This page relates to the year 1924 Gregorian Calendrier.
- January 28th: Renault lance an automobile forwarding through the the Sahara of Colomb-Béchar to Bourem.
- February 26th: Henri Terrasson of Ferns is named governor of the French Sudan (fine in 1931).
- June 30th: James B. Hertzog becomes Prime Minister of South Africa (fine in 1939). It mêne a segregationist policy.
- October 28th: Beginning of the black Cruising. Citroen launches a forwarding out of caterpillar tractors between the North Africa and Madagascar (fine the June 26th 1925).
- Repression of the Kimbanguisme to the Belgian Congo. The movement develops in clandestinity and becomes more and more anticolonialist.
- Creation with Paris of the universal League of defense of the black race (Marc Tovalou-Quenum, known as Kodjo Houenou, and Rene Maran).
- Strike in the gold mines in country Ashanti (Gold Coast).
- the railway line Kayes - Niger is connected to Dakar.
- First demographic surveys with the Belgian Congo, which would count from 7 to 10 million inhabitants.
May 7th: Foundation with the Peru by Víctor Raúl Haya of Torre of the American revolutionary popular Alliance (American revolutionary popular Alliance) around the problems involved in the monopolization of the ground by the latifundia and on the question of the place of the Indians.
- July 5th, Brazil: The economic crisis leads to a broad military revolt, which starts with São Paulo then extends in the country and leads to 6 months of popular disorders.
- the revolt of São Paulo is directed by the general in retirement Isidoro Dias Lopes and is animated by young officers like Eduardo Gomes and Miguel Costa. They occupy the city during 22 days, then evacuate it in front of the governmental forces. Disorders take place also with Aracaju, Manaus, Belem and in the Rio Grande C Sul. A warship mutine in bay of Rio. The rebels of the Rio Grande walk towards north and make the junction with those of São Paulo. They go then during three years through the interior of the Brésil (Column Swift), initially in the Maranhão, then towards the south. They enter in Bolivia to disperse there after a way of more than 20000 kilometers. They had not been able to enlist the peasants who remained wise under the supervision of the coronéis. After many confrontations, the army succeeds in taking again the situation in hand and with subduing the revolt. However, the government issues the martial law, to avoid new problems.
- September, Chile: On the call of the president Alessandri, the army imposes on the Congress a calendar reforms, then seizes the capacity.
- September 29th: Plutarco Elías Calles is proclaimed President of the Republic of the Mexico (fine in 1928).
American Intervention with the Honduras.
- Return of the growth of exports to the Chile.
- the president of the Paraguay Eligio Ayala lance a project of colonization of the desert of the Chaco in order to protect its sovereignty.
the United States
- February 3rd: Died of Woodrow Wilson.
- February 8th: First execution by lethal gas in a prison of the United States.
- February 14th: The company of Hermann Hollerith is renamed IBM.
- April 6th - September 28th: First air round the world tour started from Washington.
- May 16th: Second discriminatory law on immigration in the United States (law Johnson-Reed): tightening of the quotas by nationalities.
- June 24th: Ford leaves its ten millionth car (a Ford T launched in 1908).
- September 1st: Plane Dawes of mediation in the payment of the war indemnities which had by the Germany.
- November 4th: The republican Calvin Coolidge is re-elected President of the United States with supports mediums of business in front of the divided democrats. He preaches the doctrines of laissez-faire.
Scandal of Teapot Dome. Albert Fall, secretary inside Harding, is put in charge by the democrats to have leased, realizing finance, oil reserves of Teapot Dome (Wyoming) and of Elk Hills (California) allotted to the Navy at private companies.
- January 25th: Free-Czechoslovakian alliance.
- March 25th: The Greek soldiers proclaim the republic. The king Georges II share in exile. One period chaotic beginning and military coups d'etat.
- April: Prohibition of the Rumanian Communist party. It remains in the illegality until in 1944.
- July 16th - August 16th: Conference of London. Ramsay MacDonald obtains the withdrawal of the French of the the Ruhr and their acceptance of the Plan Dawes on German repairs.
- July: Mining law in Romania: nationalization of the German shares. The Rumanian State becomes the principal owner of the oil fields (60%).
Portugal: Movements of force on the right (monarchist, nationalists supported by the army and certain working mediums). Anarchistic actions. The C.G.T. (40 000 trade unionists) adheres to International the anarchist.
- Hungary: the government of Stephen Bethlen obtains SDN a loan of 250 million crowns gold.
- Law on Rumanian nationality.
- January 14th - April 9th: First meeting of the Dawes committee for the German debts. Reduction of the war damagees which had by Germany.
- February 22nd: Foundation of the socialist formation of combat, Banner of empire, intended to be opposed to the Helmet steel and SA.
- April 1st: Judgment of Adolf Hitler at five years of fortress, following the Putsch of the brewery.
- May 4th: Legislative: NSDAP enters to the Reichstag.
- September 1st: Coming into effect of the Plane Dawes which re-spreads the payment of repairs by Germany over five years, the Belgian and French troops evacuate the the Ruhr. Germany pours between 7 and 8 billion marks between 1924 and 1928 but profits from loans and investment considerable American (25 billion).
- December 20th: Adolf Hitler, amnestied by the Bavarian government, leaves prison after 13 month instead of the 5 years envisaged. It wrote there its proclamation Mein Kampf ( My combat ) which will appear in 1925.
Economic recovery of Germany (1924-1929). Cleansing and rationalization of industry. In February, the government imposes a revalorization of the old titles, which is actually, a true bankruptcy. In April, the Reichsbank refuses all new credit, which obliges the industrialists and the tradesmen to repatriate their assets from abroad. The August 30th, the Rentenmark is replaced by the Reichsmark (RM), guaranteed on gold. These radical measurements ruined an important part of the population.
- Commercial treaty with the Spain and the Great Britain.
- Strikes against the increase in the duration of the work in Germany (9 hours at least).
See also: 1924 in France
- January 22nd: Minority Labor ministry of James Ramsay MacDonald, Prime Minister for the the United Kingdom, with the support without participation of the liberals (end the November 4th). It is the first government to count a woman, Margaret Bondfield.
- Letter Zinoviev: the president of the Komintern encourages the British workers to make the revolution.
- Victoire of the conservatives to the elections of October with 419 seats (151 members of the Labor Party, 40 liberals).
- November: Beginning of the preserving ministry of Stanley Baldwin, Prime Minister for the the United Kingdom (fine in 1929).
- January 25th: Dissolution of the Room
- January 27th: Agreement with the Yugoslavia: Fiume is allotted to the Italy while most of the back country returns to the Yugoslavia.
- April: Elections with the Room, after the vote of an electoral law (law Acebo ) according to which the party which would have 25% of the voices would see allotting two thirds of the seats. Mussolini draws up a national list, the Listone , which obtains 65% of the voices vis-a-vis the divided opposition. The fascists send to the Room 355 deputies against 176 for the other parties.
- May 24th: The general secretary of the socialist party, Giacomo Matteotti, pronounces with the opening of the Room a violent one indictment against the mode, proposing the invalidation of the deputies of the Listone .
- June 10th: Removal and assassination of Matteotti by the fascists. Its body will be found the August 16th.
- June 27th: The deputies of opposition decide “to withdraw themselves on the Aventin” as long as the militia would not be dissolved and launch a large opinion campaign which discredits the fascists. Mussolini seeks to be cleared then asserts the responsibility for the act, opening the way with the dictatorship.
- July 10th: A new Order in Council brings new limitations to freedom of the press.
- January 21st: died of Lénine to Gorki.
- Two tendencies are opposed: Trotski outside recommends the revolution and fast industrialization inside. Stalin recommends a gradual economic growth and the recognition of the temporary stabilization of capitalism.
- January: The new Constitution of the USSR is ratified. It devotes, from the formal point of view, the union of equal in right and sovereign Republics. The central government keeps the control of the foreign affairs, defense and economic planning.
- 23 - May 31st: Judgment by XIIIe congress of the PCUS of the theses of Trotsky.
- October 12th:
- the Pravda announces the publication of the Lessons of October of Trotski, which show Zinoviev and Kamenev to have betrayed the revolution.
- autonomous Soviet socialist Republic (RSSA) of Moldavie created on the territory of the Soviet Union, at the border with the Romania with for capital the Ukrainian city of Balta.
- October 29th: The France recognizes swears the Soviet Union. The the United Kingdom and other European countries also recognize the USSR.
- December 20th: Denouncing the idea of permanent revolution defended by Trotski, Stalin lance the slogan of “the Construction of socialism in only one country”.
Asia & Indian world
- October 27th: Creation of the Soviet socialist republic (RSS) of Ouzbékistan, joining together the territories of the old RSSA of the Turkestan and the Soviet republics of Khiva and Bukhara. The Tadjikistan becomes an autonomous Republic inside the RSS of the Uzbeks.
November 26th: The death of the last Bodgo Gegen makes it possible the Mongolian provisional government to proclaim the Popular republic of Mongolia. Ourga is renamed Ulan-Bator (red Hero). The leaders of the new republic align on the Soviet Union.
- Indonesia: The State has the 5/8 of the actions of the NR. V. Billiton Maatschappij (tin). The Royal Dutch Shell control 95% of oils indonésiens.
- Tibet : The exploring Frenchwoman Alexandra David-Néel is the first European one to enter Lhassa. She is a great success while publishing in 1927 Voyage of Parisian in Lhassa .
- January 30th: Fusion of the Guomindang and the Chinese Communist party.
- May 31st: Treaty standardizing the relations of the China with the Soviet Union.
- September: Ts' ao Kouen and Wou P' I.E.(internal excitation)-insane is put at evil by the dictator of Mandchourie Tchan Tso-flax and the “Christian general” Fong Yu-siang which tries to settle with Beijing.
- November: Sun Yat-SEN goes to Tokyo in the intention to federate the China and the Japan but dies on its return in China the March 12th 1925. It is replaced by its lieutenant Tchiang Kai-chek.
Believed of the Houang Ho.
Oceania & the Pacific
- Great eruption of the Kilauea, 1 dead.
The Middle East & world arabo-Moslem
- March 3rd: Abolition of the institution caliphale by Mustapha Kemal.
- Mars: Abdelaziz Ibn Sa' ud lets the Ikhwan launch its raids in Hedjaz at the time when Hussein, chief of the Hachémites, proclaims Caliph.
- Although trying a mediation, the British give up Hussein gradually, considered to be too intransigent and refusing to ratify the peace treaties organizing the Middle East. In June, the Saoudis publicly deny in Hussein any claims califale and are presented in the form of executants of the Arab and Moslem world to punish it. The offensive is started during the summer.
- October 2nd: Hussein abdicates.
- October 13rd: forces wahhabites of Ibn Sa' ud enter to Mecque and force Hussein with the exile.
Project Nansen, envisaging the establishment in Soviet Arménie of 50 000 refugees. It will be abandoned in 1929.
- Arrived in Palestine many Jewish fleeing anti-semites measurements adopted in Poland (1924 - 1926). These arrivals cause an economic crisis situation in the Yichouv (Jewish presence in Palestine), so much its organization misses profitability.
- January: Victoire of the Wafd to the first legislative elections. It gains 195 of the 214 seats to provide. Saad Zaghlul becomes Prime Minister.
- June 19th: Egyptian the Prime Minister Saad Zaghlul pasha declares that the Sudan is an indivisible part of the Egypt.
- October: The mutiny of the Egyptian troops in Sudan is repressed hard by the British, who refuse from now on the Egyptian presence in Sudan and assert the exclusive protection of the country. On the other hand, the Egyptian State is held to take part financially at the expenses of occupation.
- November 24th: Following the assassination with the Cairo of the governor of the Sudan to sir Lee Stark, the Great Britain constrained Saad Zaghlul pasha to be resigned. Ahmed Ziwar pasha succeeds to him like Prime Minister. The king Fouad Ier dissolves the room and tries to make pressure on the voters to obtain the defeat of the Wafd to the elections of 1925.
Arts & cultures
- Opening of the “office of Surrealist research ”, First proclamation of the Surrealism by André Breton and, on February 1st, birth of the review “the surrealist revolution”.
- the German novelist Thomas Mann publishes the Magic Mountain .
- the British novelist Edward Morgan Forster publishes the Road of the Indies .
- Birth of the novelist, illustrator, and journalist Lou Cameron with the the United States of America.
Sciences & technology
the French physicist Louis de Broglie proposes an undulatory model of the particles.
- For the first time, a photograph is telegraphed between London and New York.
- Olympic Games of summer to Paris (France) of which the competitions are held between the May 3rd and the July 27th.
- Leitartikel : Olympic Games of summer of 1924.
- First Winter Olympics to Chamonix (France) of which the competitions are held between the January 25th and the February 5th. There is participation of 16 country and of almost 300 athletes.
- Leitartikel : Winter Olympics of 1924.
- detailed Article: 1924 in sport
Births in 1924See also: : Category: Birth in 1924
- January 3rd: Andre Franquin, Belgian draftsman († January 5th 1997)
- January 10th: Eduardo Chillida, Spanish sculptor († August 19th 2002).
- January 12th: Olivier Gendebien, racing driver († October 2nd 1998).
- January 13rd: Small Roland, choreographer and dancer French
- January 26th: Armand Gatti, man of theater
- January 29th: Luigi Nono, Italian type-setter († May 8th 1990).
- February 10th: Maurice Abiven, French doctor, specialist in Internal medicine, pioneer of the practice of the palliative Care in France. († May 27th 2007).
- February 19th: David Bronstein, international large-Master of failures, writer († December 5th 2006).
- February 23rd: Claude Sautet, French scenario writer, (deceased the July 27th 2000)
- March 1st: Donald Kent Slayton, American astronaut († June 13rd 1993)
- March 3rd: Micheline Dax (Ethevenon), actress and French singer
- April 3rd: Marlon Brando, American actor († July 1st 2004)
- April 12th: Raymond Barre, French politician († August 25th 2007)
- April 13rd: Stanley Donen, American realizer
- April 29th: Zizi Jeanmaire, dancer and French singer
- May 7th: Andre of Bouchet, French poet († April 19th 2001).
- May 17th: Gabriel Bacquier, singer of French opera
- May 21st: Marie-Adelaide of Luxembourg, family member royal of the Luxembourg
- May 22nd: Charles Aznavour, singer and actor French
- May 23rd: Flora Groult, French writer († June 3rd 2001).
- June 12th: George Bush, old President of the United States
- June 20th: Chet Atkins, guitarist and American producer († June 30th 2001).
- June 25th: Sidney Lumet, American realizer
- July 4th: Eva Marie Saint, American actress
- July 6th: Robert Michael White, astronaut of USAF
- July 15th: Felix Giband, singer of opera
- August 5th: Kéba Mbaye, lawyer Senegal board, vice-president of the International penal court of 1981 with 1990, president of the Arbitration court of the sport, former vice-president of CIO. († January 11th 2007).
- August 7th: Jean Dorst, French naturalist († August 8th 2001).
- August 11th: Boris Karlov, Bulgarian accordionist († December 12th 1964).
- August 23rd :
- September 2nd: Henri Krasucki, trade unionist French († January 24th 2003)
- September 13rd: Maurice Guard hair, French type-setter
- September 16th: Lauren Bacall, American actress
- September 18th: J.D. Tippit, police officer of Dallas, († November 22nd 1963) died in service at the time of the Assassination of John F. Kennedy.
- September 28th: Pierre Aigrain, physicist and politician French († October 30th 2002).
- September 30th: Truman Capote, American writer († August 25th 1984).
- October 1st: Jimmy Carter, old President of the United States
- October 4th: Charlton Heston, American actor
- October 9th: Robert A. Rushworth, astronaut of USAF († March 17th 1997)
- November 12th: Audouin Dollfus, French astronomer
- November 20th: Benoit Mandelbrot, French mathematician
- November 21st :
- December 9th: Manlio Sgalambro, Philosopher, Poet and Italian Playwright.
- December 19th: Michel Tournier, French writer
Death in 1924See also: : Category: Death in 1924
- January 12th: Alexis Lapointe, Canadian Athlete (° 1860)
- January 21st: Lénine (Vladimir Ilitch Oulianov), statesman and Socialist Theorist , Soviet, (° 1870).
- February 3rd: Woodrow Wilson, 28e President of the United States (° 1856)
- March 20th: Fernand Cormon (Fernand Anne Piestre), painter (naturalist) French, (° 1845).
- March 22nd: Louis Delluc, critical, Scenario writer and Realizer French, (° 1890).
- June 3rd: Franz Kafka, writer, Czech Austrian of origin, (° 1883).
- July 13rd: Alfred Marshall, economist, British, (° 1842).
- November 4th: Gabriel Fauré, Type-setter, French, (° 1845).
- November 8th: Sergueï Liapounov, Russian Type-setter , (° 1859).
- November 10th: Archibald Geikie, geologist, British, (° 1835).
- November 29th: Giacomo Puccini, Type-setter, Italian, (° 1858).
Beats-smg: 1924 Be-X-old: 1924 Map-bms: 1924 Simple: 1924 Zh-yue: 1924 年
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