This page relates to the year 1926 Gregorian Calendrier.
- January 6th: Creation with Berlin of the Lufthansa.
- April 24th: Treaty of Berlin between the Germany and the the USSR. Pact of friendship and non-aggression
- 12 - May 14th: Military coup d'etat in Poland of the marshal Józef Piłsudski who makes elect Ignacy Moscicki president of the Republic and exerts, as a Minister for the War, a true paternalist dictatorship until its death in 1935.
- August 23rd: Creation of the SNCB, national company of the Belgian railroads.
- September 8th: The Germany adheres to the Société Nations.
- September 11th: The Spain leaves the Company of the Nations.
- September 17th: Meet between Aristide Briand and Gustav Stresemann with Thoiry, close to Geneva, which seals the beginning of the Franco-German reconciliation. The conversations of Thoiry, known following indiscretions, cause in France a wave of indignation. Poincaré must declare, at the end of September, that the government will not sacrifice the rights given to France by the treaties.
- December 17th: Coup d'etat of the army and the Lithuanian nationalists directed by the conservative Antanas Smetona. All the liberals and the deputies of left are expelled of the Seimas . The assembly indicates Smetona like chair Republic and Augustinas Voldemaras like Prime Minister.
- Hungary: The plain party of Bethlen obtains 170 seats out of 245 at the Hungarian Parliament, the party Christian-national 35, the social democrats 14.
- Spain: Creation of the patriotic union to gather the sympathizers of the mode. Stop of the growth, monetary erosion.
- Germany: The number of unemployeds on relief passes from 200 000 in August 1925 to 2 million during the summer 1926.
See also: 1926 in France
- April 29th: Agreement of Washington on the war debts.
January 16th: The popular deputies try to return to the Room, but they are driven out by it by the fascists.
- April 3rd: A law prohibits the recourse to the Grève and the Lock-out; the organizations of the workers and the employers become indirect bodies of the public office.
- August 18th: The to read having undergone a very important fall on the international markets, Mussolini, at the time of a speech with Pesaro, announces its intention to defend the value of it. It follows a deflationary policy which ends in the fixing of a new parity with the Pound sterling (“dimension 90”) and the US Dollar (December 4th).
- November 8th: Arrest of Antonio Gramsci, general secretary of NCV.
- November 9th: All the deputies of the opposition are deposed of their mandate.
- November: The Minister for justice Alfredo Rocco makes vote the laws “fascitissimes” (the newspapers antifascists are removed, the offense of opinion instituted by the law). Their application is entrusted to OVRA (Organization voluntary for the repression of the antifascism) and to a special court of defense of the State. Many chiefs of the opposition will be off-set with the islands Lipari or Ponza. Turati, Nenni, Togliatti leaves in exile.
- December: Law Rocco which confers on Mussolini the exclusive capacity of the initiative of the laws and the possibility of legislating by Orders in Council.
Swelling of adhesions of the PNF, which waters the convictions. Scandals discrediting the party. Giurati is charged to purify it and the number of member passes from a million to 660 000.
- the difficulties encountered by the liberal economic policy (rise of the prices, cost of the corn imports bad years), encourage Mussolini to inaugurate a phase interventionist. He engages with Giuseppe Volpi a policy of rigorous deflation. Authoritative measurements aim at reducing consumption. Industries must be provided firstly out of national ores, the imports of grains are fixed quotas for, etc the currency knows a spectacular rectification (to read with parity with the franc), the imports decrease, but also exports and the production. Unemployment begins again. Great economic “battles” begin: the “battle of corn”, inaugurated in 1925 makes it possible to increase the production of 50% and to reach self-sufficiency.
- Mussolini creates Accademia d' Italia to counterbalance the influence of the Accademia del Lincei. It is inaugurated only in 1929 and of the eminent men such Pirandello, Marinetti, Goacchino Volpe and Marconi sits there.
The United Kingdom
- May 3rd: Resumption of the labor unrest. The general Grève started against the policy of the conservative government of Stanley Baldwin is followed by 3 million workers.
- May 12th Failure of the general strike. Backward flow of trade-union vagueness. TUC loses a million members between 1926 and 1933 (from 5,5 to 4,4 million).
- October 19th: Conclude imperial conference: the dominions are from now on defined like autonomous communities within the British Empire. It is the beginning of the the Commonwealth.
- May 28th: military coup d'etat of Braga. The general Gums da Costa walk on Lisbon. Most of the army joins.
- May 31st: The general Óscar Carmona seizes the power.
- 12 - June 17th: Triumvirate of Carmona, Gums da Costa and António de Oliveira Salazar, then Sinel de Cordes, Ministers for Finance.
- June 29th: Gums da Costa, president of the Republic (fine the July 9th).
- November 29th: Óscar Carmona, president of the Republic.
- December 16th: Creation of the Police force of information.
Increase in the budget deficit and the foreign debt. To avoid the bankruptcy, Sinel de Codes plans a loan with the SDN, which requires a severe international control.
- Two Portuguese out of three are still illiterate.
- Portugal counts 300 rooms of projections of cinema.
- July 23rd: Zinoviev is excluded from the Central committee of the Communist party of the USSR.
- October 16th: the unified Opposition , consisted Trotski is its old adversaries Zinoviev and Kamenev to dam up the rise of Stalin must be subjected to the discipline of the party.
- October 23rd: Leon Trotski and Lev Kamenev is excluded from the Politburo of the Communist party of the USSR.
- In African Southern Union, a series of laws leads to the Coulor Bar Act which authorizes the promulgation of payments differentiating the categories of workers paid according to their race and their color.
- the king of the Ashanti Prempeh, returned of exile in 1924, goes up on the throne.
- Ethiopia: Close-cropped Tafari, already governor of the Harrar, receives the government of the Ouollo. It reorganizes the army.
- Fondation of the Defense committee of the Negro Race by Rolls Senghor and launching of the voice of the Negros in Paris.
- Convention of Saint-Germain-in-Bush hammer with an aim of fighting against the various forms of control, including the forced labor. SDN will set up in 1932 a charged commission to apply this convention.
- Strike of the railwaymen of Sierra Leone and the Senegal.
- Invasion of grasshoppers and large Famine with the the Sahel (1926 - 1927).
- Raid of Haardt - Audoin-Dubreuil of Touggourt to Tombouctou with caterpillar tractors Citroen.
- September 25th: William Lyon Mackenzie King (liberal) becomes again Prime Minister for the Canada.
- November 18th: Constitutional independence of the Canada proclaimed with the imperial Conference. Nomination of an ambassador plenipotentiary with Washington. The foreign powers establish with Ottawa legations, whose majority will be transformed into embassies after 1944.
In the United States, Andrew W. Melon succeeds in imposing its fiscal policy (reduction of the income tax highest).
- Strike of the furriers in the United States.
- January 10th: Hernán Siles Reyes, president of Bolivia (fine in 1930). It tries to launch a crusade indigenist.
- April 1st: In Ecuador, the soldiers entrust the capacity to a civilian, Isidro Ayora.
- June 12th: The Brésil leaves the Société of the Nations.
- , Mexico: The coming into effect of anticlericals measurements stipulated in the constitution of 1917 causes the revolt of the “Cristeros”.
- August 7th: Miguel Abadía Méndez, president de Colombie.
- November 15th: Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa, president of the Republic of the Brazil. Candidate of the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, it practices a policy of construction of roads and financial orthodoxy. Getúlio Vargas, Minister for Finance.
- Peru: Víctor Raúl Haya of Torre, creator of the American revolutionary popular Alliance, denounces the “policy of penetration” of the American imperialism which transforms certain States of Central America and the Caribbean into colony with the complicity of the leading classes.
- First confrontations between the Paraguay and the Bolivia in the litigious area of Chaco.
Asia & India
- : Creation of the autonomous Republic (RA) of the Kyrgyz .
- March 20th, China: Takeover by force of Tchang Kaï-chek against the Communists.
- Feng Yuxiang is driven out of Beijing by Zhang Zuolin which links the Hebei with the Mandchourie.
- July 1st: Beginning of the Forwarding of North, military campaign conducted by Tchang Kaï-chek, a Chinese general, whose objective is the unification of the country and the setting with the step of the military clans. Communists take part in the operations (end in 1928).
- October: The Cantonese, with the assistance of the Soviet S (police chief Borodine, military technician Galentz, frameworks and ammunition) remove with the marshal Wu Peifu Wuchang (October 10th), Hankou and the arsenal of Hanyang in the Hebei. A nationalist government settles with Wuhan with the end of the year.
- December 25th: Beginning of the reign of Shōwa ( Hirohito ), emperor of the Japan (fine in 1989), it is the beginning of the era Shōwa. The end of “the liberal time” starts and the reaction of right-hand side will be accentuated regularly to the war.
- communist Revolt with the the Indies Dutchwomen (at the end of 1926, beginning 1927). It starts with Banten and Batavia, where the insurrectionists seize during a few hours the telephone center, then gains the Western coast of Sumatra. Repression stops 13 000 people of which 4 700 are condemned, from the thousands of others are transferred without judgment in the camps from internment from Digoul in New Guinea. The Communist party indonésien, weakened by internal struggles, is prohibited.
- Agreement Japan - Soviet Union.
Oceania and peaceful
The Middle East and world-Arabic
- January 8th: Abdelaziz Ibn Sa' ud is proclaimed king of the Hedjaz and sultan of the Nedjd to Mecque. The saoudites extend their power on the major part of the Arabic peninsula.
- April - May: The rebellious troops Druzes enter Damas. The High-Commissioner Maurice Sarrail makes bombard the city by French aviation, involving human losses and material considerable (May 9th). He manages to take again the control of the old city but not to pacify the Ghouta. Made responsible for the revolt, Sarrail is recalled to the profit of the radical senator Henry de Jouvenel.
- April 28th: A new government Syria N is formed by Henry de Jouvenel with for program the constitution of a treaty free-Syrian and the installation of a constitution. The nationalists refuse the French proposals again. Jouvenel promises elections in the not revolted Syrian areas. It indicates Tajj AD-DIN Al-Hassani as chief of the government of the State of Syria. It is favorable to the reconstitution of unit Syria, but in front of the opposition of the nationalists, it restores a mode of direct administration to Damas while the army takes again little by little the control of the country.
May, Egypt: Theconstitutional ones make alliance with the Wafd and gain the legislative elections together. Saad Zaghlul, under the British pressure, must be satisfied with the presidency of the Room while the liberals direct a government mainly made up of wafdists.
- June: To reassure the anxious Muslim world of sound Wahhabisme, Ibn Sa' ud organizes with Mecque a Congress of the Muslim world. Without concrete decisions or durable, this congress especially aims at the recognition of the wahhabism by the sunnites.
- August: The High-Commissioner in Syria Jouvenel is recalled and replaced by the diplomat Henri Ponsot, laid out to give to the Syria an organic statute (fine in 1933). It amnesties part of the stopped nationalists, who gather in the future national Bloc and adopt a more moderate program.
- December 5th: Médine capitulates. The last Hachémite, Ali, wire of Hussein, leaves the Hedjaz at the end of December.
the Université Al-Azhar convenes an Islamic congress with the Cairo which gives up choosing new a Caliph in front of the multiplication of the candidatures, but gives a definition of nature and function of this magistrature. He affirms that the caliphate is in conformity with the Islamic law and thus realizable.
- the wahhabite Ibn Its' ud decides to prohibit all the signs of idolatry in the holy places of Islam. It is caught in particular with the mausoleums Moslem saints of them being the subject of a popular worship in Egypt.
- Iraq: Abandonment of a bill on the conscription vis-a-vis the hostility of the Kurdish and the Shiite .
Arts & culture
Sciences & technology
Births in 1926
- January 3rd: George Martin, producer of the Beatles
- January 11th: Lev Demine, Soviet cosmonaut († December 18th 1998)
- January 12th: Morton Feldman, American Type-setter . († September 3rd 1987).
- January 24th: Georges Lautner, scenario writer French
- January 25th: Youssef Chahine, Egyptian scenario writer
- January 27th: Ingrid Thulin, Swedish actress († January 7th 2004).
- February 2nd: Valery Giscard d'Estaing, statesman French
- February 11th:
- February 13rd: Verner Panton, designer Danish († September 5th 1998).
- February 20th: Hubert de Givenchy, chairman of Givenchy
- March 6th: Andrzej Wajda, scenario writer Polish
- March 14th: François Bédarida, French historian († September 16th 2001).
- March 16th: Jerry Lewis (Joseph Levitch), comic actor and American realizer
- March 21st: Andre Delvaux, Belgian scenario writer († October 4th 2002).
- March 31st: John Fowles, British writer († November 5th 2005).
- April 3rd: Virgil Grissom, American astronaut († January 27th 1967)
- April 9th: Hugh Hefner, future founder of " Playboy " in 1953.
- April 21st: Elisabeth II of the United Kingdom, sovereign of the Commonwealth.
- April 22nd: Xavier Depraz (Xavier Delaruelle), singer of opera
- May 10th: Hugo Banzer, politician Bolivia († May 5th 2002).
- May 25th: Miles Davis, American trumpet player , († September 28th 1991).
- June 1st: Marilyn Monroe, American actress († August 5th 1962)
- June 3rd: Allen Ginsberg, American writer († April 5th 1997).
- June 8th: Philippe Castelli, French actor († April 20th 2006)
- June 22nd: Tadeusz Konwicki, writer and realizer Polish.
- June 28th: Mel Brooks, American realizer
- July 4th: Alfredo Di Stefano, hispano-Argentinian football player, star of the Real Madrid of 1953 with 1964
- July 21st: Sim (Simon Berryer), actor and humorist French
- July 25th: Monique political Furrier woman, former minister and member of the Constitutional council French
- August 8th:
- Elizabeth Holmes, ( Elizabeth Swank ) known as Lizzie , Journalist and militant anarchistic American. (° 1850).
- Morey Amsterdam, actor on television († October 27th 1996).
- August 13rd: Fidel Castro, politician and Cuban president.
- August 14th: Rene Goscinny, scenario writer of cartoons († November 5th 1977)
- August 17th: Jean Poiret, French actor († March 14th 1992)
- September 6th: Jacques Kalisz, architect French († March 5th 2002)
- September 15th
- September 17th: Jean-Marie Lustiger, cardinal Catholic († August 5th 2007)
- September 21st: Prosper Weil, Lawyer and academic French.
- September 23rd: John Coltrane, American jazzman , († July 17th 1967). * September 26th: Daniel Singer, journalist Polish († December 2nd 2000)
- October 13rd: Ray Brown, double bass player of American Jazz († July 2nd 2002).
- October 15th: Michel Foucault, Philosopher French († June 26th 1984).
- October 17th: Karl G. Henize, American astronaut († October 5th 1993)
- November 5th: John Shepherd, British writer
- November 7th: Graeme Allwright, singer néozélandais French-speaking
- November 9th: Shine Miguel González Lucas known as “Luis Miguel Dominguín”, Matador († May 8th 1996)
- November 25th:
- December 5th: Bertrand Gagnon, Québécois actor († March 2nd 2007)
- December 11th: Big Mama Thornton, singer of Blues († July 25th 1984)
Death in 1926
- February 4th: Adolphe Willette, painter
- February 7th: William Evans Hoyle, British malacologist (° January 28th 1855)
- February 18th: Litri (Manual Báez Gómez), Spanish Matador (° August 13rd 1905).
- June 10th: Antoni Gaudí, Spanish Architect
- June 13rd: Mariano Assemble, Spanish Matador (° April 22nd 1894).
- July 21st: Emile Coué, father éponyme of the Method Coué
- September 27th: Georges Guigue, Historian and Archivist French
- December 5th: Claude Monet, painter French
Beats-smg: 1926 Be-X-old: 1926 Map-bms: 1926 Simple: 1926 Zh-yue: 1926 年
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