This page relates to the year 1922 Gregorian Calendrier.
- February 6th:
- Treated of Washington of 1922 on the naval armaments.
- Beginning of the Pontificate of Black and white XI (fine in 1939).
- February 15th: Installation of the the International Court of Justice to $the Hague.
- April 10th: Opening of the economic conference and financial of Genoa (April-May 1922), on the world monetary system.
- May 19th: Conference of Genoa adopting the Gold Exchange Standard. The dollar and it book are recognized like currencies of reserve.
- December 17th: A caravan of five cars equipped by André Citroen leaves Touggourt (Algérie) for the first crossing of the the Sahara It arrives at Tombouctou the January 7th 1923.
- recurring Attempts at rising of the Arabs of Cyrénaïque against the Italian occupation, supported by the religious movement Senousis you (1922 - 1931).
- Revolt in Angola.
- Return of Ralaimongo to Madagascar.
- AOF : the old School of the Hostages becomes a school for wire of chiefs.
- teaching in French becomes obligatory in AOF and AEF, at the beginning of schooling.
- Creation of the Musama Disco music Christo (Armed with the Cross of Christ) in Gold Coast.
- Prophecy of Ndonye wa Kauti with the Kenya.
- The Dual Elects in British Tropical Africa , of Lord Frederick Lugard (1858 - 1914), administrator with the Nigeria. It develops the theory of to with it Indirect Rule , which bases the colonial capacity on collaboration with the traditional political structures.
- Before withdrawing itself, the American army organizes an national guard in Dominican Republic and elections for 1924.
- October 2nd: Birth of broadcasting to the Quebec with the inauguration of the station CKAC.
Demolished Tenentismo with the Brésil (1922 - 1927). The July 5th, a revolt of the subalterns bursts on the beach of Copacabana under the direction of some lieutenants ( tenentes ) of which Antônio Siqueira Campos and Eduardo Gomes. The juniors by the military academy try to join them but are brought back the order. The senior officers walk against Copacabana, whose fort is bombarded by ground and sea. The rebels go to the governmental forces, except eighteen of them which go down on the beach to face only the fire of the adversary. The majority are killed.
November 15th: Artur da Silva Bernardes, candidate of the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais gains the presidential election against Nilo Peçanha, candidate of “the Republican Reaction” (coalition of the other States) and of the soldiers.
Birth of the Communist party. Divisions between anarchists and Communists weaken the labor movement.
- “Circles of workers” created on the initiative of the future cardinal of Rio, Sebastião Lemma with an aim of improving the material condition of the working classes.
- After 4 years of respite, beginning of a new economic serious attack.
the United States
- February 8th: President Warren Harding settles a radio with the White House.
- April 7th: Scandal of the “gang of Ohio” (Teapot Dome scandal) which touches the entourage of President Harding.
- Be: Return of prosperity. GNP increases almost by 50% of 1922 with 1929, passing from 75 to 104 billion dollars. The national revenue increases by 60 to 87 billion and the average revenue per head 553 to 716 dollars per annum.
- September 22nd: Tariff Fordney-McCumber. The tariff barriers are brutally raised and the agricultural produce is included in the list of the protected sectors. The President is entitled to modify the tariffs up to 50%. The trade balance is in constant surplus (1 000 million dollars on average of 1921 to 1925,800 million 1926 in 1930). The United States, to avoid any catastrophic interruption of the flow of the exchanges, must grant constant appropriations massively. Strikes in the coal mines and the railroads.
2,3 million cars is sold into 1922 with the the United States.
Asia & Indian world
- January 15th: Foundation of the Japanese, prohibited Communist party the following year.
- February, India: Gandhi decides to suspend the movement of civil disobedience following the fire of a police station by a crowd in anger in the United Provinces causing the death of 22 police officers. Bloody repression of the countryside of civil disobedience.
- February 4th: Sino-Japanese treaty, by which the Japan gives up its advantages in China, acquired during the First World War.
March 16th: The Mahatma Gandhi is condemned to six years of prison to have called with disobedience.
Tibet : Under the influence of the Dalai Lama, certain official Tibetans (like the Tsarong general or the intellectual Gedun Chöphel) and of the British, Tibet opens with a shy person modernization. But in front of the pressure of the preserving forces, the Dalai Lama must move back: the reform of the army and the police force is suspended in 1925; the English school, opened with Gyantse in 1924, is closed at the end of two years.
- the news constitution of the Netherlands removes the word “colonies” for the expression “overseas territories” but Indonésiens remain Dutch “subjects”. The policy of decentralization is reinforced, with an aim of facilitating the work of the administration, of associating the elite indonésienne to detach it from the nationalist movement and of diversifying the local modes with it in order to leave to the Dutchmen the role of referees. Apart from the common old villagers ( desas ), it appears local councils: municipal councils, of regency, province. The electorate is extremely reduced with regard to Indonésiens.
- the refusal of the Dutch government to accept the Plan Stevenson develops the production of rubber.
- January 17th: Liberal government of Ion I.C. Brătianu in Romania (1922 - 1928). Centralizing policy.
- April 16th: Treaty of Rapallo between the Germany and the Russia Soviet, putting an end to the German-Russian dispute and breaking the insulation of the two powers. Resumption of the diplomatic relations, clause of the most favoured nation in the economic reports/ratios and mutual renunciation of the undergone damage.
- August: The constituent assembly Lithuania which sits since May 1920 approves a Constitution making of the country a democratic republic. The liberal and preserving groups with the Seimas tear at the time of the two following years.
- September 27th: The king Constantin Ier of Greece abdicates, driven out by a revolution. His/her oldest son Georges II succeeds to him.
- October 11th: Armistice enters the Turkey and the Greece.
- Constitution with the Netherlands.
- the Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to Norwegian Fridtjof Nansen.
- May: Union of the Churches Lutherans, which gathers 28 Churches.
Collapse of the German currency: the dollar is with dimensions 191,8 marks ( January), then 493 marks ( June), 1990 marks (August 25th), 4000 marks ( October). The employees, the small one and middle class, the pensioners, suffer from this situation which benefits in Reich, the States, the local government agencies and the mediums of business. The industrialists widen their empire and invest abroad. Inflation also encourages the economic revival. The industrial production reaches its level of pre-war period quickly.
See also: 1921 in France
- 5 - January 12th: Conference of Cannes (France). Reduction of the German debt n the other hand of an English guarantee of the Treated of Versailles. It runs up against the opinion like the members of Parliament and the president of the Republic.
- August 22nd: The Irish revolutionist Michael Collins is assassinated.
- October 19th: Conflict between radicals and moderated with the the United Kingdom. Fall of Lloyd George. The conservatives, brought together with the Carlton Club, decide to leave the government coalition. They constitute the “Committee 1922” charged to express the point of view of the basic deputies.
- October 23rd: Beginning of the preserving ministry of Andrew Bonar Law, Prime Minister for the the United Kingdom (fine in 1923).
- November: Victoire of the conservatives to legislative with 345 seats. The divided liberals obtain from them 116 and Members of the Labor Party 142.
- November 14th: Creation of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC).
- December 6th: Proclamation of Irish Free State (free State of Ireland). William T. Cosgrave becomes the Prime Minister about it. The Home Rule is granted to 26 Irish counties out of 32 (part of the Ulster remains British).
- February 2nd: The president of the Council Ivanoe Bonomi resigns. The popular ones, whose influence at the Parliament is increasingly strong, are opposed to the return Giovanni Giolitti. The king entrusts the formation of the government to Luigi Facta.
- March 3rd: The constituent Assembly of Fiume is reversed by a fascistic coup d'etat .
- 4 - June 6th: First congress of the fascistic trade union movement with Milan.
- July 31st: The organized labor decides the general strike, proclaimed “strike légalitaire” by Filippo Turati because intended to fight against subversion. The failure is total. PNF gives 48 hours to the government to restore the order, without what Fascism would be given the responsability “to save the State”.
- August 2nd: The fascists invade the cities and force by violence the workmen to turn over to the factory. Buildings are set fire to, and the August 3rd the CGL and the UIL order the resumption of work. The country is under the boot of the squadrists. Mussolini then sticks to paralyze the reactions of the political community by multiplying the transactions with Nitti and Salandra which hopes to return to the capacity with the support of the fascists. To the court, the duke of Aoste and the queen Marguerite mother are won over to Fascism and Mussolini declares that Fascism, though republican, would respect monarchy if it remained neutral.
- - November 4th: National congress of the socialist party to Rome. The maximalist wing expels the wing reformist which constitutes the unit socialist party.
- October 24th: Large gathering of the fascistic party with Naples. Benito Mussolini threat to go on Rome with the fascistic forces (the general De Bono, Italo Balbo, Michele Bianchi and De Vecchi).
- the October 27th, it reigns a great confusion in all the peninsula: the civil authorities entrust the capacity to the soldiers who negotiate with the squadrists.
- October 28th: Walk on Rome of Mussolini and its “ black Shirts . ”
- 26 000 fascists, badly armed, walk on the capital, defended by 28 000 soldiers. Mussolini claims the resignation of the president of the Council, Facta. This last proposes to the king, who refuses, to issue the State of emergency. Facta resigns and the king proposes a Salandra government with fascistic participation, that Mussolini refuses. Supported by the mediums of businesses of the Confindustria and the Confagricoltura, he asks the presidency of the Council, which is granted to him.
- October 29th: King Victor-Emmanuel III names Benito Mussolini President of the Council of Italy.
- the October 31st, Mussolini trains a cabinet of national union (nationalists, democrat-social nittiens, giolittiens, close to Salandra, monarchists).
- November: Against the opening of the Rooms, the government runs up against some moderate Socialists (Matteotti, Modigliani, Turati) but liberals, independent Socialists and the popular ones vote confidence with Mussolini, then the full powerss.
December 5th: Creation of the “Large Council of Fascism” by Mussolini, composed members of the direction of PNF and senior officials essential with the good walk of the State. It replaces the government de facto by making the decisions in its place. Purification of the public office, the magistrature and the diplomacy (1922 - 1928) to the profit of the faithful ones to the PNF.
Opposition: Socialist liberals and republicans constitute a Concentration especially active antifascist abroad. The movement Giustizia E Libertà of Carlo Rosselli recommends the insurrectionary way (attacks, sabotages) but the network is dismantled by the police force. The Italian Communist party obtains a clandestine structure which acts inside and outside (Palmiro Togliatti with Paris). Faithful to the class struggle, he refuses any agreement with the Concentration.
- the economist Alberto De Stefani, Minister for Finance of Mussolini, inaugurates a liberal phase of the fascistic economic policy (1922 - 1925): release of the prices and the rents, end of the land reform, called into question of the state monopolies (matches, telephone), balance in the budget by the drastic reduction of the national expenditure. This policy bears its fruits. The wages increase and unemployment drops.
- Réforme of education by the minister philosophizes Giovanni Gentile (fine in 1924).
- February 6th: The Tchéka, Russian political police, is replaced by the Guépéou (GPU).
- April 3rd: Joseph Stalin becomes general secretary of the Communist party of the Soviet Union (PCUS).
- September 17th: Creation of the first programmes of radiotelefony in Russia.
- October: The Japanese leave Vladivostok
- December 30th: Signature of the treaty of foundation of the Union of the Soviet socialist republics (the USSR) by RSFSR, the Ukraine, the Bielorussia and the Transcaucasia.
Oceania & peaceful
The Middle East & world arabo-Moslem
February 28th: British protectorate on the Egypt is completed and the country becomes independent: Fouad Ier starts its reign. The Great Britain issues important reserves defense foreign politics. Last military conventions with the the United Kingdom make it possible British troops to remain to ensure the protection of the country and in particular the Suez Canal.
- March 15th: The sultan Fouad Ier proclaims king of Egypt and a government is formed without the participation of the Wafd. King Fouad support on the moderate ones which forms in 1922 the liberal-constitutional party while recruiting among the dissidents of Wafd. Although favorable to a more autocratic mode, it lets them work out the Constitution.
- June 28th: Pacification of Syria. Gouraud sets up the administrative organization of the country. It creates four States (Damas, Alep, Druzes and Alaouites), directed by assisted French governors of administrative counsels. A French High-Commissioner based with Beirut centralizes the policy agent. Damas, Alep and the Alaouite territory is gathered in a Syrian federation with in the chair Syrian, Subhi Barakat.
- June: London publishes a White paper which affirms that there will be no State Juif in Palestine but only the development of a Jewish community with its own institutions. The British authority will set up institutions of free-government in which will take part Juifs and Arab. The latter will not be associated with the policy agent that if they recognize the declaration Balfour.
- July 4th, Palestine: The charter of the Mandate is adopted by the House of Commons the British on the basis of White paper, then ratified by SDN the July 24th. Article 2 shows the terms of the declaration Balfour. The Arabs, refusing to recognize the Balfour declaration, boycott the institutions agents.
- 752 048 inhabitants in Palestine, of which 83 790 Jewish. The Moslems of Palestine organize themselves in religious community around the Mufti of Jerusalem, Hajj Amin Al-Husseini. The Jews constitute themselves as autonomous people, refusing any economic and social collaboration with the Arabs. The separate development of the two communities prevents the formation of a Palestinian citizenship or the emergence of a regional identity associating Juifs and Arab.
- August, Iraq: The government of Fayçal in spite of a virulent local opposition, accepts the signature of a treaty with the Great Britain.
- September 16th: Creation of the Transjordanie under the reign of the emir hachémite Abdallah.
- October 10th, Signature of a treaty between the Iraq and the the United Kingdom, which devotes in fact the Mandate, conferring to the British an absolute control on the Iraqi administration and the control of the Pétrole. It must be ratified by the Iraqi assembly, whose election, boycotted by the Chiites, finally does not take place.
- the Iraqi State deals with the expenses of the British presence. It does not obtain any right on the oil exploitation. The cultural rights of the Kurdish are respected. The tribal legislation is maintained, reinforcing the political bonds between the shaykhs and the new capacity but maintaining the peasants in a state of quasi serfdom. Country risings are repressed with the assistance of British aviation.
- November 4th: Discovered tomb of Toutankhamon by the British Egyptologist Howard Casing
- November: Gouraud is named French High-Commissioner with Beirut.
- December 30th: The Armenian republic is linked with the Soviet socialist republics of Azerbaïdjan and Georgia to form the federate Soviet socialist République Transcaucasie (RSSFT), which becomes one of the four initial republics of the Union of the Soviet socialist republics (the USSR).
- Creation with the Lebanon of an administrative counsel elected on a denominational basis without real capacities to assist the French governor.
- the charter of the Syrian mandate is ratified by SDN.
- Foundation with Damas by Dr. Shahbandar of the Company of the iron hand financed by Michel Lutfallah. Shahbandar is immediately stopped, which causes street demonstrations with Damas. It condemned to the prison and its organizations is dissolved, then is exiled of Syria in 1924.
- August 26th: Mustafa Kemal lance its command “Soldier, your objective is the Mediterranean”.
- August 30th: The Greeks are overcome with Dumlupinar.
- September 9th: The Turks enter to Smyrna (massacre of the Greek population). The Greeks also evacuate Eastern Thrace.
- October 1st: Mustafa Kemal makes vote the abolition of the Othoman sultanate in Turkey and proclaims the republic.
- October 11th: The French manage to make sign the armistice of Moudanya between Greece and the Turks who find sovereignty on Constantinople;
- October 21st: A conference of peace opens with Lausanne.
Arts & culture
Sciences & technology
- July 22nd: Germany, excluded from the Olympic Games of Antwerp in 1920, organizes against-plays with Leipzig.
Births in 1922See also: : Category: Birth in 1922
- : Andre Bergeron, leader French trade unionist
- January 2nd: Maurice Faure, French politician
- January 7th: Jean-Pierre Rampal French flutist, deceased the May 20th 2000
- January 9th: Ahmed Sékou Touré, president of the Republic of Guinea, deceased in 1984.
- January 17th: Shine Echeverría Álvarez, president of the Mexico of 1970 with 1976
- : Renata Tebaldi, Soprano Italian
- February 6th: Patrick Macnee, British actor
- February 16th: Luigi Meneghello, academic, translator and writer Italy N. († June 26th 2007).
- March 5th: Pier Paolo Pasolini, writer, scenario writer and Italian realizer
- March 12th: Jack Kerouac (Jean-Louis Kerouac), writer American novelist
- March 19th: Paul Sérant, journalist, essay writer and novelist French
- March 23rd: Ugo Tognazzi, movie actor and Italian realizer, († 1990, 68 years)
- March 24th: Joseph Milik, priest Polish († January 6th 2006)
- April 4th: Armand Jammot, producer of French television
- April 9th: Albert Weinberg, Belgian draftsman of Cartoon
- April 16th: Boby Lapointe, French singer
- April 24th: Susanna Agnelli, political woman and businesswoman Italian, former minister in Italy
- April 26th :
- pol. Bury, Belgian sculptor († 2005)
- Jeanne Mathilde Saved, political woman, general governor of the Canada
- April 29th: Toots Thielemans, Belgian Harmoniciste of Jazz
- May 2nd: Serge Reggiani, actor French singer
- May 13rd: Varelito (Manual Varé García), Spanish Matador (° September 29th 1893).
- May 16th: Martine Carol, French actress
- May 29th: Iannis Xenakis, French type-setter
- May 30th: Hall Clement, American author of science fiction († October 29th 2003)
- May 31st: Denholm Elliott, British actor
- June 2nd: Juan Antonio Bardem, Spanish scenario writer
- June 3rd: Alain Resnais, French realizer
- June 11th: Erving Goffman, American sociologist
- June 19th: Aage Niels Bohr, Danish physicist, Nobel Prize of Physics in 1975.
- June 25th: Antonio Bienvenida (Antonio Mejías Jiménez), Spanish Matador († October 7th 1975).
- June 28th: Mauro Bolognini, realizer Italy N
- July 3rd: François Reichenbach, French realizer
- July 18th: Jean de Gribaldy, racing cyclist and sport director French.
- July 26th: Blake Edwards, scenario writer, realizer and American producer
- August 14th: Frederic Rossif, French realizer
- August 24th: Rene Lévesque, politician and journalist Québécois († November 1st 1987)
- September 1st: Vittorio Gassman, actor Italy N
- September 14th: Michel Auclair, French actor
- September 25th: Roger Etchegaray, cardinal French.
- September 26th: Matilde Camus, poet Spanish
- September 27th: Arthur PEN, American realizer
- October 17th: Shine Floriano Bonfa, guitarist and type-setter Brésil IEN
- October 27th
- Michel Galabru, comic actor French
- François Jean Joseph Aldenhoff, wire of farmer and tradesman
- October 31st :
- November 4th: Benno Besson, Swiss man of theater. († February 23rd 2006).
- November 8th: Christiaan Barnard, South-African doctor
- November 9th: Raymond Devos, Belgian humorist
- November 11th :
- Dante Isella, Philologist and historian of the literature Italy N. († December 3rd 2007).
- Kurt Vonnegut, American writer
- November 16th: Jose Saramago, Portuguese writer, Nobel Prize literature 1998
- November 22nd: Abdelaziz Mathari, economist and politician Tunisia N († May 20th 2004).
- December 4th: Gerard Philippe, French actor, (deceased the 25/November 26th 1959)
- December 8th
- December 23rd: Micheline Ostermeyer, sporting and French pianist
- December 24th: Ava Gardner, American actress
- December 28th: Stan Lee, scenario writer and American publication director
Death in 1922See also: : Category: Death in 1922
- January 22nd: Benoit XV, pope, born Giacomo della Chiesa (° November 21st 1854)
- January 23rd: Arthur Nikisch, leader, violonist and pedagog Hungarian
- February 21st: István Chernel, Hungarian ornithologist (° 1865)
- April 1st: Charles Ier of Austria, last emperor and king of Austria-Hungary.
- April 28th: Paul Deschanel, old President of the French Republic
- May 7th: Manual Granero, Spanish Matador (° April 4th 1902).
- May 13rd: Varelito (Manual Varé García), Spanish Matador (° September 29th 1893).
- May 26th: Ernest Solvay, Chemist and Belgian industrialist (° April 16th 1838)
- July 28th: Jules Guesde, French politician (° November 11th 1845)
- November 18th: Marcel Proust, French writer
- December 21st: Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, sociologist and lituano-Palestinian linguist, founder of modern Hebrew
Beats-smg: 1922 Be-X-old: 1922 Cbk-zam: 1922 Map-bms: 1922 Simple: 1922 Zh-yue: 1922 年
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