This page relates to the year 1928 Gregorian Calendrier.
April 18th, Portugal: Salazar becomes Minister for Finance of the government of the colonel Jose Vicente de Freitas. The soldiers having shown their incapacity to manage the country, Salazar imposes the subordination of all the ministries on that of finances, which imposes the limits of the expenditure and assigns to its own way the receipts. The budget is rebalanced dice the first year and the Escudo is stabilized.
- June, Yugoslavia: a deputy Montenegrin of the National parliament draws on the Croatian opponent Radic and two from his colleagues, wounding them mortally. The Croatian parliamentary commission withdraws Parliament and organizes a separatist mode with Zagreb. The civil war seems imminent but nobody dares to take the responsability for the open secession.
- August 19th: Eleftherios Venizelos, returned with the capacity, tries to stabilize the Greece (1928 - 1932).
- August 27th: The Pact Briand-Kellogg signed in Paris by 15 country, among which all great States, including the the United States and the Japan. This pact condemns the recourse to the war and envisages “to put the war outlaw”.
- October 2nd: Foundation of the Opus Dei by Josémaria Escriva de Balaguer.
- August 25th: Ahmed Zougu, hitherto president of the Albanian Republic, declares the Monarchie in Albania and controls under the name of the king Zog Ier starting from September 1st.
- October 2nd: The Conservative party seizes the power in Sweden (1928 - 1932).
- November 10th: Free elections in Romania: the country national Party obtains a majority crushing in front of the Liberal party with the capacity and Iuliu Maniu becomes Prime Minister. He supports the return of exile of the crown prince.
- the women obtain the right to vote as from 21 years with the the United Kingdom.
- May 20th: Victoire of the social democrats to the legislative ones. Net retreat of the right-hand side. The Nazi party of Adolf Hitler (NSDAP) obtains 12 seats (810 000 votes and 2,6%).
- the line is radicalized. The chief of national-German, the count Westarp, is isolated with the profit of Alfred Hugenberg, businessman pangermanist which hopes to use with its profit the movement Nazi.
- June 12th: Resignation of the chancellor Wilhelm Marx of the Zentrumspartei.
- June 28th: The Socialist Hermann Müller (SPD) becomes chancellor and form a Cabinet of great coalition.
- November 16th: The Bavarian firm BMW, which manufactures since 1916 of the engines of planes and the motor cycles, acquires the Dixi factory and launches out in the production of cars.
See also: 1928 in France
- February: Dissolution of the catholic organizations of youth. The fascistic State and organizations make sure the monopoly of teaching.
- May 17th: A law institutes the Azienda Autonoma Statale delle Strade , in charge of the construction of the Autoroute S.
- May 28th: Judgment of 37 Communist leaders, among whom Antonio Gramsci and Umberto Terracini.
- September 2nd: New electoral reform. The Grand council of Fascism draws up a list choosing the candidates among those proposed by the trade unions and various associations having a national importance. The voters have to decide without being able to make to the list any modification.
- the December 9th, the Large Council of Fascism becomes “the supreme body which coordinates all the activities of the mode” under the direction of the chief of the government. It is charged to present to the sovereign a list of candidates to the presidency of the Council in the event of vacancy of the station.
- December 24th: Law on the drainings. Launching of the project of integral allowance intended to reduce the waste lands: the Maremme Tuscany, the Marsh Pontins, the low plain of the Po are emphasized and arranged.
Series of industrial fusions: in 1928 and 1929,207 fusions relate to 516 companies having a total capital of 8,5 billion liras.
- January 16th: Leon Trotski is exiled with Alma-ATA by Stalin with about thirty members of the left opposition.
- October 1st: Launching of the first Soviet five-year plan: priority with heavy industry, and collectivization forced in the campaigns. The production of heavy industry increases by 273% at the end of the plan.
Collectivization of the campaigns. Creation of the Kolkhoz and the Sovkhoz. At the end of the realization of the plan (four years and three months), 210 000 kolkhozes cultivate 70% of the grounds and the 4 300 sovkhozes 10%, supported by 2 400 stations of agricultural machinery.
- Stalin and Boukharine clashes on the problems involved in the collection of cereals and the rate/rhythm of industrialization. It is the beginning of the Stalinist attacks against the “deviationists of right-hand side” (Boukharine, Rykov and Tomski).
- Creation of the autonomous region of the Birobidjan, in Eastern Siberia, intended for the driven out Jews of Russia or stateless people.
- May 13rd: Departure of Brussels of the white Cruising transafricaine bound for the Cape on motor bikes FN.
Invasion of migrating locusts in all the the Sahel (1928 - 1933).
Revolt of the Awandji in the area of the Haut-Ogooué (Gabon), following measurements taken by the administration against a chief of village, Wongo, which was opposed to obligatory work. They carry out a guerilla in the forest until August 1929, then are decimated by a bloody repression. The men awandjii gather within a religious community and social, the mwiri , whose entry is marked by initiatory rites and who plays a part of social regulation, political, economic and especially ecological. It allows the setting-up fast of the opposition to the colonial capacity.
War of Kongo-wara in AEF (1928 - 1932). The healer, prophet and fetichor Karnou found the ceremony of will kongo-wara (“handle of knife” which must learn how to the warriors to transform the White into gorillas and to allow them to become invincible vis-a-vis the balls (before 1925). He is opposed to colonization, initially by preaching the passive resistance and civil disobedience, then by the armed struggle as from 1928, and announces the end of the white domination to the profit of the Blacks. The insurrection extends around its native village from Nahing, and continuous after its disappearance in 1930 in Oubangui-Chari and with the Cameroun.
- Launching with Paris of the African Dispatch , re-examined assimilationnist.
- the General society of Belgium control practically all the Katanga and its copper mines, 80% of the mining sector and 65% of the capital invests with the Belgian Congo.
The Middle East
Mars: A young teacher of the Delta, disciple of Wrinkled, Hassan Al-Banna founds the company of the Muslim brothers, association of which the goal is “to promote the good and to prohibit the evil”. The movement comes from a popular dispute of the occidentalization of Egypt. He hears réislamiser the company but also to fight against popular Islam, fascinating model of the Saoudi company. Its goal is the conquest of the capacity to establish an Islamic State there, resting on the call. The company obtains an economic program and social: recognition of the personal property, right of all to work, judgment of the dishonest persons sources of profit, fights against the social variations, social security and life insurance for all. The Muslim brothers support the king against the Wafd.
- September 24th, Palestine: incidents with the Wailing Wall Arab between and Juifs degenerate into Pogroms.
- June: First elections in Syria. The first meeting of the constituent assembly (June) gives to the nationalists the presidency and the control of the parliamentary office. The assembly chooses a mode of republic parliamentary and request the unit of Syria. France, hostile to these projects, returns it sine die in February 1929.
- November 28th: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk sets up the use of the Latin alphabet instead of the Arabic alphabet to note the Turkish language.
- Egypt: Benefitting from the weakening of the Wafd, the king Fouad Ier dissolves the room and names an only liberal government which controls by decrees.
- April 10th: Second forwarding towards North: the nationalist remove Jinan (Shandong).
- June 2nd: Zhang Zuolin evacuates Beijing for the Mandchourie (he dies the 3 - June 4th with Moukden, victim of an attack). His/her son Zhang Xueliang succeeds to him.
- June 8th: The nationalists make their entry with Beijing. National unit and end of the civil war.
- June 16th: Tchang Kaï-chek announces the transfer of the capital of Beijing to Nankin.
- June 21st: Beijing ( Biejing in Mandarin) is renamed Beiping (peace of North).
- June 22nd: Resumption of the nationalist offensive against the communist .
- October 4th: New constitution.
- October 10th: Tchang Kaï-chek is elected president of the République of China. The Guomindang becomes the sole party in China.
- Moslem Insurrection with the Gansu (200 000 victims).
- the Commission John Simon recommends the establishment of responsible governments in the provinces. All the political parties decide to boycott the Commission Simon.
- December: With the transfer of the Congress with Calcutta, Gandhi succeeds in imposing a compromise on the various tendencies of the Parti the Congress: the objective is to ask for the statute of dominion within the Empire, but if the British do not yield before the following end of the year, the Congress would claim total independence then.
- October 28th, Indonesia: With Batavia, in what was then the the Indies Dutchwomen, participants in congress of youth organization Inlanders (“Indigène S”) make oath to work for nation Indonesia (the whole of the populations of the territory which undergo the Dutch colonial yoke), a language indonésienne (which is in fact the Malayan), a fatherland indonésienne.
- the American companies are authorized to take part in the prospection, the extraction and the Raffinage of oil indonésien.
Prohibition of the Ku Klux Klan.
- the Supreme court of the Canada determines that the women are not individuals with whole share according to the British constitution .
- Railroad of Hudson Bay connecting Regina to Churchill.
- speculative Push due to the prosperity of the economy to the the United States: the index of the courses of the industrial projects passes from 135 at the beginning of 1925 with 338,35 the January 2nd 1929. Deceleration of the growth masked by the speculation (automobile).
- the number of Blacks in the North of the the United States increased by 1,2 million since 1915.
- Secondary education: A child on two can enter a High School in 1928 against one out of ten in 1910.
- Álvaro Obregón is made re-elect president of the Mexico but is assassinated by a religious fanatic before his taking of the July 17th. Open one more preserving period, the Maximato , where three presidents follow one another, - Emilio Portes Gil (February 1st, 1928 - 1930), Pascual Ortiz Rubio (1930 - 1932) and Abelardo Rodriguez (1932 - 1934) - under the crook of Plutarco Elías Calles, the Jefe máximo .
- August 15th: Jose Patricio Guggiari, is elected president of the Paraguay (fine in 1932). Carried by a vague nationalist, it arms his country for a confrontation with the Bolivia, which causes serious financial problems.
- October 12th: Hipólito Yrigoyen, president of the Argentinian Republic (fine in 1930).
- December 3rd: Catastrophe with Rio de Janeiro: a Hydravion in which had took seat the intellectual elite of the Brésil to greet on its arrival with the native land the “father of aviation”, Santos-Dumont, damaged in the ocean near the steamer “Cape Arcona”.
- December 17th: Memorandum Clark which repudiates the Corollaire Roosevelt and the Doctrine Monroe.
the liberal Jose María Moncada Tapia gains the elections with the Nicaragua (it takes up duty on January 1st 1929). The troops of Sandino reach 6000 men and manage by the guerilla to control close to the three quarter of the country by inflicting heavy losses with the American troops of occupation.
- Overproduction of Coffee, involving the collapse of the economy Brazil ienne.
- Peru: Anti-imperialism and the American revolutionary popular Alliance of Víctor Raúl Haya of Torre, which suggests the participation of the middle-classes in an anti-impérialiste face. Seven tests of interpretation of Peruvian reality , the communist leader Jose Carlos Mariategui.
- May 8th: Encyclical Miserentissimus Redemptor of the pope Black and white XI.
- November 16th: The pope Pie XI qualifies immoral fact of giving the women of the courses of physical education.
Arts & culture
Sciences & technology
- February 11th: 2nd Winter Olympics to Swiss Saint-Moritz in .
- May 17th: 9th Olympic Games with Amsterdam, joining together more 3 000 athletes of 45 countries.
- June 20th: The Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen dies in the plane at the time of a rescue operation in the Arctique.
- the Tour de France cyclist is gained by Luxemburgish Nicolas Frantz, second French André Leducq and third the Belgian Maurice De Waele.
- July 26th: The champion Gene Tunney preserves his championship of the world of the heavy trucks at boxing by beating Tom Heeney by stop of the referee to the 11th round with New York.
- detailed Articles: 1928 in sport; 1928 in football
Births in 1928
- January 12th: Daniel Filipacchi, editor French, creator of Him
- January 17th: Jean Barraqué, French type-setter of serial inspiration († August 17th 1973).
- January 23rd: Jeanne Moreau, French actress
- January 24th: Michel Serrault, French actor († July 29th 2007)
- January 26th: Roger Vadim, actor and realizer French. († February 11th 2000)
- January 27th: Stanley Holden, British dancer . († May 11th 2007).
- February 9th: Frank Frazetta, illustrator of Science fiction
- February 23rd: Vassili Lazarev, Soviet cosmonaut († December 31st 1990)
- February 26th :
- March 1st: Jacques Rivette, realizer, French scenario writer
- March 6th: Gabriel García Márquez, Colombian writer
- March 12th: Edward Albee, American dramatic author ( Which is afraid of Virginia Woolf? )
- March 15th: Marcel Van, Vietnamese redemptorist († 1959).
- March 30th :
- April 2nd: Serge Gainsbourg († March 2nd 1991), type-setter, singer and actor French.
- April 19th: William Klein, photographer and American scenario writer.
- April 28th: Yves Klein, French painter († June 6th 1962).
- May 6th: Robert Poujade, French politician
- May 9th: Barbara Ann Scott, Canadian artistic skater
- May 23rd: Pauline Julien, Québécois singer († October 1st 1998).
- May 11th: Marco Ferreri († May 9th 1997), Italian realizer.
- May 13rd: Edouard Molinaro, realizer, actor, and scenario writer French
- May 19th: Pol Pot († April 15th 1998), Khmer political leader, Prime Minister for Kampuchea (1975 - 1979).
- June 1st: Georgi Dobrovolski, Russian Cosmonaut († June 30th 1971)
- June 7th: James Ivory, American realizer
- June 11th: Fabiola de Mora there Aragón, fifth queen of the Belgian
- June 14th: Ernesto Guevara († October 8th 1967), revolutionist and Argentinian politician.
- June 16th: Annie Cordy, Belgian singer
- June 20th: Jean-Marie Le Pen, French politician of Extreme right-hand side
- June 25th: Peyo, Drawing ator and Belgian scenario writer of Cartoon († December 24th 1992).
- July 2nd :
- Line Renaud, actress and singer, Frenchwoman.
- Jacques Chancel, journalist and presenter of television, French.
- July 5th
- July 10th: Bernard Buffet († October 4th 1999), French painter.
- July 21st: max Pinchard, French type-setter
- July 23rd :
- July 27th: Joseph Kittinger, American pilot
- July 26th: Stanley Kubrick († March 7th 1999), American realizer.
- August 6th: Andy Warhol American artist († February 22nd 1987).
- August 7th: James Randi, Canadian illusionist
- August 22nd: Karlheinz Stockhausen, German type-setter.
- August 31st: James Coburn († November 18th 2002), American actor.
- October 1st: Ryszard Rydzewski, realizer, scenario writer and actor Polish
- October 7th: Raymond Lévesque, Québécois singer.
- October 11th: Ennio Morricone, Italian type-setter.
- November 3rd: Osamu Tezuka, Japanese draftsman of Manga.
- November 17th: Arman, French artist († October 22nd 2005).
- December 7th: Noam Chomsky, linguist étatsunien
- December 8th: Roberto Soler, French painter.
- December 16th: Philip K. Dick († March 2nd 1982), American author of Romance and New S of Science fiction.
- December 28th: Öyvind Fahlström, painter, writer and poet Swedish († November 9th 1976).
- December 31st: Siné, draftsman.
- Juan Simpleton, Spanish writer.
Death in 1928
- January 4th: Cocherito of Bilbao (Cástor Jaureguibeitia Ibarra), Spanish Matador (° December 20th 1876).
- February 4th: Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (74 years), Dutch physicist
- February 14th: Ernesto Schiaparelli, Archeologist and Egyptologist Italy N. (° July 12th 1856).
- April 19th: Ladislav Klíma, Philosopher and Czech writer
- June 20th: Roald Amundsen (55 years), exploring Norwegian (air crash)
- July 17th: Álvaro Obregón, president of the Mexico of 1920 with 1924.
- August 12th: Leoš Janáček, Czech type-setter
- August 8th: Antonín Sova, Czech poet
- August 30th: Wilhelm Wien, German physicist, Nobel Prize 1911. (° 1864)
- September 13rd: Italo Svevo, Italian writer
- December 10th: Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Architecte, Scottish Concepteur , belonging to the movement Arts and Crafts and principal spokesperson of the Art nouveau in Scotland. (° June 7th 1868).
Beats-smg: 1928 Be-X-old: 1928 Map-bms: 1928 Simple: 1928 Zh-yue: 1928 年
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