This page relates to the year 1915 Gregorian Calendrier.
May 23rd: Beginning of the ministry of coalition of Herbert Asquith, Prime Minister for the the United Kingdom (fine in 1916). The members of the Labor Party reach for the first time the businesses (Henderson, then George Barnes).
- June 13rd: In Greece, victory of the liberal Eleftherios Venizelos with the legislative ones.
- August 23rd: Eleftherios Venizelos form a new government in Greece.
- October 5th: Government Alexandros Zaimis in Greece.
Right to vote with the women with the Denmark.
- Because of bad harvests, the bread and potatoes is rationed in Germany in autumn.
- the United Kingdom: Introduction of customs duties on certain products and establishment of the exchange control to preserve the value of the book. The State negotiates an agreement with the trade unions which prohibits the strikes in exchange of a regularization of the collective agreements.
- the installation of the Italian rivers provides 2,5 billion hydraulic kWh of origin. The remainder comes from imported coal.
- the average revenue per capita has triplet in Italy since 1860. In the South, the income per head is half that of North.
- the Italy is not prepared with the war. It does not have any artillery and does not have that a hundred machine-guns. The reserve officers or active are very few, the general Luigi Cadorna appears poor strategist. Only the numerical superiority belongs to the Italians.
See also: 1915 in France
- January 9th: the federal authorities issue the monopoly of cereals.
- May 16th: Inauguration of the tunnel of the Mont-d'or cheese which shortens of 17 km the way Vallorbe - Paris.
- July 27th: The Federal council promulgates an ordinance discussed on the censure.
- September 5th: Pacifist meeting with Zimmerwald (Swiss), socialist leaders of eleven European countries, of which Leon Trotsky and Lénine, against the war.
- January 28th: Coup d'etat of the Manual president of the republic of Arriaga. The democratic government resigns and Arriaga designates his/her friend Pimenta of Castro, charged to prepare the elections.
- May 14th: Republican riot with Lisbon. Arriaga must resign and is replaced by Teófilo Braga until August or is elected Bernardino Machado.
the right to vote is removed with the illiterate household heads.
- seven hours Day in the banks and the offices, eight to ten hours in the factories, ten hours in the shops. Legislation on the industrial accidents.
- Mars: Execution for treason of the colonel Miasoïedov. The Minister for the War Soukhoumlinov, discredited, resigns and is put in charge.
- 10 - June 11th: Xenophobe riots and demonstration with Moscow.
- June 20th, Russia: Creation of a central committee of industries of war, under the pressure of the mediums of businesses.
- July: Socialist congress interbalkanic of Bucharest. He condemns the IIe Internationale and decides in favor of the theses of Karl Liebknecht and of the Bolcheviks.
- August, Russia: Resumption of the strike movements. Political crisis. Formation of the “Block progressist” to the Duma, joining together 2/3 of the deputies. Nicolas II takes the command of the armies in person the September 5th.
- 5 - September 6th: Socialist conference of Zimmerwald (Bolsheviks and Mencheviks): Proclamation for peace. Lénine and Zinoriev recommend the transformation of the war imperialist into revolutionary civil war.
- September 8th: Publication of the program of the Block progressist in Russia.
- January 19th: first air Bombardment of civilians by a Zeppelin with the the United Kingdom.
- January 21st: Russian offensive in the Carpates.
- January 24th: Victoire of the British fleet close to the Dogger Bank on the German squadron.
- February: The first planes armed with a machine-gun, the Vickers BFR equip a British fighter squadron with the Royal Flying Corp .
- February 4th: The German government proclaims “zone of war”, the British territorial water: beginning of the underwater war.
- February 7th: German offensive in the south-east of the Lakes Mazures directed by Hindenburg. Encircled, the Russians fold up on the Niémen the February 22nd.
- February 16th: Second allied offensive in Champagne to prevent any transfer of German troops in Russia.
- February 19th: Forwarding of Darnanelles (end in February 1916).
- February 20th: Bombardment of Rheims.
- February 26th: Failure of the German offensive to the Mazures lakes: the Russians make 10 000 prisoners in the north of Warsaw.
- March 1st: The allies extend the blockade to the totality of the German goods.
- March 9th: The Italian government presents to the governments of the agreement a memorandum containing the claims of the Italy in exchange of its intervention in the conflict (Trentin, the Tyrol of the South, Trieste, the Istrie and part of the Dalmatie).
- March 11th and April 10th: Agreement of the government British and French on the principle of an annexation of Constantinople by the Russia.
- March 16th: End of the battles of Champagne. Failure of the attempt at French Champagne opening (February-March).
- March 21st: A Zeppelin bombards Paris.
- March 22nd: Capitulation of the Austrian place of Przemysl in front of Russian.
- April 24th: Arrest and deportation of more than 600 Armenian intellectuals of Constantinople by the Young person-Turks. Date regarded symbolically as marking the beginning from the Génocide of the Armenians.
- April 25th: Unloading of a task force combined with the Dardanelles. Failure of the forwarding of Gallipoli, which costs the life more 200 000 British soldiers on 400 000 engaged, coming for the majority from the the Commonwealth (end in July).
- April 26th: secret Treaty of London between the Agreement and the Italy which is committed entering in war against the central Empires within one month. The Allies accept the claims of the March 9th.
- May 2nd: Offensive austro-allemande in Galicie to avoid the invasion of the Hungary by the Russians.
- May 3rd: Italy denounces the treaty of the Triple Alliance which bound it to the central Empires.
- May 6th: The Russians beat a retreat on a face of 160 km.
- May 7th: Torpedoing by the Germans of the British steamer Lusitania in the south of the Irish coasts by a German submarine. 1198 people are drowned, including 124 Americans. The ship would have transported ammunition.
- May 9th: French offensive in Artois. Failure ( June).
- May 13rd, Italy: Following an ultimate attempt at Giovanni Giolitti aiming at preventing the war, Antonio Salandra resigns, leaving to the king the decision of the war. The king points out it.
- May 14th: With Rome, Gabriele d' Annunzio lance a nationalist call which falls under a vast movement favorable to the entry in war of the Italy. Mussolini, favorable to the entry in war of Italy is driven out PSI and founds the autonomous Faisceau of revolutionary action .
- May 15th: The Russians are beaten in the Carpates by XIe armed with the marshal August von Mackensen.
- May 23rd: The Italy declares the war with the Austria-Hungary.
- In May, German Offensives against Russia (May-Oct.).
- June 3rd: Rupture of the Russian face with Gorlice in Galicie. The Russians evacuate Przemysl.
- June 9th: In Germany, 750 social democrats led by Karl Liebknecht protest against the policy of the government.
- June 10th: Offensive Italian on Isonzo against the Austrian lines. Twelve battles on the Isonzo of June 1915 to October 1917 cost enormous losses as men and material.
- June 11th: The Serb troops invade the Albania and occupy Tirana.
- June 22nd: Taken Lemberg (Lvov) by the Germans on the Russians, who beat a retreat.
- July 13rd: German offensive on the Niémen and the Narew with an aim of encircling the Russians stationed in the loop of the the Vistula
- July 18th:
- First six days permission granted by bearing to all the French combatants.
- Italian Failure of the second offensive on the Isonzo.
- August 5th: The German troops take Warsaw, Lublin and Cholm.
- August 21st: The Italy declares the war with the Ottoman Empire.
- August 23rd: Pushed back on Brest-Litovsk, the Russians give up the line of the Bug. The Poland is with the hands of the central empires.
- September 6th: Secret treaty between the central Bulgaria and Empires according to which Bulgaria would obtain the Macedonia and an outlet on the Adriatique if she declares the war with the Serbia and with the Agreement.
- September 25th: Failure of a Franco-British attempt at opening in Champagne and Artois (fine the October 11th).
- October 5th: Entry in war of the Bulgaria against the Serbia.
- October 6th: Invasion of the Serbia by the Bulgaria.
- October 19th: The Italy declares the war with the Bulgaria.
- October 28th: The president of the Rumanian Council Ion Bratianu refuses the unrestricted passage on the Rumanian territory of the Russian army which would come to reinforce the Serb ones.
- November 10th: Fourth Italian offensive on the Isonzo that the troops still do not manage to cross.
- November 23rd: Beaten on all fronts, the Serb army beats a retreat towards the Albania from where it is evacuated towards Corfou.
- December 2nd: The allied troops of Salonique receive the order to be folded up beyond the Vardar.
- December 4th: With Calais, the states majors of France and Great Britain examine the question of Salonique, hesitant between evacuation and maintenance of the troops.
- 6 - December 8th: Conference of Chantilly. The Allies coordinate their plan of offensive for 1916.
- Appearance of the tanks to caterpillar on the battle fields.
- January 18th: Victoire of the German army directed by Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck on the British troops with the Battle of Jassin (current Tanzania).
- January 23rd: Revolt with the Nyassaland led by John Chilembwe against the English colonists.
- February 3rd: John Chilembwe is killed.
- February: Launching of a programme of reinforcement of the food production in AEF to nourish the committed colonial troops with the Cameroun.
- Mars: Risings with the Niger and the French Sudan against the conscription (1915 - 1916). Revolt Bambaras Beledougou, Bobo and Minianka of the circles of San and Koutiala and certain wandering groups of the area of Tombouctou. It takes one month of operation ( March) for the column of the commander Caillet to come to end from 4 to 5000 revolted to Zambougou, then with Goumi in the Beledougou.
- May: The army of the African Southern Union takes Windhoek, the capital of the South-western African.
- the army of the African Southern Union is exclusively white. The Blacks are used for logistics. It fights in Namibia, East Africa and Europe.
- July 12th: The Germans of the South-western African capitulate and the South-African ones occupy the colony which they hope to annex.
- September: The ports of the Cameroun (Douala, Victoria-Buea) fall to the hands from the Allies. The German troops of the interior resist.
- November: Creation in France of a Service of use of the colonial produce for National defense
- Arrest of 500 intellectuals with Madagascar.
- Demonstrations antifrançaise in the south of the Tunisia (1915-1916) and in Algeria.
- Mobilization of 50 000 men in AOF (1915 - 1916).
- Decree authorizing recruitment by conscription in the British territories of Eastern Africa. In 1916, troops of West Africa (more 10 500 men) will make movement to reinforce the Eastern face. 56 761 soldiers are recruited on the whole, assisted 932 416 men in charge of the logistics, of which 691 278 carriers.
- Njoya, king of the Bamum (western of the Cameroun), creates a national religion inspired by the Islam, the Christianisme and the traditional beliefs, whose base are registered in the Nkuet Kwate (Continue and reach). As of 1920, Njoya joins again with the Islam which knows a rapid rise then.
Development of the productions of corn and potatoes to the Tanganyika, the detriment of the product intended for export.
- Kenya: the Crown Lands Ordinance prohibits the land changes between people of different races and extends the duration of the beams whose colonists can enjoy 99 to 999 years. The Native Registration Ordinance introduces the system of the not .
- May 7th: shipwreck of the Lusitania.
- May 13rd: Tension diplomatic between the Germany and the the United States after the business of the shipwreck of the Lusitania.
- September: Wilson authorizes the loans with the belligerent governments. In April 1917, the Germany could borrow 27 million dollars and the Entente more than 2 billion.
- October 21st: First intercontinental communication by TSF between Arlington (the USA) and the Eiffel Tower.
- November 19th: Execution of the trade union official of IWW Joe Hill in Salt Lake City, marked in November to have assassinated a grocer during a burgling.
Harvey Spencer Lewis founds a.M.O.R.C. (Old and Mystical Order of the Rosicrucian brotherhood).
- Recasting of the Ku Klux Klan with Atlanta (xenophobe and ultranationalist).
- Countryside in favor of a referendum on the vote of the women with New York.
- 350 000 Juifs live in the Lower East Side of New York.
- the orders of weaponry emanating from the Allies stimulate the economy.
- Measurements in favor of most underprivileged in many States: 25 establish the responsibility for the employer in the event of industrial accident, nine fix a minimum wage for the women, a certain number obtain a legislation fixing the legal duration of daily work.
- January 6th: Venustiano Carranza issues a “law cancelling all the dispossessions of grounds, water and wood pertaining to the people, distributed in violation of the contained disposals in the law of the June 25th 1856”, first stage of the Mexican land reform.
- In February, the anarchist-trade unionists of the Casa del Obrero Mundial join in Carranza and form red Battalions to fight the conventionnalists.
- April - May: Alvaro Obregón obtains decisive military victories over Pancho Villa. The war leaders are then confined in their respective strongholds and Carranza can return to Mexico City.
- July 2nd: Died of Porfirio Diaz with Neuilly-sur-Seine.
- August 5th: Opening to Washington of a Latin-American conference on the question of the political instability of the Mexico. A commission representing eight Latin-American countries and the the United States recognizes Carranza like the legal authority of the Mexico. The rebellious chiefs, except for Villa, lower the weapons.
- Military intervention of the the United States in Haiti (fine in 1934). The navy supervises the election of the president by the Congress and imposes a treaty allowing them to intervene to guarantee maintains it government.
- Treated between Haiti and the the United States, which take the control of the customs duties of the country until 1934.
- In Uruguay, Jose Batlle Ordóñez founds there the right to strike and of unionization, the eight hours day's work and the six days week, the protection of the minors and the right to the retirement. Laws on the divorce, free education and the maternity leave.
- the Chile regains its dominant position on the worldwide market of the Cuivre with more 100 000 tons produced per annum. Rise of textile industry to the Chile.
- the Banane accounts for 45% of the export earnings of the Costa Rica, behind the Café.
Oceania & the Pacific
- January 18th: “Twenty and one requests”. The Japan sends claim economic and political to the China in exchange of the restitution of the territory of Jiaozhou. The project consists in making continent a privileged zone of influence and Japanese intervention.
- the May 7th, ultimatum of the Japan to the China requiring the immediate acceptance of the “Twenty and one requests”. Yuan Shikai is inclined the following day.
- May 25th:
- Treated founding the Japanese domination with the Shandong, in Mandchourie and Inner Mongolia. China will enter in possession of the territory of Jiaozhou at end of the war.
- tripartite Agreement signed with Kiakhta between the China, the Russia and the Mongolia guaranteeing the autonomy of Mongolia, which gives up its requirement of unification.
- December 11th: The Council of State proclaims Yuan Shikai emperor of China under the name of Hongxian.
- December 25th: The Guomindang takes again the weapons and forms a provisional government with Canton.
- the Mongolian theocratic State preserves the feudal administration.
- Foundation of the Hindu university.
The Middle East
- January: IVe armed Othoman in for objective the catch with the Suez Canal. As of winter 1914-1915 is established a face of Egypt. The British troops, massed derrières the channel, manage to push back the Othoman attacks.
- January 4th: Victoire of the Russian army of the the Caucasus on the Turks with Sarikamish. Two army corps are destroyed.
- February 3rd: Failure of the raid of IVe armed Othoman on the Suez Canal thanks to resistance with the Egyptian army.
- February 19th: naval Operation of Combined with the Dardanelles .
- March 18th: In spite of the intensive bombardment of the forts, the Anglo-French fleet does not manage to cross the Détroits and loses a third of its buildings.
- Mars: Anglo-free-Russian agreements of Petrograd. The representatives of the Triple Alliance get along on the dismantling of the Ottoman Empire in the event of victory of the Allies. The Russia claims the full possession of Constantinople and the Détroits, as well as the Eastern Thrace. It accepts in return the Britanniques aimings on the Mésopotamie and the Golfe and the question Perse would be re-studied in a more favorable way. The France request the Cilicie and the Syria, but Russia refuses to see the Holy Lieux passing under French control and recommends an international mode.
- April 8th: Beginning of the massacre of the Armenians .
- April 24th: Arrest of 600 Armenians to Constantinople.
- April 25th: Unloading of a task force combined in the peninsula of Gallipoli in reinforcement of the naval forces of the Dardanelles.
- the forwarding of Gallipoli made 200 000 victims on the allied side and 120 000 on the Othoman side.
- April 26th: Treaty of London (Great Britain, France, Italy). Promise in the Italy of part of the south-west of the Turkey and the islands of the Dodécanèse.
- April: The sherif Hussein of Mecque secretly sends his son Faysal to Damas. He affirms that supports it British is necessary to the release of any Arab insurrection. The Arab committee writes the “protocol of Damas”, a cooperative project with the Great Britain.
- May 24th: The Allies send a note of protest to the Othoman government in connection with the massacre of the Arménie NS.
- May 30th, Ottoman Empire: Publication of the general decree of deportation of the Armenians in the deserts of Iraq and Syria, of the hundreds of thousands of people die.
- On the 2,1 million Arménie NS which remains in the Ottoman Empire, a million approximately perishes of 1915 with 1918. 120 000 survivors reach the Syrian cities, 200 000 the Euphrate, and 300 000 the the Caucasus with the favor of the Russian occupation. After many éparts in Europe, it remains with the the Middle East only 70 000 Armenians.
- In June, the sherif Hussein is committed starting the revolt during the following year. Informed of these projects, the Othomans decapitate the Arab nationalist movements of Syria (be).
- July 4th: The Turks cease the offensive on the peninsula of Gallipoli.
- July 14th: The sherif Hussein of Mecque sends a letter to the British High-Commissioner in Egypt, to sir Henry Mac-Mahon. He proposes to create a movement of revolt in the Arabic peninsula in exchange of the independence of the Arab countries, the recognition of a Arab Califat and abolition of the foreign privileges.
- the August 30th, Mac-Mahon approves “the independence of the Arabia” but pushes back the fixing of the borders at the end of the war.
- September 28th: In Mésopotamie, the British remove Kout-el-Amar after violent one engagements against the Turks.
- October 24th: In front of the insistence of the sheriff of Mecque, Mac-Mahon promises to him the independence of the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire, except Baghdad and Al Basra, the districts of Mersina and Alexandrette and certain parts of the Syria. The sheriff of Mecque accepts the English requests concerning the Mésopotamie but refuses the arguments on the Syrian littoral.
- December 19th: Withdrawal of the Anglo-French troops of the Dardanelles.
- December 26th: Abdelaziz Ibn Sa' ud concluded a treaty with the Great Britain. It obtains the recognition of its possessions, British protection, of the deliveries of weapons and money. It does not pledge any for a rising against the Othomans but promises to respect the territories under British protection. This treaty allows the emir Nedjd to remain apart from the conflict, to reinforce its authority on the tribes and to develop Ikhwan.
the general Patterson allows the creation of the “ Zion Mule Corpse ”, body of voluntary auxiliaries Juifs drawing the mules, then true combatants raising the flag Zionist struck of the Maguen David . The Jews of Alexandria côtoient there those of Palestine, Damas or Baghdad.
Arts & culture
- February 8th and March 3rd: First with Los Angeles and left film of David Wark Griffith: Birth of a Nation .
- February 27th: Set fire to Moulin-Rouge with Paris.
- July 1st: Gabrielle Chanel opens a designers house with Biarritz.
- January 12th: Exposure of Picabia to New York.
- January 20th: Exposure Matisse to New York.
- Mars: 291 , re-examined Hobby-horse founded by Picabia with New York.
- August 15th: Marcel Duchamp with New York.
- October: Inauguration with New York of Modern Gallery.
- December 28th: Exposure to Paris with the profit of the Polish artists victims of the war.
- In December, exposure to Petrograd of table Square black on white zone of Kasimir Malevitch.
- Proclamation suprematist of Punished and Kasimir Malevitch.
- Birth of the movement Hobby-horse.
- the Austrian writer Franz Kafka publishes the Metamorphosis .
- Romain Roland, Nobel Prize of literature for its major work Jean-Christophe .
Sciences & technology
- April 22nd: First use of gases asphyxiating close to Ypres in Belgium.
- the physicist Albert Einstein exposes his general Theory of relativity.
- First transcontinental phone call between New York and San Francisco.
Births in 1915
- January 10th: Laure Diebold, born Laure Mutschler , resistant French ( Mado ), which was the secretary of Jean Moulin. († October 17th 1965).
- January 20th: Ghulam Ishaq Khan, (in Urdu/Pachtoun: غلاماسحاقخان ), politician Pakistan board, president of Pakistan of 1988 with 1993. († October 27th 2006).
- January 30th: John Profumo, British politician
- February 11th: Hans Edmund Wolters, German ornithologist († December 22nd 1991)
- February 15th: Georges Gorse, French politician
- March 5th: Laurent Schwartz, mathematician French († in 2002, 87 years)
- March 7th: Jacques Chaban-Delmas, French politician († in 2000, 85 years)
- March 29th: Kenneth Arnold, American aviator († January 16th 1984)
- April 6th: Tadeusz Kantor, director, realizer, painter, writer and actor Polish († December 8th 1975)
- April 21st: Anthony Quinn, Mexican actor († in 2001, 86 years)
- May 6th: Orson Welles, actor and American realizer († in 1985, 70 years)
- May 12th: Frère Roger, founder and organizer of the the Community of Taizé
- May 15th:
- June 4th: Modibo Keïta, politician Mali in († in 1977, 62 years)
- June 24th: Fred Hoyle, British cosmologist († in 2001, 86 years)
- July 11th:
- August 24th: Wynonie Harris, Singer of Blues and Rhythm and American blues. († June 14th 1969).
- August 29th: Ingrid Bergman, Swedish actress of cinema († August 29th 1982, with Juste 67 years)
- December 19th: Edith Piaf, French singer († October 11th 1963, 48 years)
- December 27th: William Howell Masters, American sexologist
Death in 1915
- Michel Bréal, linguist French
- Eugene Ducretet, engineer, French pionner of the radio
- May 9th: François Faber, cyclist
- July 2nd: Porfirio Díaz, president of the Mexico until in 1911
- September 10th: Charles-Eugene Butcher of Boucherville, Prime Minister for Quebec
- December 19th: Qualities Alzheimer, German neuropsychiatrist . (° June 14th 1864)
Beats-smg: 1915 Be-X-old: 1915 Map-bms: 1915 Simple: 1915 Zh-yue: 1915 年
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