This page relates to the year 1916 Gregorian Calendrier.
- March 19th: Beginnings of the movement spartakist with Berlin at the time of the conference of the revolutionary group Die International .
- May 1st: Several thousands of workmen express with Berlin against the war with the call of Die Internationale . Karl Liebknecht is stopped.
- Bad harvests in Germany. The difficulties of supply involve sharp tensions between the cities and the campaigns. Demonstrations and strikes against the war and the hunger. Infant mortality increases, of the epidemics of Typhus and of Dysenterie develop.
- October 21st: Assassination of the president of the Council Karl von Stürgkh by the Socialist Friedrich Adler. Ernst von Koerber succeeds to him.
- November 21st: Death of the old emperor François-Joseph Ier of Austria and accession with the throne of Charles Ier of Austria.
- Heinrich von Clam-Martinic becomes minister-president in Austria. Reopening of the Reichsrat.
- the Czechs Tomáš Scrubland Masaryk, Edvard Beneš and Slovak the Milan Stefánik found in Paris a Czechoslovakian National council.
See also: 1916 in France
- February 3rd: The obligatory military service is adopted by the the United Kingdom. 4 million men is mobilized (24%) and 1,5 million people are employed in industries of war.
- July 2nd: The liberal David Lloyd George becomes Minister for the war of the the United Kingdom.
April 24th: Insurrection of Easter 1916 with Dublin carried out by the “Irish volunteers”, “the army of the citizens” and the movement Fianna Fail on the initiative of the Irish Republican Brotherhood: occupation of public edifices, establishment of a provisional government and proclamation of the Irish Republic.
- bloody Easter: repression of the insurrection of Dublin by the British army (60 died among the republicans and more than 200 civilian victims).
- April 29th: Unconditional surrender of the Irish nationalist insurrectionists. Executions of 15 leaders.
December 10th: Resignation of the Prime Minister Herbert Asquith with the profit of its rival within the liberal party. Beginning of the ministry of coalition of David Lloyd George, Prime Minister for the the United Kingdom (fine in 1922). It created a Cabinet of War limited to five members, an imperial Cabinet of War (March 1917) and founds new ministries, like that of the Food.
- 24 - April 30th: Pacifist socialist conference of Kienthal.
- May: 3,3 million refugees.
- July 8th (25/06): Ukase issuing the mobilization for the obligatory work of 400 000 inhabitants of the Turkestan and the steppes.
- September 14th: Expulsion of Leon Trotski of France.
- the Transsibérien is finished, becoming the longest railway line of the world.
- Lawsuit of sailors mutinés of the fleet of the Baltic . Desertions, fraternizations.
- November 6th (23/10): Act of the two emperors. The Austria-Hungary and the Germany promise the creation of a monarchical, hereditary and constitutional State Polish on the territories taken with the Russia.
- November 13rd (1/11): Speech of Lilioukov to the opening of the Duma: “That is there? Stupidity or treason? Critical generalized of the government and the imperial entourage.
- November 23rd (10/11): Alexander Trepov, president of the Council.
29 - December 30th: Raspoutine, a monk miracle-worker and discharged, shown to have exerted a harmful influence on the Russian imperial family, is assassinated by the prince Felix Youssoupoff, the socialist deputy Pourichkevitch and the Dimitri large-duke.
- January 9th 1917 (27/12): Nikolai Golitsyn, president of the Council.
Degradation of the economic situation and social. Rupture of the economic channels, shortage of industrial products and food, rise of the prices. 1400 strikes and 1 million striker in the year.
- January 11th: The Austro-Hungarians occupy the Montenegro.
- January 16th: French occupation of Corfou. The Serb troops unload in the island
- February 8th: The German government fixes at March 1st the beginning of the underwater war without restriction: the trading vessels equipped with guns will be torpedoed.
- February 13rd: The 1st Russian brigade made up (2 regiments), leaves Moscow by the Transsibérien and arrives in Mandchourie at Dairen the February 28th, from where it embarks for the France on French ships.
- February 21st: Beginning of the Battle of Verdun (fine on December 11th at 11 o'clock in the morning). The last battle took place in the valley of the Marne. The German artillery rams the French positions on a face of 12 km.
- February 29th, Verdun: After having taken Beaumont and the fort of Douaumont, the Germans suspend the offensive in front of the fort of Douaumont which they did not succeed in occupying.
- February 29th: The British cruiser Alcantara and the German ship Grief are run mutually after a combat epic in the Manche.
- February: The the United Kingdom request with the Portugal to hail and requisition the German tradind ships present in its ports.
- March 9th: The act of requisition causes the declaration of war of the Germany to the Portugal. A government of Sacred union is organized in Portugal with mission of preparing a task force and of reinforcing the troops which fight in Africa.
- March 9th, Verdun: Catch of Douaumont: the Germans run up against the resistance of the fort of Are worth.
- March 18th: Victoire of the Russians on the Germans in Latvia, in the south of Dwinsk.
- March 24th: A German submarine torpedoes in the Manche without summation the British steamer Sussex .
- April 9th: Failure of the German general offensive on the face of Verdun.
- April 11th: Arrived at Marseilles, where it receives a triumphal reception, 1st Russian brigade (2 regiments) part of Moscow by the Transsibérien the February 13rd, via the Mandchourie, where it embarked on ships French.
- May 1st: Pétain, named ordering armies of the Center, leaves the direction of the Bataille of Verdun to Nivelle.
- May 15th: The Austro-Hungarian army bores the first Italian lines of defense in the Trentin.
- May 31st: Undecided naval battle enters the fleets German and British to the Jutland.
- June 3rd: The Allies proclaim the state of siege to Salonique following the catch of the fort of Rupel by the germano-Bulgarian troops.
- June 4th: Offensive Russian of the general Broussilov against the German forces of Mackensen (fine in August).
- June 7th: German offensive with Verdun. Fall of the Fort of Are worth then Thiaumont, Fleury-in front of-Douaumont.
- June 21st, Verdun: The Germans reach the accesses of Froideterre.
- June 22nd: Greek the Prime Minister Zaïmis orders the demobilization of the army following dissensions with the Allies.
- July 1st: Beginning of the Battle of the Sum , allied offensive towards Bapaume and Fibula (fine in October). More 600 000 victims in the two camps. The British forces (voluntary) begin in the battle of the Sum.
- July 4th: The First Rumanian minister Ion Bratianu reminds the allies that its country will intervene at their sides if they do not withdraw Dardanelles and if they start an offensive against the Bulgarian ones starting from Salonique.
- July 27th, Somme: The British take Contalmaison, progress quickly towards Péronne and seize Longueval.
- August 4th: Serb offensive in the area of the Lake Prespa in Macedonia.
- August 8th: In Italy, taken Gorizia by the 3rd Italian Army under the orders of the Duke of Aoste after the sixth battle of the Isonzo.
- August 17th: Treaty of alliance enters the Agreement and the Romania signed to Bucharest: in exchange of its entry in war against the Austria, the Rumanian one will annex the Bucovine, the Transylvania and the Banat.
- August 23rd: On the face of the Balkans, the Bulgarian Armée hustles the Serb troops in the west of the allied device of Greece.
- August 24th, Somme: The French take Maurepas.
- August 27th:
- Solicited by the Allies and to reinforce its position at the time them negotiations which must decide division of the Ottoman Empire, the Italy declares the war with the Germany.
- the Romania declares the war with the Austria-Hungary. After an offensive in Transylvania quickly stopped, the country of finds insulated by 600 000 austro-German supported by the Turks and the Bulgarian ones. Bucharest falls in autumn and the Romania concluded an armistice. The invasion of the country by the Germans puts in difficulty the southernmost Russian face.
- August 28th:
- the Germany, then the Turkey, declare the war with the Romania.
- the Rumanian troops of the general Averescu enter in Transylvania and take Braşov.
- In Germany, Von Falkenhayn is replaced by the marshal Paul von Hindenburg with the head of the Supreme Management of the German Armée.
- September 1st: The Bulgaria declares the war with the Romania.
- September 13rd:
- the general Joffre, who always has an eye on Verdun request with Pétain and Nivelle, to prepare on Right Bank the resumption of the forts of Vaux and Douaumont.
- September 14th:
- Offensive Italian in the Eastern Carso.
- the troops bulgaro-allemande of August von Mackensen launch an offensive to the east of Silistraie against the Romania
- September 15th, Somme: First use of the tanks ( tanks ) by the British army.
- September 18th:
- Broussilov stops the Russian offensive vis-a-vis the German .
- the Greek go without resistance to Bulgarian to Kavala (Greece).
- September 25th, Somme: French and British take Combles, to 12 km of Péronne.
- October 7th: The Germans force the Roumanians to evacuate the Transylvania.
- October 9th: Eleftherios Venizelos constitutes with Salonique a provisional government favorable to the Allies.
- October 23rd: The king Constantin Ier of Greece proposes a complete disarmament of the Greek forces provided that the army of Eleftherios Venizelos is used only against the Bulgarian ones.
- October 24th, Verdun: The French troops of the Mangin grouping have taken again, in four hours, the Fort of Douaumont and re-occupy until Vaux all the territory conquered for eight month by the Germans.
- November 2nd and November 3rd: Begun again fort of Be worth.
- November 11th: The Greek government of Eleftherios Venizelos declares the war with the Bulgaria.
- 15 and November 16th: Meeting with Chantilly (Oise), on the initiative of the general Joffre, of a new interallied military conference to stop the plan of the operations of 1917.
- November 19th: Catch of Monastir in Macedonia by Sarrail and free-Serb forces
- November 25th: The Greek provisional government declares the war with the Germany and the Bulgaria.
- December 2nd: The army of the East of the general Sarrail occupies Athens after severe confrontation with the Greeks
- the German army of Falkenhayn crosses the Valachie, makes the junction with theBulgarian ones of Mackensen come from Dobroudja and enters to Bucharest the December 6th, evacuated the day before by the government Bratianu which is withdrawn in Moldavie.
- December 12th: End of the Battle of Verdun. The Germans are pushed back by the French troops. More 300 000 allied and German soldiers die in the battle.
- December 25th: The general Joseph Joffre is named Marshal of France, and is replaced by Robert Nivelle with the head of the armies.
- January 8th, Cameroun: the allied troops enter to Yaounde, evacuated by the Germans.
- February 15th: The German troops of the Cameroun take refuge in Spanish territory, with the Rio Muni. To this news, the town of Mora, which resists north, goes.
- February 18th: The Cameroun is overcome by the Allies.
- March 4th: The French and the British share the German Colony of the Cameroun.
- March 9th: Declaration of war of the Germany to the Portugal.
- March 15th: The South-African general Jan Smuts lance a general offensive against the Germans towards the Mozambique with the support of Indian troops, rhodésiennes and Belgians.
- Mars: Offensive of Combined against the German Eastern Africa by the North-East (British and South-Africans), the west (Belgian) and south-west (British). The Germans take refuge in the south, then with the Mozambique starting from the autumn 1917, to carry out the guerilla to it. The general von Lettow-Vorbeck resists until the end of the war. He has succeeds in mobilizing 150 000 soldiers combined against him with reduced forces.
- July 28th: Raphaël Antonetti becomes governor of the French Sudan (fine in 1918).
- September 27th: Deposition of the Négus Iyasou V of Ethiopia. The girl of Ménélik II, Zaoditou, is proclaimed empress of Ethiopia. His/her cousin Ras Tafari exerts regency.
- September 29th: Blaise Diagne, appointed Senegal, obtains by the law of September 29th, that the inhabitants of the “four communes” are subjected to the obligations of the military service as well as the other French.
AOF : End of resistance Tuareg against the French penetration.
- Mali: Rising of the Sore of the circle of San against the French colonial administration, opposed to the forced labor and the obligatory conscription for the European battle fields. It is repressed hard and some Bobo chiefs are hung with Tominian.
- Suspension of the conscription to the Niger and the French Sudan.
- the priestess Maria Nkoi ( Marie with the leopards ) encourages the revolt with the Congo (1916 - 1921).
the fall of the sea traffic encourages the South Africa to develop its industry and to ensure its food self-sufficiency.
- the shortage of labor due to the conscription affects the agricultural production, mine and industrial. The trade is disorganized by the British blockade of the coasts and the German underwater war. It results an economic serious attack from it.
- the National school of teachers becomes the École William Ponty.
The Middle East & world arabo-Moslem
- January: Agreement between the British resident with the Cairo Henry MacMahon and the sherif of Mecque Hussein ibn Ali, which is committed fighting the Turks at the sides of Alliés in exchange of the recognition by the Great Britain of the independence of the “Arab kingdom”.
- January 9th: Failure of the offensive allied in Dardanelles. The Anglo-French forces evacuate the peninsula of Gallipoli.
- March 17th: The Russians occupy Ispahan (Perse).
- August 4th: On the face of the the Middle East, second raid germano-Turkish on Cairo.
- April 20th: Trébizonde falls to the hands from the Russians who enter in Anatolia Eastern.
- April 28th, Mésopotamie: The troops anglo-Indians of Charles Townshend capitulate with Kut Al-Amara.
- May 16th: secret Agreement '' Sykes-Barb '' (Great Britain, Russia, France) far-sighted after the war the division of the possession Arab of the Ottoman Empire: international statute of the Palestine; Great Britain controls the Mésopotamie, Haïfa and Acre; France the Syria, the Cilicie and the area of Mosul; Russia receives the North-West of Anatolia (Arménie and left the Kurdistan).
May - August: The Franco-English unloading in Dardanelles is pushed back.
June 10th: Revolt Arab against the Turks of Hussein ibn Ali, sheriff of Mecque, with the assistance of the British. The four wire of the sheriff, Ali, Abdallah, Faysal and Zayd direct the revolt. Mecque and the main cities of the littoral are taken, but Médine resists with a strong garrison. British and French officers are sent in the Hedjaz to advise the chiefs of the revolt to the end of the year. Thomas Edward Lawrence binds friendship with Faysal and advises to give up the catch of Médine and to carry the revolt towards north and to cut the railway line of Hedjaz.
Asia and Indian world
- March 22nd, China: In front of the opposition of the Guomindang, other military chiefs and foreign powers, Yuan Shikai, which had proclaimed emperor, desists in favor of the republic.
- June 6th: Commit suicide of the president of the Republic of China Yuan Shikai. The vice-president Li Yuanhong who succeeds to him restores the constitutional mode of 1912. He sees the China in prey with military anarchy in North (Zhang Zuolin in Mandchourie, Duan Qirui with Beijing) and with political anarchy in the South.
- December 16th, Indonesia: Creation of the Volksraad (the Council of the people) under the pressure of the national movement. It will support a more intense political life and a group of advising there will express national claims.
- the Japan seizes the German concessions in China.
- the emperor of Annam Duy Tân is deposited and exiled with the Réunion.
- India: Pact of Lucknow between the Hindu and Moslem nationalist militants composite (favorable to only one Indian, Moslem and Hindu nation). Abul Kalam Azad is the instigator.
- the Uzbek , the Kyrgyz , the Kazakh and other people of Central Asia controlled by the Russia revolt against the authorities tsarists. The revolt is caused by the land question and the requisition of the Moslems for the military service. The Kazakh ones attack and kill several thousands of Slavic colonists. The rebellion is repressed hard. Kirgiz are constrained to seek refuge beyond the Chinese border. 300 000 Kazakh are off-set towards the current Chinese province of the Xinjiang.
Oceania & peaceful
- Right to vote of the women with the Manitoba (January 28th) and in Alberta (April 19th).
- May 22nd: Lomer Gouin (liberal) is re-elected Prime Minister with the Quebec.
- May: Canadian the Prime Minister Robert Borden announces that it will institute the conscription. Demonstrations with the Quebec.
the United States
- February: Attempt at mediation of Wilson in the European conflict. Woodrow Wilson suggests with the France and the Great Britain to propose, at the end of the summer campaign, the meeting of a conference which it would support of a threat of intervention. Refusal of English the Prime Minister.
- Night of the 8 - March 9th: Pancho Villa, the Mexican revolutionist , led 1 500 men in a raid against the American village of Colombus (New Mexico) of which it kills 17 inhabitants.
- March 15th: The American cavalry led by John Pershing continues it until in the north of the Mexico (fine in January 1917).
- April 18th: New diplomatic conflict enters the the United States and the Germany following the torpedoing of Sussex.
- May: Germany gives up running the enemy civil vessels without warning.
- Electoral campaign:
- Adoption of the secret vote in all the States and introduction of the system of the direct primary educations into the majority (the candidates are designated by the voters). Several States and municipalities envisage referendums for the great decisions and the voters to take the initiative of a project by petitions. Various provisions enable them to withdraw their confidence with the elected officials convinced to have misused it.
- Roosevelt dissolves the party progressist.
- the republicans gather behind only one candidate, Charles Hughes.
- the Wilson administration is forced to react to allure the reformists. It creates 12 agricultural federal Banks intended to grant long-term loans and to low level of interests (5-6%) for the farmers and authorizes the emission by private warehouses approved by the government of negotiable goods against the deposit of certain products (cereals, cotton, tobacco, wool).
- September 1st: Wilson defends in person the “ Keating-Owen Act ” prohibiting the trade inter-State of the goods manufactured by children. The vote of the eight hours day for the railwaymen ensures him supports it trade unions.
a Presidential decree Woodrow Wilson makes Star-spangled banner the national anthem.
- Control of the seas by the Great Britain. Exports of the the United States towards the Germany crumbled since 1914 (of 169 million with 1 million dollars) while those intended for the Agreement quadruple of 825 with 3 200 million.
- May 5th: Following disorders, president Wilson sends troops in Dominican Republic at the request of the president Juan Isidro Jiménez.
- July 28th: Beginning of the domination of the United States on the Dominican Republic (fine in 1924). The country is occupied by the United States which defends the interests of the bank Kuhn, Loeb & Co.
- October 12th: Hipólito Yrigoyen becomes president of the Republic Argentine (fine in 1922). The middle-classes put a term at oligarchy while carrying to the capacity the leader of the radical civic Union Hipólito Yrigoyen.
Arts & culture
- Publication of the Proclamation hobby-horse with Zurich.
- First collection of Coco Chanel, which launches the Jersey.
- April 13rd: With Madrid (Spain), alternate of Florentino Ballesteros, Spanish Matador.
- April 1st: Rodin makes gift in the State of the whole of its work.
- October 15th: Exposure Andre Derain to Paris.
- October 23rd: Exposure Brancusi to New York.
- the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright works with the Japan.
Sciences & technology
Births in 1916
- Aboubacar Sangoulé Lamizana, former president of the republic of the the Upper Volta
- January 3rd: Maxene Andrews, American singer of the group Andrews Sisters († 1995)
- January 7th: Paul Keres, player of failures
- January 11th: Bernard Blier, actor French
- January 12th
- March 15th: Frank Coghlan, American actor
- March 20th: Pierre Messmer, former minister for the armies of the general De Gaulle, former Prime Minister for the president Pompidou († August 29th 2007)
- April 17th: Sirimavo Bandaranaike woman political, former minister sri lankaise († the October 10th 2000
- April 22nd: Yehudi Menuhin, American violonist
- June 8th: Luigi Comencini, Italian realizer
- June 12th: Irwin Allen, American director († 1991)
- June 18th: Julio César Turbay Ayala, president of the Republic of Colombia of 1978 with 1982. († September 13rd 2005).
- June 20th: Jean-Jacques Bertrand, Prime Minister for Quebec
- : Anne Hébert, poet and Québécois novelist
- August 24th: Léo Shoed, musician, poet, singer French († July 14th 1993)
- August 28th: Jack Vance, American author of Science fiction
- September 13rd: Roald Dahl, British writer
- September 21st: Francoise Giroud, journalist, écrivaine and political woman
- October 3rd: James Herriot, veterinary surgeon and British writer († 1995)
- October 10th: Bernard Heuvelmans, cryptozoologist († 2001)
- October 26th: François Mitterrand, politician French, President of the Republic of 1981 with 1995.
- October 29th: Jerzy Pietrkiewicz, writer, poet, translator and historian of the literature Polish. († October 26th 2007).
- November 4th: Odette Laget-Aubert, laid off be-sciences French, wife of Maurice Aubert. († December 30th 1984)
- November 5th: Madeleine Robinson, French actress
- December 6th: Kristján Eldjárn, Icelandic politician († September 14th 1982)
- December 8th: Richard Fleischer, American realizer
Death in 1916
- January 19th: Felix Robert, Matador French (° April 14th 1862).
- February 19th: Ernst Mach, Physicist and Austrian Philosopher (° 1838).
- February 28th: Henry James, American writer (° 1843).
- March 3rd: John Wesley Judd, British geologist († 1840).
- March 4th: Franz Marc, German painter, in Verdun.
- March 24th: Enrique Granados, Spanish type-setter.
- April 21st: Georges Boillot, racing driver.
- May 4th: Hector-Irenee Sevin, archbishop of Lyon (° 1852).
- May 11th: Karl Schwarzschild, German astrophysicist (° 1873).
- May 12th: James Connolly, revolutionist and trade unionist Irish (° 1868).
- May 27th: Joseph Gallieni, military French, Marshal of France, which left a major print on the history of the French Colonisation, (° April 24th 1849).
- June 30th: Gaston Maspero, French Egyptologist (° 1846).
- July 6th: Odilon Redon, painter, engraver and writer French (° 1840).
- July 13rd: William Ramsay, British chemist (° 1852).
- August 17th: Umberto Boccioni, painter and Futuristic sculptor .
- November 13rd: Percival Lowell, American astronomer (° 1855).
- November 15th: Henryk Sienkiewicz, Polish writer, prize winner of the Nobel Prize of Literature in 1905. (° May 5th 1846).
- November 21st: François-Joseph Ier of Austria, emperor of Austria-Hungary (° August 18th 1830).
- November 22nd: Jack London, American writer (° 1876).
- November 27th: Emile Verhaeren, Belgian poet of French language (° 1855).
- February 1st: Father Charles de Foucauld, assassinated in its hermitage with Tamanrasset (Algeria).
- December 17th: Raspoutine, adventurous Russian (° 1869).
- December 19th: Thibaw Min, last king of Burma (in exile since 1885).
- December 21st: Daniel Oliver, British Botanist (° 1830).
Beats-smg: 1916 Be-X-old: 1916 Map-bms: 1916 Simple: 1916 Zh-yue: 1916 年
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