Army of Mao succeeds in passing the river Xiang.
- December 29th: The Japan denounces the naval treaty of Washington of 1922 and gives up limiting its armaments. Military and naval rearmament fast of Japan.
- a typhoon devastates Muroto with the Japan, making 3 000 dead.
- Riots with Java against the perception of the taxes in 1934 and 1935.
- In Indonesia, the doctor Raden Sutono founds the Parindra which endeavors to organize the assistance with the peasants (co-operatives, institution of credit, asylum for the orphans, etc) and to fight illiteracy (schools). It makes governement vote for by the Volksraad a resolution asking for the formation of a mode of coil within the framework of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Dutch government disallows this proposal. After the failure of Parindra, a new party is constituted, the Gerindo Gerakan Rayat Indonesia (Movement of the people indonésien) which adopts a democratic program on the plan of an international fight against the Fascisme.
The Middle East
- March 16th: The High-Commissioner in Syria suspends the Parliament sine die. Aldine Tajj is charged to form a new government but its action is highly criticized by the nationalists. The nationalist demonstrations multiply east are repressed by France (1934 - 1936).
- March 27th, Palestine: Died of Musa Kazim Al-Husseini. It is the end of the committees islamo-Christians holding Arab place of executive. Political parties were created, reflecting the competitions of the Arab big families: The Left national defense, favorable to the policy of collaboration with the power agent and the Transjordanie ( December); the Palestinian Arab Left (May 1935), plus arabist and islamist, supplanting the Istiqlal.
- May 20th: Treaty of Taïf. Peace enters the Saudi Arabia and the Yemen: Yemen recognizes the annexation of the Asir and Saudi Arabia recognizes the independence and the integrity of Yemen.
- December 27th: The Perse changes name and becomes the Iran.
- Of the non-aggression pacts is signed between the Germany and the Poland (January 26th) and the the USSR and the Poland.
- January 26th: The Poland concluded a non-aggression pact with the Germany Nazi.
- February 9th: Balkan pact (Yugoslavia, Romania, Turkey, Greece), to guarantee the borders and to prevent the German and Russian pressures.
- February 23rd: Léopold III of Belgium succeeds his/her father Albert Ier, king of the Belgians deceased the February 17th with Walk-the-Ladies.
- February: All the parties are prohibited in Lithuania.
- February 1934 - May 1935: Barthou-Litvinov negotiations about the Eastern Pact (" Locarno of Est"). The failure of a comprehensive solution for the East of Europe will lead to the ratification of the Franco-Soviet pact of May 1935.
- Mars: Konstantin Päts, president of the National Assembly, puts an end to the democracy in Estonia and founds a dictatorship.
- May 11th: Coup d'etat in Latvia: Kārlis Ulmanis, leader of the agrarian party, suspends the parliamentary life and sets up an authoritarian regime.
- May 19th: Military coup d'etat in Bulgaria which puts an end to the parliamentary mode.
- May: Franco-Soviet pact and tchéco-Soviet.
- June 11th: The international IIIe gives up the tactics of the single Face against social democracy and calls with the fight antifascist.
- June 14th: First meeting between Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini with Venice.
- September 12th: Signature of the Baltic Agreement enters the Estonia, the Lithuania and the Latvia.
- September 18th: Entry of the the USSR to the Company of the Nations. Representing his country with the SDN, the Soviet police chief in charge of the Foreign affairs, Maksim Litvinov, do not have of cease between 1934 and 1939 that the western powers make face against the Fascisme.
- October 9th: Assassination of Alexandre Ier of Yugoslavia to Marseilles by a Macedonian related to the Croatian separatist organization Oustacha, with the French Minister for the foreign affairs Louis Barthou. The tripartite Council of regency directed by the prince Pavle Karadjordjevic (Paul), cousin of the late king.
- November 13rd: Georges Theunis, Prime Minister in Belgium.
- February 1st: Assassination with Leningrad of the secretary of the Central committee of the Soviet PC Sergueï Kirov. Stalin seizes this occasion to start a vast purging of the executives of the party suspected of opposition to the mode. Grigori Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev is the first victims.
- December 10th: The Belgian Henri De Man exposes to Paris his economic theses planners, adopted by the Belgian working Parti.
- the December 29th, fourteen accused “zinovievists”, shown assassination of Kirov, are condemned to died and are carried out in Soviet Union. Two thirds of the members of the Central committee are carried out between 1934 and 1938, more half of the senior officers of the Red Army are stopped between 1936 and 1938).
- the Romania (Nicolae Titulescu) restores the diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union broken since the occupation of the Bessarabia.
- Portugal: Creation of the Police force of vigilance and defense of the state. General strike.
- Italy: The deficit of the trade balance is of 2,451 billion (1,441 in 1933). Italy chooses a policy of autarky.
- Sweden: 38% farmers, 31% people employed in industry, 19% in the tertiary sector.
- Romania: the oil production passed from 1,1 million tons in 1921 to 8,4 million in 1934, to decline afterwards.
January 8th: inauguration, in the presence of dignitaries Nazi S and representatives of the Deutsche Arbeitsfront, new factory of the Dehomag, using the Technology Data processing and Perforated cards Hollerith, located in the district Berliner of Lichterfelde.
- January 20th: law known as of Führerprinzip, which reorganizes the German large companies, by putting them under the dependence of the capacity Nazi.
- January 30th: law on the national organization of work.
- January 30th: Suppression of the Länder of the Constitution of Weimar. Suppression of the Landtag E. Foundation of the Third Reich which collects the sovereign rights of Länders.
- February 14th: Abolition of the Reichsrat.
- March 7th: Appearance of the Volkswagen.
- April 20th: Himmler, chief of the S, takes the head of the Gestapo.
- May 30th: Synod of the Face of opposition of the confessing Church: the theologist Karl Barth and Pasteur Martin Niemöller give an opinion against the mode Nazi.
- Night of the 29 to the June 30th: Night of the Long Knives (in German: Röhm-Putsch ): Hitler makes eliminate its opponents and its rivals, the chiefs of SA, in particular Ernst Röhm. Nearly 1000 assassinations, of which Kurt von Schleicher and Gregor Strasser.
- June 30th: Baptism of the battleship of pocket Admiral Graf von Spee in violation of the Treated of Versailles.
- July 1st: The chief of SA Ernst Röhm is carried out.
- August 2nd: Died of the old man Marshal Hindenburg, last rampart against Hitler.
- August 19th: After the death of the president Paul von Hindenburg, Adolf Hitler is made vote by plebiscite like Reichsführer and president of Reich following a referendum votes by plebiscite (89% of the votes).
- August: Hjalmar Schacht is named Minister for the economy. It is charged to prepare a plan which must give to the Wehrwirtschaft (military economy) the essential provisioning: increase in the raw materials and foodstuffs, development of the national resources (fuels synthetic, rayon fabrics).
- October 1st: Hitler secretly orders the creation of a new air force and the extension of the naval forces and terrestrial.
- February: Suppression of the pluralism of the parties and elimination of the Socialists.
- May 1st: Catholic mode and supporter of corporatism.
- July 25th: Hitler tries first once to carry out the Anschluss, (union of Germany and Austria), while making assassinate the Austrian chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss by Austrian Nazis - Failure of the coup d'etat, because the Italy is opposed to it.
- July 30th: Kurt von Schuschnigg, chancellor in Austria (fine in 1938).
- the August 21st, Italy proposes in Austria a military aid in the event of German invasion.
- March 28th: Working treaty of alliance enters CNT (anarchistic) and the General union of the workers (socialist).
- March 31st: Mussolini sign a secret agreement with the monarchists for the sending of weapons and money to the nationalists in seen inversion of the republic.
- April 25th: Resignation of the government Lerroux. The radical Ricardo Samper Prime Minister.
- September 11th: The Communists decide to support the socialist working Alliance of Francisco Largo Caballero.
- October 1st: Resignation of the Samper government. The YIELDED (Spanish Autonomous Line Confederation) requires a majority stake in the new cabinet. The left refuses and threatens to start an insurrection.
- October 4th:
- the YIELDED takes part in the government Alejandro Lerroux. The bienio negro inaugurates a policy of reaction (stop of the reforms).
- General strike launched by UGT with Madrid and Barcelona.
- October 6th: Opposed to the participation of the right-hand sides in the government, the president of the Généralité of Catalonia Lluis Companys proclaims the total autonomy of the Catalogne, but the general strike fails.
- October: Insurrection trade unionist with the Asturies. A revolutionary government is set up during 15 days. The repression directed by the general Franco is wild (4000 died, 40 000 arrests).
See also: 1934 in France
- Business Stavisky.
- Creation of the British Union of the fascists (BUF, British Union off Fascists ). It adds up 50 000 members and profits from supports Email (2 million daily specimens).
- Walk of the hunger.
- September 26th: In front of 200 000 people with Glasgow, the Mary queen baptizes the Paquebot Queen Mary during her launching.
- November 1st: The Labor gain the local elections in more than 300 cities, of which London.
- November 28th: With the House of Commons, Churchill denounces the quarrelsome intentions of Germany and request a reinforcement of the military capacities of the country.
Laws prohibiting the paramilitary anti-semites publications and processions (1934-1936).
- Loi drawing up the list of the stricken regions by the crisis ( distressed areas ) that the State must support financially: Lowlands, Tyneside, Wales of the South, Yorkshire.
- the Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to the British Arthur Henderson (1863-1935), president of the Conference of the SDN on disarmament…
Arts & culture
- June: Joint exposure of Rene Iché and max Jacob to Paris to the Gallery of the Gantry.
- November 28th: Exposure of Victor Brauner to Paris.
- December: Exposure Alberto Giacometti to New York.
- the Three Graces of Maillol.
- the architect free-Switzerland Le Corbusier works with the the United States.
Sciences & technology
- the 28e Tour de France cyclist is gained by French Antonin Magne, second Italian Giuseppe Martano and third French Roger Lapébie, French Rene Vietto is the best climbing one.
- Football world cup in Italy
- detailed Article: 1934 in sport
Births in 1934
- January 8th: Jacques Anquetil, runner cyclist French, († November 18th 1987, 53 years).
- January 14th: Pierre Darmon, player of Tennis French.
- January 23rd: Pierre Bourgault, Québécois politician
- January 27th: Edith Cresson, political French, old woman Prime Minister.
- February 18th: Paco Rabanne, French dressmaker of Spanish origin.
- February 23rd: Jacques Séguéla, advertizing French.
- February 24th: Bettino Craxi, Italian politician († January 19th 2000)
- March 1st: Jean-Michel Folon, Belgian painter
- March 6th: Marie-France Garaud, political woman French, former deputy with the the European Parliament, President of the International institute of geopolitics
- March 9th: Youri Gagarine, Russian Cosmonaut, first man in space, († March 27th 1968, 34 years).
- March 31st: Gregory Nelyubov, Soviet cosmonaut († February 18th 1966)
- March 31st: Richard Chamberlain, American actor
- April 3rd: Jane Goodall, specialist in the primates.
- April 6th
- Anton Geesink, Dutch judoka.
- Horace Tapscott, pianist and type-setter of American jazz († February 27th 1999)
- April 19th: Jean Ziegler, writer and Swiss politician.
- April 24th: Shirley MacLaine, American actress.
- May 1st: Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas, Mexican politician.
- May 3rd: Georges Moustaki, Singer French.
- May 27th: Harlan Ellison, writer étatsunien of Science fiction
- May 28th: The Sisters Dionne, quintupled first known, Canadian.
- May 30th: Alexei Leonov, Soviet cosmonaut
- June 6th: Albert II of Belgium, sixth king of the Belgian , prince of Liege.
- June 11th: Henri de Laborde de Monpezat, prince-consort of the Denmark
- June 15th: Guy Bedos, actor and humorist French
- June 25th: Jacques Monory, painter French.
- June 28th: Georges Wolinski, Humorous Draftsman French.
- July 1st :
- Claude producing Berri, and Realizer French.
- Sydney Pollack, realizer.
- July 2nd: Charles Petitjean, Belgian politician of French language.
- July 9th: Pierre Perret, author-interprets, French.
- July 13rd
- Wole Soyinka, writer Nigerian, Nobel Prize of Literature in 1986
- Aleksei Yeliseyev, Soviet astronaut
- July 14th: Marcel Gotlieb known as Gotlib , Scenario writer and Draftsman of data base French.
- August 2nd: Valeri Bykovski, Soviet cosmonaut
- August 15th: Andre Bo-Boliko Lokonga Monse Mihambo, Prime Minister for the Zaire of 1979 with 1980.
- August 16th: Pierre Richard, French actor
- September 16th: George Chakiris, actor and American dancer
- September 20th: Sophia Loren, Italian actress.
- September 21st: Leonard Cohen, Poet, writer, Singer and Canadian Type-setter.
- September 28th: Brigitte Bardot, French actress.
- November 9th: Carl Sagan, writer and American Astronomer, († 1996, 62 years).
- November 24th :
- December 2nd: Tarcisio Bertone, religious Italian, Cardinal Secretary of State of the Roman Curia since the September 15th 2006.
- December 3rd: Viktor Gorbatko, Soviet cosmonaut
- December 18th: Boris Volynov, Soviet cosmonaut
- December 19th: Pratibha Patil, Indian political woman, current president of the India
Death in 1934
- January 10th: Marinus van der Lubbe, alleged incendiary of the Reichstag (° 1909)
- February 17th: Albert Ier of Belgium, third king of the Belgian (° April 8th 1875, 59 years)
- May 10th: Hubert Krains, Belgian writer and Walloon militant (° November 30th 1862)
- June 26th: Nathaniel Lord Britton, American Botanist (° 1859, 75 years)
- July 4th: Marie Skłodowska-Curie, Polish - physician and French chemist , member elect of the Nobel Prize of physics (1903) and of chemistry (1911) (° November 7th 1867).
- August 2nd: Paul von Hindenburg, Military and German Politician, marshal, President of Germany of 1925 at 1934 (° 1847, 87 years).
- August 13rd: Ignacio Sánchez Mejías, Spanish Matador (° June 6th 1891).
- October 5th: Jean Vigo, Realizer French (° 1905, 29 years).
- November 30th: Helene Butcher, French aviatrice. (° May 23rd 1908)
Beats-smg: 1934 Be-X-old: 1934 Map-bms: 1934 Simple: 1934 Zh-yue: 1934 年
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