This page relates to the year 1929 Gregorian Calendrier.
- July 28th: Geneva Convention, signed by 48 countries, on the prisoners of war.
- October 12th: Signature of the Convention of Warsaw, regulating international transport by aircraft.
- January 6th: Royal dictatorship in Yugoslavia (fine in 1934). The king Alexandre Ier of Yugoslavia suspends the Constitution of 1921, proclaims the dissolution of the Parliament and all the political parties. He tries to impose the national unit under the direction of the Serb ones. The traditional provinces are divided into nine geographical entities, the banovines which deny the cultural identities of the nations.
- January 7th: In answer to the takeover by force of Alexandre Ier, a certain number of Croats turn to terrorism and found, under the direction of Ante Pavelić, the movement of the Oustachis (Insurrectionists).
- February 11th: Signature of the Agreements of Lateran between the Italian government (fascistic) and the Gasparri cardinal, Secretary of State of the Holy See (the Vatican). They guarantee the sovereignty of the pope on the territory of the Vatican as well as the official character of the Catholic religion in Italy. In exchange, the Vatican gives up the temporal power and recognizes the kingdom of Italy with Rome for capital and the house of Savoy like reigning dynasty. The Holy See obtains a comfortable allowance in compensation of the lost territories.
- March 5th: Official birth of the public Television in Great Britain (Standard 30 lines; 12,5 images/seconds).
- March 23rd: Election legislative in Italy. The list of the Large Council of the Fascisme is approved by 8 506 575 “yes” against 136 198 “not”. Rate of participation is of 89,63%.
- May 19th: World Fair of Barcelona.
- May: Labor Victoire with the elections with the the United Kingdom with 288 seats (260 with the conservatives, 59 with the liberals).
- June 7th: The the Vatican becomes a sovereign state.
- June 8th: Beginning of the Labor ministry of Ramsay MacDonald, Prime Minister for the the United Kingdom (fine in 1931).
- July 8th, Portugal: Salazar resigns following the ministry for justice, under the pretext which the cabinet of the ministers a circular concerning the ringing of the bells, considered to be refused to ratify too favorable to the catholics.
- September 5th: Aristide Briand lance the idea of European Federation.
- October: Carlo Rosselli founds with Paris the movement Giustizia E Libertà .
- October 3rd: The Kingdom of Serb, the Croats and the Sloveniens becomes the Royaume of Yugoslavia.
- November 19th: Mgr Manuel Gonçalves Cerejeira is named cardinal-patriarch of Lisbon (fine in 1971). It will support the mode of Salazar.
Rejection of the constitution project of Spanish monarchy.
- Spain: UGT gives up its pro-governmental policy. The anarchistic left is reconstituted in clandestinity. Student's agitation orchestrated by the Federación Universitaria Española .
- Reform of the municipal authorities in Italy: the elected mayors are replaced by podestats named by the government.
- Law on the disease with the Netherlands.
- Climate: Optimum of the autumnal temperatures of the Russia to the Poland and the Lapland (1929-1938). Advanced birch towards North.
- January 9th: Heinrich Himmler takes the command of the S and in fact a crack corps.
- March 31st: Plane Young on repairs. Reduction of the war damagees which had by Germany.
- May 1st: Communist demonstration with Berlin in spite of prohibition.
- June 7th: Signature of the Plane Young which envisages a spreading out and a lowering of the global amount of German repairs.
- July 9th: The chief of the party national-German Alfred Hugenberg is combined with Adolf Hitler and the Casque of steel to organize a referendum against the Young plan.
- 28 - August 31st: Agreements of $the Hague which envisage the evacuation of the second zone of the Rhineland (Coblentz) in the three months and that of the third zone (Mainz) at once after the ratification of the Young plan to be finished the June 30th 1930.
- August 30th: Radiophonic exposure to Berlin. The price of the receivers with dropped of almost 50% in one year.
- September 19th: In accordance with the Young plan, the French troops start to evacuate the the Rhineland.
- October 3rd: Died with Berlin of Gustav Stresemann.
See also: 1929 in France
- January 22nd: Expulsion of Leon Trotsky out of the USSR.
- December 27th: Joseph Stalin announces the “liquidation of the kulaks as a class”.
- the Koulak S (easy peasants) are expropriés, stopped and shot. It is a question of taking again the ground with the peasants to collectivize it according to the system of the Kolkhozes and the Sovkhozes. It is the “great turning” highlighted by the article of Stalin entitled “At the devil NEP”.
Stalin became the uncontested chief of the Communist party and the Master of the country. To control, it is based on the apparatus of the party and the police force. It names its close relations - Viatcheslav Molotov, Valerian Kouïbychev, Grigory Ordjonikidze and Kliment Vorochilov - at the stations - keys.
- Political antireligieuse: firm Stalin 1500 churches. Persecution is systematic.
- Tiraspol becomes capital Moldavie.
Ethiopia: Ras Tafari represses the rebellions of the Galla Yédjou and Ras Gougsa.
- Agitation matsouanist with the French Congo. Its leader Andre-Grenard Matsoua, founder in France in 1926 of the Friendly Association of Originating in AEF, will be stopped and off-set.
- Foundation of the Liga Nacional with Luanda.
- Foundation of the Gold Coast Youth Conference .
- Petition and demonstration against the code of the Indigénat and in favor of French nationality in the African colonies.
- Demonstrations in Gambia.
- Demonstrations in Uganda.
- Demonstrations with Madagascar.
- Formation of the Senegalese Socialist party (Rolls Guèye).
- Foundation of the TAA (Tanganyika African Association), resulting from the TTACSA.
- Creation of the African Orthodoxe Greek Church in Uganda.
- Grimshew Report/ratio on the forced labor in Black Africa given to Geneva with the International office of work.
- Foundation of the United African Company (UAC), by the regrouping of the principal subsidiary companies of the company Unilever, which obtains a place ever equalized on the continent (oilseeds exports).
- Convoy Berliet on tire of Touggourt to Tombouctou.
With the Kenya, the international economic crisis reaches the cultures of moderate zones (surface devoted to corn and corn drops by 60% between 1929 and 1934) but the cultures tropical (Café, Cacao, The and fruits) resists or is rectified quickly.
- February 14th: The gangster Al Capone makes kill with the machine-gun seven members of a rival gang with Chicago. This episode is known under the name of the “Massacre of the St. Valentine's day”.
- March 4th: Herbert Hoover becomes the 31e president of the the United States (fine in 1933).
- Strikes of the textile in the Carolines and to the Tennessee in spring.
- May 16th: First ceremony of the Oscars to Hollywood.
- June 15th: Agricultural Marketing Act. President Hoover creates the Federal Farm Board intended to help the agricultural companies to fight against the weakening of the courses.
- October 21st: Beginning of the crisis of Wall Street. In fact, the rate of growth is null as of the first quarter with the the United States.
- October 24th: “ Black Thursday ”. Six bankers create a “ pool ” of 240 million dollars intended to stop the crisis by starting again the purchases.
- October 28th: The slump in prices accelerates.
- October 29th: “ black Tuesday ” with Wall Street (New York), marking the beginning of the Great depression of the Years 1930. 16,5 million actions is sold and the index Dow Jones crumbles. With low of the meeting, the titles lost on average 30% of their value.
- November 7th: Opening to the public of MOMA to New York.
- November 13rd: The global value of the actions with lowered half (index 224) compared to September (452). The index will fall to 58 in July 1932.
- November: Herbert Hoover launches out in a policy interventionist, founded on the “co-operation”. He affirms the momentary crisis and without serious danger, and intervenes directly to avoid deflation (reduction of taxation, funds to start again employment by public works, deficit). He refuses with any important extension of the policy of assistance of the federal government and relies on the business men to rectify the economy. The November 21st, it convenes with the White House the leaders of industry and their request to maintain to the maximum employment and the wages to stop the depression.
- Election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt as governor of the State of New York.
- With the Quebec, the crisis leads to the denunciation of the democratic regime of English origin by the group of Paul Bouchard, which expresses its sympathy to the modes totalitarian and corporative, and that of Adrien Arcand, frankly fascist and racist.
- March 4th, Mexico: Plutarco Elías Calles creates the revolutionary, future (PNR) national Party institutional revolutionary Parti which works in favor of a bringing together then of a fusion of the political clouts of many local potentates.
Mexico: The exorbitant importance taken by CROM (Confederación Regional Obrera Mexicana) and the suspicion which weighs on it in the assassination of Obregón makes that the mode prefers to be directed towards an industrial relations policy plus supporter of corporatism.
Promulgation of an advanced social legislation and a new Constitution in Ecuador.
Asia & India
- January 14th, Afghanistan: Hostility caused by the programme of reform of the king led to a rebellion. Amanullah abdicates. The January 17th, his/her brother, Anayatollah is relieved by Bacha Sakau, leader rebellious.
- October 17th: Mohammad Nadir Shah, the uncle of Amanullah overcomes the rebels and takes the crown of Afghanistan.
- December 5th: The Tadjikistan becomes a Soviet socialist Republic, full member of the Soviet Union. The territory of Khojand, located in the valley of the Fergana, which belonged to the Ouzbékistan is attached to him. This State is developed because of its identity Persian in opposition to the Turkish world. Moscow however grants to him the oriental party of Gorno-Badakhchan (Pamir), populated Kyrgyz .
- December 24th, Indonesia: Soekarno is stopped with seven other leaders and is condemned to the reclusion (end in 1931).
- China: Defeat of the lords of the war Yan Xishan and Feng Yuxiang (1929-1930). Soviet of the Jiangxi, established with Ruijin, control an area of several million inhabitants of 1929 with 1934.
Oceania & the Pacific
The Middle East and Arab world
- August 11th: Chaïm Weizmann creates with Zurich the Jewish Agence, connects Palestinian Organization Zionist world founded in 1920, charged to organize the development of Jewish establishments in Palestine.
August: Disorders in Palestine against the British policy of creation of a Jewish national hearth. Following a Jewish demonstration (August 23rd), the Arab population of Jerusalem and Hebron attacks the districts and the new Jewish suburbs. She is joined by the country communities of the neighborhoods. The state of siege is proclaimed by the authorities agents. The noise is spread that the Juifs are about to seize the Mosquée of Omar, and the tribes Bedouins of Transjordanie pass the the Jordan to help their co-religionists and take by storm the British barracks. The confrontations cause the Arab death of 133 Juifs and 116 . The government agent plans at the end of August to be transferred from Jerusalem to Jaffa. British troops of Egypt are dispatched, and a vigorous repression touches the Arab populations particularly.
Whereas the Ikhwan enters in dissidence, Abdelaziz Ibn Sa' ud brings together the tribal chiefs and eradic by the force the brotherhood after several months of war and with supports British. The assistance of the latter obliges it to officially recognize the Iraq and the Transjordanie.
- the British accept the principle of an independence of the Iraq negotiated by a new treaty.
Economy & Company
- October 29th: Beginning of the international crisis.
The United States
the panic which shakes the US banks causes the interruption of financial flow between the United States and the rest of the world, Europe in particular.
- 642 banks in bankruptcy.
- 4,5 million cars is sold into 1929 with the the United States. 26,5 million vehicles is in circulation. 20 million telephones. 377 scrapes-ciels.
- the share of electricity in the food of the factories is of 70% (30% in 1914). The share of publicity in GNP passed from 360 million dollars in 1890 to 3 billion in 1929.
- Fortes inequalities: according to a report/ratio of the Brookings Institution, 36 the 000 richest families have the resources higher than those of 12 million least fortunate, and 20 of the 27 million families do not receive the 2 500 dollars of annual incomes considered as decent. Six million of them is close to misery (less than 1000 dollars per annum).
- the crisis of 1929 in the United States plunges the Latin America in an economic stagnation which it will leave only after the Second world war. Four mechanisms combine their effects. The imports from the developed countries strongly drop, depriving the countries in the process of development of their independent sources of incomes. The terms of trade evolve/move in an unfavourable direction with the Latin-American countries. The international market of capital crumbles, and the transfers of capital towards the Latin America are reversed and become negative between 1929 and 1932. The world price level strongly decreases what penalizes the countries debtor.
- With the Mexico, the crisis causes a drastic fall of the purchasing power, but the governments are shown more inclined to try to attract the foreign assets and repress all the social movements.
- Brazil: The country doubles the setting, already in full crisis since 1924, it undergoes full whip the repercussions of the crac stock exchange American. The European markets are closed, the courses of the agricultural matters crumble with in particular those of the rubber and the Café. The government cannot resist any more and the dictatorial mode falls. The currencies do not return any more, the Brazilian ones cannot buy any more outside, which stimulates the industrial activity. Production capacity is used with full.
- the Ecuador is deeply touched by the world economic crisis because of its dependence with the monoculture of the Cacao. This crisis will lead to 15 years of political chaos.
- the American investments in Colombia passed from 2 million in 1922 to 124 million dollars.
- the crisis of 1929 - 1930 shakes the economy indonésienne. The culture of the Canne to sugar crumbles and 140 sugar refineries out of 178 must be closed. Sugar will never find its importance (7% of the imports in value in 1938 compared with 22% in 1930). The rubber, the The and the Café are reached. On the whole exports decrease by two thirds passing by 1,577 billion guilders in 1928 to 541 million in 1932. The crisis involves an unemployment which touches the European employees and the workers indonésiens, mainly in sugar. The unemployed regain their over-populated villages, which causes disorders.
- 2 356 000 unemployed in Germany in March. The world economic crisis reaches the country with the end of the year.
- the US banks require the immediate refunding of the loans granted to the the United Kingdom, putting much company in difficulty. English agriculture suffers from the clogging of the worldwide markets and the fall of the prices; under the effect of the contraction of the international exchanges (of two thirds between 1929 and 1933), exports fall. Important rise of unemployment rate.
- the Rumanian farming community suffers from the slump in prices of the agricultural food products.
- In Czechoslovakia, the economic crisis of 1929 causes a fall of 40% of the industrial production in four years.
- the production of Acier doubled in France since 1913 (4,7 million tons in 1913,9,7 in 1929).
- Constitution of the giant chemist Unilever with the Netherlands.
- France account 22 companies employing more 10 000 people, Germany 27, and the United Kingdom 39.
Religion and Philosophy
- February 11th: Legal settlement, in Rome, between Black and white Mussolini and XI: reconciliation enters Italy and the Church. Creation of the state of like support and the guarantor Vatican City of the independence of the Catholic church.
Arts & culture
See also: 1929 with the cinema, 1929 in music, 1929 in literature, 1929 with the theater, 1929 as a cartoon
- November 3rd: With the Mexico, alternative second of Armando Pedro Antonio Procopio Pérez Gutierrez known as “Carmelo Pérez”, Mexican Matador. He had taken a first Mexican alternative the previous year; he will take a third of it the June 4th 1931 in Spain.
- November 8th: Inauguration of the Museum off Modern Art (MOMA) with New York.
- the History of Mexico, of the conquest to the future , mural fresco of Diego Will rivet with the National Palate of Mexico City.
- Mies Van der Rohe takes the head of the Bauhaus. It designs the house of the Germany to the exposure of Barcelona.
- lengthened Figure of the British sculptor Henry Moore.
Sciences & technology
- detailed Articles: 1929 in science; 1929 in aeronautics
- detailed Article: 1929 in sport
Births in 1929
- January 1st: Douglas-Gordon Jones, Canadian poet
- January 3rd: Sergio Leone, scenario writer and Italian realizer
- January 5th: Alexandre Jany, French swimmer
- January 14th: Jean-Pierre Ronfard, man of Québécois theater of French origin
- January 15th: Martin Luther King, Pasteur Baptist and American politician, militant of the integration of the blacks († April 4th 1968)
- February 7th: Alejandro Jodorowsky, realizer, actor of Chile
- February 18th: Serge Sauvion, French actor, voice of Peter Falk in the French version of Columbo
- March 9th: Marie Cardinal, writer Frenchwoman
- March 13rd: Jane Rhodos, professional singer
- April 1st: Milan Kundera, writer of languages Czech and French
- April 5th: Hugo Claus, Belgian novelist
- April 7th: Bob Denard, soldier and mercenary French († October 13rd 2007)
- April 8th: Jacques Brel, singer, actor and Belgian realizer
- April 14th: William E. Thornton, American astronaut
- April 22nd: Guillermo Will pull up Infante, writer Cuba in. († February 21st 2005)
- April 23rd: George Steiner, writer of languages English, German and French
- May 2nd: Edouard Balladur, French politician
- May 4th :
- Sidney Mr. Lamb, American linguist
- Audrey Hepburn, American actress († January 20th 1993)
- May 10th: Antonine Mallet, Canadian novelist
- May 29th: Peter Higgs, British physicist
- June 10th :
- Edward Osborne Wilson, biologist, entomologist, American
- James McDivitt, American astronaut
- June 12th: Anne Frank
- June 16th: Chicuelo II (Manual Jiménez Díaz), Spanish Matador († January 21st 1960).
- June 17th: Tigran Petrossian, Russian player of failures
- June 18th: Henri Glaeser, 78 years, realizer French. († July 23rd 2007).
- June 21st: Abdelhalim Hafez, singer and Egyptian actor. († March 30th 1977).
- June 23rd :
- Ted Lapidus, dressmaker, French
- Henri Pusher, Belgian Type-setter
- June 29th: Alexandre Lagoya traditional guitarist
- July 5th: Jacqueline Harpman, Belgian writer
- July 6th, Jean-Pierre Mocky, realizer of the cinema.
- July 21st: Philippe Ardant, lawyer French. Constitutional law professor († June 6th 2007).
- July 28th, Jacqueline Kennedy-Onassis, journalist American and First lady of the United States of 1961 with 1963
- August 17th: Francis Gary Powers, pilot Plane of Espionage American U-2
- August 24th: Yasser Arafat, Palestinian politician († November 11th 2004)
- September 2nd: Hall Ashby, American realizer († December 27th 1988)
- September 3rd: Armand Vaillancourt, Québécois sculptor
- September 5th: Andrian Nikolayev, Soviet cosmonaut
- September 9th: Claude Nougaro, singer, French type-setter († March 4th 2004).
- October 1st: Jean Tinder, humorist, writer, radio operator chronicler, French chansonnier
- October 5th: Richard Gordon, American astronaut
- October 21st :
- Pierre Bellemare, organizer and French producer of radio and television
- Ursula Guin, writer American
- October 22nd: Lev Yachine, Soviet goalkeeper
- October 29th: Bud Spencer, Italian actor
- November 7th: Marc Favreau, Québécois actor († December 17th 2005)
- November 9th: Imre Kertész, Hungarian writer
- November 12th :
- Grace Kelly, (Patricia Grace) American actress and princess of Monaco, (deceased the September 14th 1982)
- Michael Ende, German writer of fantastic novels († August 29th 1995)
- November 18th: William Joseph Knight, astronaut of USAF († May 8th 2004)
- December 6th: Philippe Bouvard, French author-journalist-presenter
- December 9th: John Cassavetes, actor and American realizer
Death in 1929
- January 13rd: Wyatt Earp (80 years), dispenser of justice of the American West (° 1848)
- February 3rd: Agner Krarup Erlang, Danish mathematician (° January 1st 1878)
- April 4th: Carl Benz, German mechanic , founder of Daimler-Benz AG (° 1844)
- March 20th: Ferdinand Foch, Marshal of France, statesman (° 1851)
- June 25th: Georges Courteline, playwright French (° 1858)
- July 1st: Wenceslau de Moraes, Naval officer and writer Portuguese
- August 19th: Serge Diaghilev, the inventor (Russian), the organizer and the director of the troop of the Russian Ballets (° 1872)
- August 24th: Karel van of Woestijne, Belgian writer (° March 10th, 1878)
- October 1st: Antoine Bourdelle, sculptor French (° 1861)
- October 3rd: Gustav Stresemann, politician and German chancellor (° 1878)
- October 28th: Bernhard von Bülow politician and German chancellor (° 1849)
- November 3rd: Jan Niecisław Baudouin de Courtenay, linguist Polish (° March 13rd 1845)
- November 24th: Georges Clémenceau, statesman French (° 1841)
- December 17th: Ted Wilde, American realizer (° 1893)
- December 20th: Emile Loubet, former president of the French Republic (° 1836)
Beats-smg: 1929 Be-X-old: 1929 Map-bms: 1929 Simple: 1929 Zh-yue: 1929 年
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