This page relates to the year 1933 Gregorian Calendrier.
- January 23rd, Italy: Creation of the Institute for the industrial rebuilding (IRI) intended to cure the bankruptcies. The State becomes capitalist.
- February 16th: Signature of the pact of the Little Entente (Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia), which is equipped with a permanent organization.
- March 4th: Dictatorship of Engelbert Dollfuss in Austria.
- April 6th: Edouard Daladier accepts the project of “pact to four” suggested by Mussolini which was to gather Italy, Great Britain, France and Germany and to make it possible to revise the treaties of the post-war period.
- April 19th, Portugal: Promulgation of the Constitution and official birth of the Estado Novo. The Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar sets up a “reasonable dictatorship”, which he opposes to the blind dictatorships which are the military Dictatures.
- Creation of the republican National union (União Nacional), civic organization opened with all the citizens decided to implement the ideals of the new State. It is directed by Salazar.
- National Statute of the Work, inspired by the Italian Charter of work.
- April 28th, Soviet Union: The Communist party sets up commissions of purification in order to eliminate the “enemies from the people”
- May 20th: In Austria, the chancellor Dollfuss creates the patriotic Face to sine die replace the political parties after having deferred the Parliament.
- May 30th: With Prague, the Little Entente is opposed to the amendment of treaties of post-war period.
- June 4th: Foundation of the Movement European antifascist Amsterdam-Pleyel.
- May 26th: Cabinet of crisis formed by Hendrikus Colijn with the Netherlands (1933 - 1939): deflation, lowers civil servant salary, expenditure of armament, lowers authoritative rents, tenant farming and social security benefits.
- July 27th: The Spanish republic recognizes the USSR.
- June 7th: The pact of Agreement and collaboration, Pact to Four modified because of the opposition of the countries of the Little Entente, is initialed by the ambassadors of France, of Germany, Great Britain and by Mussolini. This project is intended to maintain peace in Europe within the framework of SDN
- June 20th: In Austria, the chancellor Dollfuss prohibits the Communist Parties and Nazi.
- July 20th: The Pope Black and white XI sign the Legal settlement passed between the German Catholic church and the capacity Nazi.
- August 18th: The Austrian chancellor Dollfuss meets Mussolini and obtains guarantees against the German threats (19/08).
- September 2nd: The Italy and the Soviet Union sign a pact of nonaggression.
- September 22nd: World congress of youth against the war and the Fascism, chaired by Henri Barbusse, Romain Roland and Paul Langevin.
- October 1st: In Czechoslovakia, Konrad Henlein founds the patriotic Face of the German of Sudètes and requires the autonomy of the area.
- November 10th, Austria: vis-a-vis the terrorist activities of the party prohibited national-Socialist, the chancellor Dollfuss proclaims the martial law.
- In November, the the United States recognize the Soviet government.
- December 9th, Romania: the Guard of iron, organization of the type fascistic created by Corneliu Codreanu, is prohibited by the government. She is avenged by killing First liberal minister I.C. Duca in station for Sinaïa the December 29th.
Agitation in North Schleswig.
- Strikes of the railroads and the workmen of oil in Romania.
- defense accounts for 2% of the national budget of the the United Kingdom.
- 1,3 million unemployed in Italy.
January 23rd: The president Hindenburg refuses to dissolve the Reichstag like suggested the chancellor Kurt to him von Schleicher.
- January 28th: The Schleider government resigns.
- January 30th: Adolf Hitler becomes Chancelier after two interviews with Franz von Papen, with the head of a coalition government charged to follow a policy of national rectification.
- : Dissolution of the Parliament (Reichstag) by President Hindenburg at the request of Hitler.
- February 4th: Last edition of the newspaper of SPD Vorwärts .
- February 6th: Hermann Göring is charged to take the total control of the Prussia whose governor is deposited and the Parliament dissolved.
- February 21st: After having launched a call to the creation of a socialist and communist united front, the writer Heinrich Mann is constrained with the exile.
- February 22nd: SA, the S and the Stahlhelm become “auxiliary police force”.
- Aussitôt begins a surge of violences against the Communiste S.
- February 27th: Fire of the Reichstag. The government makes responsible the Communists and carries out the first arrests in the mediums of left. The first concentration camps are created.
- February 28th: Order in Council for the protection of the people and the State . ( Reichstagsbrandverordnung )
- Abrogation of the basic rights: Beginning of the revolution .
- Installation of the dictatorship Nazi E and beginning of the Third Reich.
- March 3rd: Arrest of Ernst Thälmann, chief of KPD (Communist party).
- March 5th: Elections (parliamentary) with the Reichstag in a climate of terror.
- Results: NSDAP 43,9%, SPD 18,3%, KPD 12,3%, Zentrum 11,2%, DNVP 8%.
- the evening even of the poll, the Nazis take the control of Hamburg, Lübeck and Hesse.
- Of the 6 to the March 9th, it is the turn of the Länder of Saxony, Wurtemberg, Bade and Bavaria.
- March 11th: Joseph Goebbels is named Minister for the Propagande and the Instruction of the people.
- March 21st:
- Day of Potsdam : 1st setting in scene of the Propaganda Nazi of Joseph Goebbels
- Beginning of the construction of Dachau, 1st German Concentration camp.
- March 23rd: Vote Reichstag, Hitler obtains the full powerss for four years ( Ermächtigungsgesetz ).
- On this occasion, it obtains the necessary support of the Zentrum , the catholic party. Only SPD ose to be opposed. (The meeting takes place in the presence of armed forces SA and S).
- March 28th: Declaration of Fulda: The bishops invite to support the new mode.
- March 31st: Beginning of the Gleichschaltung: Put at the step of the Länder and all the German company.
- April 1st: Beginning of anti-Jewish violences and boycott of the Jewish stores.
- April 7th: Law on the re-establishment of the system of the civils servant of profession :
- Legalization of the elimination of the Jews of the public office.
- Beginning of the Jewish emigration; with the end of the year, 35 000 Jews will have left the country.
- April 7th: Prohibition of KPD (Communist party). Its goods are seized. Suppression of the federalism.
- April 26th: Hermann Göring founds the Gestapo.
- April 27th: The Stahlhelm ( Helmet of steel ), Freikorps of extreme-right-hand side amalgamates with NSDAP.
- April 30th: SPD withdraws Internationale
- May 1st: The day of work becomes day of national work .
- May 2nd: The buildings of the trade union ADGB are occupied, its goods are seized and its stopped leaders.
- May 10th:
- Auto-da-fe of Berlin: 20 000 pounds considered to be “declining, corrupting and foreigners with the German spirit” are flarings.
- Dissolution of the trade unions. Creation of the German Face of the work (DAF) subjected to NSDAP.
- May 28th: The national-Socialists gain the elections with Dantzig.
- June 16th: Germany claims the restitution of its African colonies and exposes its claims in Eastern Europe.
- June 22nd: Prohibition of SPD, followed by that of the other parties: Staatspartei, DVP, DNVP… the management committee of the SPD emigrates with Prague.
- June 29th: Arrests of Paul Loebe, former president of the Reichstag, then of Gustav Bauer, former chancellor.
- July 4th: Dissolution of the German populist party.
- July 5th: The Zentrum dissolves.
- July 6th: End of the revolution .
- Hitler declares that it is necessary to lead the uncontrolled current of the revolution in the quiet bed of the evolution .
- First frictions with Ernst Röhm, the chief of the SA, according to which after the national revolution , it is necessary to make the revolution national-Socialist .
- July 8th: Signature of the legal settlement with the Catholic church, at the end which the priests must be held far away from the policy.
- July 14th: NSDAP becomes officially Sole party.
- July 15th: Law on obligatory cartellization: a General advice of the economy associating the large industrialists and the State is created. The companies of the same branch must obligatorily act in concert; these trusts will form the base of the complex militaro-industrialist.
- July 20th: Legal settlement signed with Rome between the pope Black and white XI and the German government: freedom of worship is guaranteed and the denominational schools are authorized but the political activities of the catholic organizations are prohibited.
- July 26th: Sterilization is imposed to the people reached of physical and mental infirmities with an aim of regenerating the Germanic race.
- August 8th: The ambassadors of France and Great Britain protest in the name of the “pact with four” against the threats of violation of Austrian independence by Germany.
- August 27th: Hitler claims the fastening of the the Saar in Germany.
- September 7th: Pastors evangelists (Martin Niemöller) oppose the domination German Christians and condemn the coercive measures and anti-semites of Reich.
- October 10th: Creation with Geneva of a high commissionership to the German refugees.
- October 14th: Germany withdraws conference of Geneva on disarmament.
- October 19th: The Germany withdraws Société of the Nations.
- November 12th: “Elections” for the renewal of the Reichstag. The sole party gains 92% of the voices. Votes by plebiscite: 90% of German approve the withdrawal of SDN.
- November 24th: Hitler proposes with the ambassador of France François-Sandpapered a plan of limited rearmament.
- November 27th: The Minister for Labor creates within the Face of work the organization “the Force by the joy” ( Kraft durch Freude ) intended to subsidize the working vacation and the cultural and sporting events.
- February 1st: Birth of the State-Party: law on “the guarantee of the unit of the party and the State”. NSDAP becomes institution of state.
Six million unemployed in Germany to the advent of Hitler. 3,5 million with the end of the year
See also: 1933 in France
- January 1st: Libertarian insurrection in Andalusia.
- January 11th: Massacre of Mow Viejas. The republican guard of attack is sent to put an end to the libertarian disorders in Andalusia. The left divides. The Socialists turn over to the strategy of revolutionary seizure of power.
- March 4th: Foundation of Confederation autonomous lines (YIELDED).
- May 17th: Law on the religious congregations: the places of worship and the monasteries are declared public propertys.
- July: Law of law and order.
- September 8th: Resignation of the government of Manual Azaña following the massacre of Mow Viejas.
- October 29th: Creation with Madrid of the Spanish Phalange by Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, wire of the dictator.
- Dissolution of the Cortes.
- November 19th: Victoire of a coalition of right-hand side to the elections, in particular thanks to the instructions abstentionnists of the anarchists (more than 40% in Catalonia and Andalusia). The women vote for the first time.
- December 8th: CNT starts an insurrection with Saragossa. The combat are fatal.
- December 16th: The radical Alejandro Lerroux takes the head of a moderate government.
- a quarter of the active population of the Canada is with unemployment.
The United States
- Paroxysm of the crisis. Agrarian agitation. Martial law in certain counties of the Middle West.
- February 20th: 21e amendment of the constitution of the United States, removing the Prohibition alcohol.
- March 3rd: vote of Buy American Act, law on the National preference, which supports the products manufactured with the the United States.
- March 4th: Franklin Delano Roosevelt (democratic) becomes the 32e President of the United States of America (end in 1945).
- March 6th:
- Closing of the banks and embargo on money and gold exports.
- Devaluation of the dollar.
- March 9th - June 16th: Hundred days. Beginning of the new American economic policy, the “New Deal”.
- March 9th: Knell-Steagall Act (reform of the banks).
- March 31st: Civilian Conservation Body charged to employ 250 000 young people in tasks of conservation of the ground and afforestation.
- April: The United States gives up the Gold Standard.
- April 7th: The prohibition of alcohol is officially raised.
- May 12th:
- Vote of the Act of the agricultural adjustment (Agricultural Adjustment Act), agricultural shutter of the New Deal (re-establishment of the farm prices by the reduction of the production realizing allowances).
- Federal Banks Land charged to help the involved in debt farmers.
- Federal Emergency Relief Administration (gifts with the programmes of assistance and public works of the States and municipalities).
- May 22nd: World Fair of Chicago.
- May 27th: Federal Securities Act (delivery with the public of complete informations during any issues of shares).
- June 13rd: Home Owners Refinancing Loan Act (refinancing of the real mortgages to reduce expulsions).
- June 16th:
- Law guaranteeing the first 5000 dollars of the bank accounts and differentiating the establishments from deposits in charge of the operations with credit and the investment banks.
- the National Industrial Recovery Act (N.I.R.A.) seeks to start again industrial prices by the production ceiling and the increase in the capacity of consumption; It creates two administrations, the National Recovery Administration (N.R.A., organization of the production by the disappearance of competition) and the Public Works Administration; Creation of Tennessee Valley Authority (construction of hydroelectric stoppings, production of manure).
the number of unemployed reached 13 600 000, is the quarter of the active population.
- Three million trade unionists.
- January 1st: The liberal Juan Bautista Sacasa gains the elections with the Nicaragua (fine the June 9th 1936). The United States transfers to Anastasio Somoza García the command from the National guard and starts their withdrawal of the country.
- January 2nd: Peace agreements with the Nicaragua between Somoza and Sandino which disarms its troops. The American troops withdraw Nicaragua in accordance with the policy of good neighborhood preached by president Roosevelt.
- : Election of the general Tiburcio Carías Andino like chair Honduras. It follows a two month old civil war at the end which is established an iron dictatorship which promises to the opponent “ encierre, destierro there entierro ” (“the prison, the exile or fall it”).
- March 31st: In Uruguay, the president Gabriel Terra makes stop the nine members of the National council of administration and dissolves the Parliament. The coup d'etat is carried out almost without clashes, the army is kept away and the popular mobilization appears non-existent. Authoritarianism will be moderated, and only 75 people will have to exile themselves in 1935.
- November 14th, Venezuela: discovered Salto Angel, higher water fall of the world, by the aviator and exploring American Jimmy Angel
- November, Brazil: The constituent assembly prepares the new constitution (end in July 1934).
- VIIe Pan-American conference of Montevideo. The Secretary of State Cordell Hull announces the policy of good neighborhood decided by Roosevelt.
- Creation TO LINK it (Unión Nacional Izquierdista Revolucionaria) in Colombia.
- With the Chile, the production of Salpêtre lowers 3 230 000 tons in 1929 with 460 000 tons in 1933, that of Copper of 320 000 with 100 000 tons.
- Cuba account 500 000 unemployed. The production of Canne to sugar fell of 5,6 million ton in 1929 to 1,7 million in 1933.
- February 3rd, Indonesia: Tea Agreement limiting the production of The.
- February 23rd: The Japan occupies the Rehe (China).
- February 24th: SDN does not recognize the State of the Manzhouguo created by the Japan.
- February, Indonesia: Following the reduction of their balance, the Dutch sailors of the cruiser De Zeven Provinciën mutinent themselves and the ship must be bombarded by aviation.
- March 27th: Japan leaves the Société of the Nations.
- May 31st: Armistice of Tanggu between China and Japan.
- July 30th, India: Gandhi is stopped because of its countryside in favor of the untouchable ones.
- August, Indonesia: New arrest and exile of Soekarno (fine in 1942).
- October: The royalist opposition is overcome in Thailand.
- November 8th, Afghanistan: Mohammad Nadir Shah is assassinated to have launched a reform program economic. His/her son and successor, Mohammed Zaher Chah, which is only nineteen years old, will undergo during the thirty following years the law of its family, particularly that of her cousin which, later, will become his/her brother-in-law, the prince Mohammed Daoud Khan. The government accelerates the modernization program undertaken by Nadir Chah and establishes close commercial relations with the Germany, the Italy and the Japan.
- December 17th: To died of thirteenth the Dalai Lama Thubten Gyatso, the Chinese send a delegation of condolence then reopen their mission with the Tibet.
- December 26th: Foundation of the Japanese company Nissan.
- Scientific exhibitions with the Tibet of the Italian Giuseppe Tucci, accompanied by the photographer Petro Miss and the young person Fosco Maraini between 1933 and 1948.
Oceania & the Pacific
The Middle East & Arab World
an Arab demonstration in Palestine, directed against the British presence, makes about thirty dead (10).
the leader Palestinian Zionist David Ben Gourion, favorable to the recognition of the political rights to the Arabs against freedom of Jewish immigration, comes into contact with Palestinian Arab personalities in 1933-1934, of which the nationalist leader Arab Shakib Arslan.
Damien de Martel, High-Commissioner in Syria
- Damien de Martel tries to impose a treaty which marks the preeminence economic and military of France in Syria and which devotes the division of the country. The Syrian Parliament rejects this plan (12).
the Christian communities of Iraq enter in conflict with the government to Arab majority, which tries to bring back them under its direct control. A thousand of Assyrian Christians, armed, enter to Syria, involving the reaction of the French Army (07). The Iraqi forces of the general Bakr Sidqi attack the Christian villages and massacre their inhabitants, causing the escape of part of the population in Syria. Those which remain cease any claim and will be assimilated in the Iraqi population.
- With died of Faysal (7/09), his/her Ghazi son becomes king but is shown quickly not very able to control. The political life is crossed by personal competitions and quarrels of being able. Governmental instability becomes the rule.
Law on the conscription in Iraq which involves many popular reactions of hostility.
- January 16th: Mermoz opens an air-mail line of Saint-Louis of Senegal to Natal.
- August 16th, Morocco: Agitation caused by the reinforcement of the direct administration in Morocco. The colonial forces, ordered by the general Henri Giraud, intensify the pacification campaign in the High Atlas.
- November 8th: Black cruising: thirty planes ordered by the Wuillemin general leave Istres for a forwarding of 20 000 km above Africa.
- the British South Africa Company yields its mineral rights to the Southern Rhodesia.
- Foundation of the colonial League of Reich, which claims the return of the colonies lost in 1919 to the Germany.
- Creation of the Bulletin of the indigenous jurisdictions and the Congolese common law, charged to codify the indigenous legal practices with the Belgian Congo. Introduction of the penitentiary principle.
- Plus of 85% of the budget of the Belgian Congo is devoted to the refunding of the debt in 1933 and 1934.
- the agriculture of the Niger is reorganized on the basis of instruction of Albert Sarraut, Minister French for the Colonies: the food crops are encouraged, the suspended requisitions of harvest, the SIP installation and the limited rotation of the administrators.
Arts & cultures
- February 17th: First publication of the magazine “ Newsweek ”.
- March 7th: Invention of the play “Monopoly” marketed in 1935.
- March 11th: In Germany, Paul Joseph Goebbels becomes the Minister for propaganda Nazi. He starts the campaign of Autodafé S of the books and destruction of the degenerated works of art “ ”.
- June: Swiss House in Paris of Le Corbusier.
- July 20th: In Germany, the Bauhaus is closed by the Nazi S.
- August 4th: International congress of Architecture to Athens. Le Corbusier takes part in the development of the “Charter of Athens”.
- the painter Paul Klee, shown cultural Bolchevism leaves the Germany and turns over to Bern in Suisse.
- With the the United States, Calder produces its first mobiles.
Sciences & technology
- June 29th: Primo Carnera becomes world champion of the heavy trucks to boxing by beating Jack Sharkey by K.O with the 6th round with Long Island.
- the Tour de France cyclist is gained by French Georges Speicher, second Italian Learco Guerra and third Italian Giuseppe Martano.
- September 17th: the ADZE argument its first professional match with the Stage Geoffroy-Guichard vis-a-vis FAC Nice.
- October 22nd: The champion Primo Carnera preserves his championship of the world of the heavy trucks at boxing by beating Paolino Uzcudun at the points in 15 round with Rome.
- detailed Article: 1933 in sport
Births in 1933
- January 6th: Oleg Makarov, Soviet cosmonaut († 2003)
- January 9th: Wilbur Smith, South-African writer.
- January 13rd: Janet Kear, British ornithologist († 2004).
- January 17th: Dalida, Singer († 1987).
- January 18th:
- January 25th: Cory Aquino, Filipino political woman
- January 29th: Sacha Distel, Singer French, († 2004).
- February 13rd
- Costa-Gavras, Realizer French of Greek origin
- Kim Novak, (Marilyn Novak), American Actress
- Paul Biya, President of the Cameronian Republic
- February 18th
- Yoko Ono, Japanese Artist, second woman of John Lennon.
- February 22nd: Nina Simone, American singer († 2003).
- February 26th: Michael Golsmith, financial American
- March 14th: Michael Caine, actor and producing British
- March 15th: Philippe de Broca, Realizer French († 2004).
- March 28th Rene Borg, Realizer and artistic director French in the field of the Cinema of animation.
- March 30th: Jean-Claude Brialy, Actor, Realizer and Scenario writer French.
- April 8th: Jaime Ostos, Spanish Matador .
- April 9th: Jean-Paul Belmondo, Actor French.
- April 15th:
- April 19th: Jayne Mansfield, American Actress
- May 10th:
- May 21st: Maurice Andre, Trumpet player French.
- May 29th: Marc Carbonneau, Terrorist Québécois.
- May 22nd: Chen Jingrun, Mathematician Chinese.
- June 11th: Harald Szeeman, art critic and Swiss police chief of exposure († 2005).
- June 13rd: César Girón, Matador venuezuelien († October 19th 1971).
- June 14th: Henri of Orleans, Duke of France
- June 17th: Christian Ferras, French violonist († September 14th 1982)
- June 18th: Jerzy Kosiński, American writer of Polish origin († May 3rd 1991)
- June 19th: Viktor Patsayev, Russian cosmonaut († June 30th 1971)
- June 22nd: Jacques Martin, imitator and presenter of French television. († September 14th 2007)
- June 26th: Claudio Abbado, leader, Italian.
- August 15th: Stanley Milgram, Psychological American († 1984).
- August 16th: Stuart Roosa, American astronaut († December 12th 1994)
- August 17th: Eugene Kranz, flight director of the missions Apollo
- August 18th:
- September 1st: Conway Twitty, American singer of Country Music († June 5th 1993)
- September 10th: Yevgeny Khrunov, Soviet cosmonaut († May 19th 2000)
- September 18th: Valentina Ponomaryova, Soviet suction-cosmonaut
- November 10th:
- Ronald Evans, American astronaut († April 17th 1990).
- Gift Clarke, player of Rugby to XV New Zealand. († December 29th 2002).
- November 14th: Fred Hates, astronaut American
- November 16th: Lucien Seroux, French author
- November 21st: Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr, American astronaut
- November 23rd: Krzysztof Penderecki, Type-setter and Leader Polish
- November 29th: Roger Leloup, Belgian author of the series of Cartoon Yoko Tsuno
- February 1st: Curro Romero (Francisco Lopez Romero), Spanish Matador.
- December 6th: Henryk Górecki, type-setter Polish
- December 14th: Albert Spaggiari, author of the Break-in of the century († June 10th 1989)
- December 25th: François de Closets, scientific journalist French
- December 31st: Mohamed Sayah, politician Tunisia N
Death in 1933
- January 5th: Calvin Coolidge, old President of the United States (° 1872).
- February 17th: Unexplained disappearance of the writer Julien Torma (° 1902).
- February 25th: Stalemate O' Sullivan, American draftsman of Cartoons, creator of Felix.
- April 29th: Constantin Cavafy, Greek poet of Alexandria, a cancer of the throat.
- March 13rd: Robert Innate, South-African astronomer (° November 10th 1861)
- March 24th: Alfred William Alcock, British Naturalist (° 1859).
- May 11th: John G. Adolfi, American realizer (° 1888).
- June 20th: Clara Zetkin, feminist and German Communist.
- June 29th: Roscoe “Fatty” Arbuckle, actor and American realizer.
- September 27th: Jean-Francisque Delmas, singer of French opera.
- November 11th: Ernst Hartert, German ornithologist (° 1859)
Ludovic Arrachart, French aviator, pioneer of the intercontinental raids.
Beats-smg: 1933 Be-X-old: 1933 Map-bms: 1933 Simple: 1933 Zh-yue: 1933 年
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