This page relates to the year 1932 Gregorian Calendrier.
- February 2nd: Opening of the International Conference of Geneva on disarmament (fine in 1934 after a failure).
- June 16th: Conference of Lausanne cancelling the war reparations which had by the Germany (fine the July 9th).
- September 4th: First day of the world conference for peace with Vienna in Austria.
- September 16th: The Germany withdraws conference of Geneva on disarmament.
- December: In Geneva, Germany obtains the equal rights ( Gleichberechtigung ) with the Allies.
- January 5th: Creation of the Office of Niger, autonomous public corporation, in charge of an agricultural development project inspired by engineer Méline with the French Sudan. It is a question of irrigating by diverting part of the river the area downstream from Ségou. A first stopping is established with Markala and two channels are dug. Work runs up against the shortage of manpower, the poor fertility of the grounds and the hostility of part of the public opinion in metropolis. In 1939, only 13 300 ha will be arranged (1,3 million for the preliminary draft) and the production of cotton will not reach 425 tons (less than 0,5% of the project).
- Law aiming at facilitating the access to the French citizenship of the Africans who wish it. This measurement has only one limited range and in 1937, the whole of AOF counts yet only 72 000 natives French citizens, in majority originating in the four communes of the Senegal (Saint-Louis, Gorée, Rufisque and Dakar).
- the agreements of Ottawa intensify the system of the preference in the British empire.
- September 5th: Decree removing the colony of the the Upper Volta and integrating it into the French Sudan.
- a campaign is launched to the Tanganyika on the topic “ grow more crops ” which puts the local leaders in residence to obtain a growth of the agricultural production. The Café is maintained and the Coton begins again. In addition, the food crops develop.
The Middle East
- May 30th: The Iraq obtains its independence of the the United Kingdom.
- September 23rd: Foundation of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia by the chief Abdel Aziz ibn Saoud, result of a warlike alliance between a family Bedouin Saoud of the Nedjd and a group of monk, the Wahhabite S. the elder one of its sons, Its' ud, is indicated as crown prince, putting fine at the family fights for the succession. The kingdom unifies the princely States of the Hedjaz, of the Nedjd, the Asir and the Arabia.
- October 3rd: The Iraq adheres to SDN. It is the first Arab member of the organization.
- February 7th: The Japan declares the war with the China.
- March 9th: Proclamation by the Japanese of the last emperor: Puyi, emperor marionette of the Manzhouguo. The Mandchourie, set up in independent state, is entirely under Japanese domination.
- April 25th: Creation of the popular Army of guerilla antijaponaise by Kim Il Sung, to fight against the occupation of the Korea by Japan.
- May 15th: The soldiers seize the capacity to the Japan after having assassinated the Prime Minister Tsuyoshi Inukai.
- June 27th: Revolution in Thailand. The king loses any political power. During the reign of king Prachadhipok (Rowed VII), a military coup d'etat directed by Pridi Phanomyong and colonel Phibun Songkram proclaim the constitutional monarchy.
- July 2nd: Peljidiyn Genden becomes Prime Minister of Mongolia (fine in 1936).
- September 10th: Bao Dai, emperor of the Vietnam, seizes the power (fine in 1955). It accepts the French colonial administration in spite of the opposition of its nationalist minister Ngô Dình Diêm, which resigns in 1933.
- November - December: IIIe Conference of the Roundtable with London. She entrusts to two Britanniques the responsibility to work out the constitutional reform in India.
- In China, the troops of Tchang Kaï-chek encircle the Communists of the Jiangxi.
- In Cochinchine, only 115 communes out of 1419 are deprived of schools. Secondary education relates to 4 800 pupils divided in 21 establishments, including three for the girls. Attacked by the preserving colonial mediums, this school system becomes an instrument of modernization of the company.
- Decline of the Community property in Indonesia: 83 % of the grounds became with Java personal properties. The practices of Community mutual aid remain however ( Golong Rojong ).
Oceania & the Pacific
: Birth of the socialist party, the CCF (Co-operative the Commonwealth Federation; in French, the Federation of the co-operative Commonwealth and later the democratic social Left Canada ), with Regina. It is influential especially during the crisis in particular in the provinces of the West, most touched.
- August 20th: Agreements of Ottawa: introduction of the “imperial preference” encouraging the exchanges in the sterling area.
the United States
- February 2nd: Creation of the Reconstruction Finances Corporation , equipped with 2 billion dollars intended to reinflate the banks and to support the economic activity.
- March 1st: The baby of Charles and Anne Lindberg is kidnapped in their residence. This event raises an agitation without precedent - the body of the child will be found died the May 12th in a wood of the New Jersey.
- Spring: “ Farm Holiday Program ” in the Middle West. The peasants refuse, to stop the fall of the prices, to send their products on the markets, establish stoppings on the roads and terrorize those which are charged to expel them.
- May 4th: The gangster Al Capone is imprisoned with the penitentiary of Atlanta after being recognized guilty of tax avoidance.
- May 20th: Amelia Earhart is the first woman to achieve a transatlantic flight as a recluse.
- Walk of the “Veterans” of the Bonus Army on Washington, who claim the allowances (no-claims bonus) which are due for them.
- Refusal of Hoover to cancel the “war debts”. The debtors of the United States, after having given up the repairs which had by Germany with Lausanne in June, except for the Finland, must cease their refundings.
- July: Herbert Hoover refuses the democratic projects of assistance to the victims of the crisis. The Federal Home Loan Bank Act provides 125 million dollars to prevent the seizures.
- July 28th: The “veterans” of the Bonus Army are brutally expelled of Washington.
- November 8th: The democrat Franklin Roosevelt is elected president of the United States with 57,4% of the voices (23 million voice) against the republican Hoover (16 million voice) on the program of the New Deal.
Fall of the wholesale prices of 32% since 1929. Industry works to 54% of its level of 1929, auto industries with the 1/5°. The National revenue crumbled to 42 billion and more 100 000 bankruptcies dislocated the economy like the company. Thirteen million unemployed.
- : Agustín Farabundo Martí, leader of the revolt of the peasants to the El Salvador, is carried out with other Communist leaders.
- February 14th, Brazil: New electoral code. The Right to vote is granted to the women and the vote with secret bulletin is introduced. The vote is refused with the illiterates.
- Beginning of the War of Chaco between the Bolivia and the Paraguay. Paraguay takes the initiative of the conflict and inflicts heavy losses with the Bolivian army. This war will finish in 1935 by the victory of Paraguay.
- In Bolivia, 5000 people, workmen, minors and intellectuals express against the war.
- July 9th - October 2nd, Brazil: Revolt oligarchy of São Paulo which sends an army against Rio de Janeiro. But the rebels are constant neither by the Minas Gerais and the Rio Grande C Sul, nor by the workmen and the peasants of São Paulo. The federal forces besiege São Paulo for three months. The revolt fails and Getúlio Vargas, skilfully, does not take any sanction.
- September 4th: Abelardo L. Rodríguez becomes president of Mexico by interim (fine in 1932). Under its presidency, the institutional revolutionary Left, the official party of the government, establishes a programme of six years for “a co-operative economic system inclining towards the socialism” which envisages the seizure of the oil-bearing fields belonging the abroads.
- October 8th: Foundation of the Brazilian Intégraliste Action.
- December 24th: Arturo Alessandri Palma is elected president of the Chile (fine in 1938). It restores institutional continuity in Chile and operates a Net preserving turn. At the time of the elections, Marmaduque Grove, which had chaired the socialist Republic in 1931, obtains in spite of its exile 17,7% of the votes, just behind Alessandri.
- February 16th: Eamon de Valera, with the head of the Fianna Fáil republican gains the elections in Ireland. He becomes president of the Council.
- March 12th: Died (suicide?) of the match manufacturer Ivar Kreuger. Its empire crumbles, causing the ruin of many Swedes and the fall of the conservative government.
- May 20th: Engelbert Dollfuss becomes chancellor of Austria (fine in 1934).
- May 28th: Completion of the dam of fence of the Zuiderzee ( Afsluitdijk ). The inland sea yields the place to a fresh water lake ( IJsselmeer ), little by little reduced by immense polders dedicated to agriculture.
- June 6th: Government Alexandru Vaida-Voevod in Romania (1932 and 1933)
- July 5th: Salazar becomes president of the Portuguese council. It creates a State supporter of corporatism.
- August 20th: The the United Kingdom gives up the free trade with the Ottawa agreement: introduction of the “imperial preference” encouraging the exchanges in the sterling area.
- September 24th: The social democrat party seizes the power in Sweden. Per Albin Hansson becomes Prime Minister.
- October 1st: Gyula Gömbös becomes Prime Minister of Hungary. He proclaims his preference supporter of corporatism and invites to forge “the national unit of labor, capital and the intellectual talent”. He presents a national plan of work in 95 points aiming to the national gathering. Conservative with accents reformists and populist, it with the ambition to print with the government more activism to leave the crisis.
- November 26th: Franco-Soviet non-aggression pact. The Soviet Union sign also of the non-aggression pacts with the Finland, the Estonia, the Latvia and the Poland.
- December 18th, Italy: Mussolini inaugurates the new city of Littoria, in the Latium, built in a recently cleansed marshy zone.
Soviet Union: Measurements of Stalinist coercion. Large Famine, caused by the forced collectivization of the agriculture and the requisition of the foodstuffs in the campaigns, generating nearly 7 million deaths, including 4 in Ukraine (1932 - 1933). Rural migration towards the cities.
- the United Kingdom: Customs war enters the the United Kingdom and the Ireland (1932-1933). Go of the hunger ( October). Interest rates remain to 2% between 1932 and 1939, which supports the investments of the companies. 22% of the active population are with unemployment.
- Italy: The number of employees of the public office, which increased by 94,4% since 1923, spends 1932 to the war of 638 329 with 990 000.
- the Slovak Populist party of the abbot Andrej Hlinka, who under the increasing influence of Mgr Jozef Tiso, adopts positions more and more separatists and fascisantes, gains half of the votes in Slovakia.
- Execution of two Hungarian Communists, Imre Salted and Sándor Fürst.
- Unemployment in Europe: 6 million unemployed in Germany, 2,9 million in the United Kingdom, and 279 000 in France.
- January 6th: Because of the financial crisis, Germany decides not to honor its debts more.
- March 7th: The German steamer Bremen gains the blue Ruban which rewards the best mean velocity carried out in the North Atlantic.
- March 13rd: Hitler obtains 30,1% of the votes to the first turn of the presidential ones.
- April 10th: The old marshal Paul von Hindenburg is elected president of Germany with 53% of the voices compared with 36,8% with Adolf Hitler.
- May 31st: Cabinet of Franz von Papen.
- July 9th: Cancellation of the debts of the Germany to the Conference of Lausanne.
- July 20th: Von Papen deposits the social democrat government of Prussia.
- July 31st: Legislative elections. The party national-Socialist (NSDAP) becomes the first party with the room (37,4% of the voices). DVP and DDP crumble. SPD stagnates. Only the Zentrum gains points. The Nazis claim the direction of the government then pass in the opposition.
- SA maintain a climate terror. The mediums of finance and industry approve the program hitlérien just as the lines monarchist and militarist.
- September 12th: The “cabinet of the barons” of von Papen, which can be pressed neither on the Nazis nor on the Zentrum, dissolves the Reichstag.
- November 6th: With the legislative elections, the coalition of Weimar still weakens. The Nazis lose voices (33,1%, 14 million voice) but remain most numerous with the Reichstag with 230 seats. KPD progresses (16,9%).
- November 17th: Cabinet Kurt von Schleicher (fine the January 28th 1933). The new Schleicher chancellor also runs up him against the refusal of Hitler to give him his support. To obtain supports it trade unions, it launches a social program, which worries the industrialists who approach the Nazis. They ask Hindenburg that the capacity be entrusted to the chief of the most important party.
See also: 1932 in France
- November 9th: Shooting with Geneva (Swiss), the army shoots without summation at crowd at the time of a working demonstration antifascist (see: Shooting of November 9th, 1932)
- November 12th: General strike of 1932 in Geneva following the manifestation of the November 9th.
- Votes of many reforms:
- the Spain is laicized: The Divorce is legalized, the crosses of the cemeteries, the schools and of the public edifices are removed, the prohibited processions.
- Creation of a free school (44% of Spanish are illiterate), which suffers from the lack of budget and Masters (monks being prohibited of teaching).
- Reform of the army: decrees of Azaña of April which proposes retirement without restriction of balance of 10 000 graded army, other officers having to lend oath of fidelity to the new mode.
February 9th: The government creates a republican Guard of attack to make counterweight with the Civil guard (Guardia de Asalto).
- August 10th: The general Jose Sanjurjo tries a Pronunciamiento with Seville.
- September 9th: Institution of an autonomous regional general information in Catalonia, equipped with a Parliament and a government chaired by Francesco Macía, leader of the Catalan left ( Esquerra republicana of Catalunya ).
- September 15th: Land reform which will be committed only very slowly.
Insurrection in the Top Llobregat.
- June: Resignation of Salazar of its ministry.
- June 25th: Beginning of the dictatorship. Salazar becomes chief of the government. The constitution, under development, can receive installations allowing a capacity without limits. The doctrines of Salazar are summarized in five words: God, fatherland, authority, family, work. Suppression of the political parties.
- July 2nd: Died of Manual II of Portugal. The assumption of return to monarchy is definitively isolated.
Dissolution of the Catholic Center by Salazar.
- Creation of the catholic Action.
Religion and Philosophy
- Mars: Two Sources of morals and the religion of Henri Bergson.
- October 6th: Foundation of the review Spirit, re-examined philosophical of Emmanuel Mounier.
- Philosophy , of the philosopher existentialist Karl Jaspers.
Arts & cultures
- September 6th: With Cuenca (Spain), alternative second of Luciano Will counter, Mexican Matador. He had taken a first alternative the December 13rd 1931; he will take a third of it the December 27th 1936.
- the first cube of Jello arrives.
- the Mexican painter Diego Rivera off works with the Detroit Institute Arts.
- the Russian painter Vassili Kandinsky writes its Réflexions on the modern art .
- the American sculptor Alexander Calder carries out its first mobile.
Sciences & technology
- February 4th: Opening to Lake Placid in the United States of the 3rd Winter Olympics.
- April 23rd: Inauguration of the stage of the Park of the Princes to Paris.
- May 20th: Amelia Earhart is the first woman to cross the Atlantic as a recluse on board a plane Lockheed Vega, five years after Lindberg.
- June 21st: Jack Sharkey becomes the new world champion of the heavy trucks to boxing by beating max Schmeling at the points in 15 round with Island Length.
- July: The 26e Tour de France cyclist is gained by French André Leducq, second German Kurt Stoepel and third Italian Francesco Camusso.
- September 11th: First Championship of France of professional football.
- July 30th: Opening of Xe Olympic Games of summer to Los Angeles.
- October 3rd: Inauguration with Rome, at the time of the celebrations of the 10th birthday of the fascistic mode, the forum Mussolini, a whole of sports equipment intended to extend on a zone from 850 000 m ².
- detailed Article: 1932 in sport
Births in 1932
- January 4th: Carlos Will know, realizer Spanish
- January 5th: Umberto Eco, Italian writer
- February 6th: François Truffaut, French scenario writer († October 21st 1984).
- January 7th: max Gallo, writer and politician French
- January 16th: Diane Fossey, American ethologist specialized in the behavior of the gorillas († December 26th 1985).
- January 19th: François Maspero, bookseller, editor, writer and translator French
- February 7th: Alfred Worden, American astronaut
- February 13rd: Julio Aparicio, Spanish Matador .
- February 16th: Antonio Ordóñez, Spanish Matador († December 19th 1998).
- February 18th: Milos Forman, Czech realizer
- February 19th: Joseph Kerwin, American astronaut
- February 24th: Michel Legrand, French type-setter
- February 26th: Johnny Cash, American singer of Country music. († September 12th 2003).
- February 27th: Elizabeth Taylor, American actress
- March 15th: Alan Bean, American astronaut
- March 16th: Walter Cunningham, American astronaut
- March 24th: Lodewijk van den Berg, American astronaut of origin Dutchwoman
- March 31st: Nagisa Oshima, Japanese realizer
- June 6th: David Scott, American astronaut
- June 12th: Padmini, Indian actress . († September 24th 2006).
- June 19th: Pier Angeli, Italian actress.
- June 24th: Antoñete (Antonio Chenel Alabaladejo), Spanish Matador .
- June 30th: Mongo Beti, Cameronian writer
- July 13rd: Hubert Reeves, Canadian astrophysicist
- July 17th: Wojciech Kilar, type-setter Polish
- July 20th: Nam June Paik, American artist of South Korean origin . († January 29th 2006).
- July 25th: Paul J. Weitz, American astronaut
- August 4th: Lucie Favier, Historian and French archivist
- August 11th:
- August 15th: Robert Forward, physicist and American author († September 21st 2002)
- August 17th: VS Naipaul, British writer
- August 22nd: Gerald Carr, American astronaut
- August 25th: Ricet Barrier, French singer.
- August 26th: Joseph H. Engle, American astronaut
- September 25th:
- Glenn Gould, pianist and Canadian type-setter († October 4th 1982).
- Adolfo Suárez, Spanish politician.
- September 26th: Clifton Williams, American astronaut († October 5th 1967)
- October 9th: Charlotte Knobloch, German political personality
- October 12th: E. Jake Garn, American astronaut
- October 23rd: Yvonne Trubert, founder of the religious movement Invitation with the life
- October 30th: François Louis Malle, French scenario writer
- November 14th: Annie Fratellini, French personality of the circus
- November 29th: Jacques Chirac, politician; President of the French Republic (1995 - 2007)
Death in 1932
- January 6th: Andre Maginot, politician French.
- January 14th: Litri (Miguel Báez Quintero), Spanish Matador (° May 15th 1869).
- March 3rd: Eugen d' Albert, Type-setter and German Pianist . (° April 10th 1864).
- March 7th: Aristide Briand, President of the Council.
- April 4th: Wilhelm Ostwald, German Chemist .
- April 20th: Giuseppe Peano, Mathematician Italy N.
- May 3rd: Charles Strong Hoy, American writer and researcher paranormal (° August 9th 1874)
- May 7th: Paul Doumer, (assassinated), president of the French Republic.
- May 16th: Albert London, journalist, dies in the fire of the steamer George Phillipar .
- June 12th: Theo Heemskerk, Dutch politician (° 1852)
- July 24th: Alberto Santos-Dumont, Brazilian aeronaut (° July 20th 1873).
- August 9th: John Charles Fields, Canadian Mathematician
- September 23rd: Jules Chéret, painter and lithographer French (° June 1st 1836)
- October 26th: Margaret Brown, American philanthropist and survivor of the Titanic.
- October 27th: Joseph de Joannis, man of the church and Entomologist amateur French (° June 6th 1864).
- October 29th: Joseph Babinski, neurologist free - Polish (° November 17th 1857)
- to be specified:
- Zéphyrin Camelinat : French politician.
Beats-smg: 1932 Be-X-old: 1932 Map-bms: 1932 Simple: 1932 Zh-yue: 1932 年
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