This page relates to the year 1913 Gregorian Calendrier.
- January 31st, the United Kingdom: The House of Lords pushes back the project of Home Rule for the Ireland voted by the Communes in November 1912.
- April 13rd: Anarchistic attack against the king Alphonse XIII of Spain to Madrid.
- April 14th: The Belgian working party starts a vast general strike to protest against the refusal of Room to adopt the vote for all.
- June 8th: Commit suicide tragic of the Suffragette Emily Davison with the Derby of Epsom.
- June 10th: Cabinet the Tisza in Hungary (fine the June 15th 1917). The Hungarian liberals of Etienne the Tisza are obliged to grant one reforms electoral making pass the voters from 1 to 1,9 million.
- Law of July 1913 in Germany: the German staff obtains that the regular army is carried of 621 000 with 761 000 then 820 000 men.
- the Germany, the Italy and the Austria-Hungary conclude a naval convention envisaging a concentration from the means in order to cut the communications between the France and the Algérie.
- August 10th: Free German incidents of Saverne. While being caught some with the recruits of Alsace-Lorraine, lieutenant von Forstner causes demonstrations of hostilities in all Alsace. The Landtag condemns its gesture unanimously. Forstner and the colonel of the regiment is exonerated by the Minister for the army and with the Reichstag, the chancellor defends the army.
- August 29th: Government of center left of Pieter Cort van der Linden with the Netherlands (fine in 1918).
- October 26th: Guillaume II of Germany announces with Berchtold that the war “between the East and the West will be inevitable with long”. A few days after he declares with the king Albert Ier of Belgium that the war against the France is inevitable.
- October - November: Legislative elections in Italy. The new electoral law changes the number of the voters of 3,3 million to 8,7. Giovanni Giolitti concludes an agreement with the Unione Cattolica which ensures it of its support; 33 catholic deputies make their entry with the Room.
- November 10th: Beyliss lawsuit with Kiev. Marked Jew of ritual murder, it is discharged by the jury.
- November 25th: In Ireland, creation of the militia of the Irish Volunteers for the application of the Home Rule.
- December 10th: The Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to the Belgian Henri the Fountain.
- December: German-Russian crisis (end in January 1914) with the mission of the German general Liman von Sanders with Constantinople to modernize the Turkish army.
nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- the women obtain the right to vote for all the elections in Norway. An amendment confirms that the decisions of the Storting out of constitutional matter do not have to be subjected to the royal sanction.
- Congress of the Left social democrat German with Iéna, in Germany: the general strike in the event of war is condemned and the socialist deputies who voted the military appropriations receive the approval of the majority.
- Period of violent strikes to the the United Kingdom. The number of union members passes from 2 million in 1901 to 4 million.
- Strike movements in Russia: 1,75 million striker of June 1913 with July 1914.
- the Russian revolutionist Joseph Stalin is exiled in Siberia by the government tsarist.
- Creation of the ministry for the state education to the Portugal.
- March 18th: The king Georges Ier of Greece is assassinated. His/her son Constantin Ier of Greece succeeds to him.
- May 30th: fine Treaty of London putting at the First Balkan war. The Turkey overcome loses most of its European territories. Serb Greeks, Bulgares and must share the Macedonia. Immediate dissensions between the winners.
- July 1st: Second Balkan war. Following the entry of the Bulgarian troops in Macedonia, the Greece and the Serbia declare the war with the Bulgaria.
- July 10th: The Romania lines up at the sides of the Serbia and the Greece.
- July: The German government slows down the Austria-Hungary when it plans to intervene at the sides of the Bulgaria against the Serbia.
- July 31st: The Balkan States sign an armistice with Bucharest.
- August 10th: Peace treaty of Bucharest which devotes the defeat of the Bulgaria in the Second war Balkan. The Greece and the Serbia share the major part of the Macedonia. The Romania receives the southernmost Dobroudja. The Bulgaria acquires the Western Thrace and the North-East of the Macedonia. Greece acquires the Crete and the islands of the Aegean Sea. Creation of the Principality of Albania.
- October: Germany encourages its Austrian ally at the time of the question of the layout of the border with the Albania.
See also: 1913 in France
- July 13rd: Oskar Bieder carries out the first crossing of the the Alps in the plane of Bern to Milan.
- the Austrian Rudolf Steiner, father of the anthroposophie, founds Goetheanum with Dornach
- the postal and telecommunications authorities start to replace the post office with horse by the postal Because.
nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- Promulgation in South Africa of the first laws of Apartheid, segregation with regard to the Blacks. The Native Land Act n°27 fixes the share of the grounds reserved at each community in South African Union. The Blacks are seen allotting 8% of the cultivable grounds, whereas they form more than 67% of the population. It is to them interdict to have and buy grounds out of the reserves. More than one million are expelled of the grounds which they cultivated. Dispossessed of their grounds, the Blacks will work in the European mines and plantations.
- the doctor Albert Schweitzer installs his hospital with Lambaréné with the Gabon.
- Soulèvements antiportugais in Angola. Creation of the Leagued Angolana with Luanda.
- Creation with Brazzaville by the fathers of the Holy Spirit of a Club of the Young people with for mission of diffusing the practice of the Football.
- Zanzibar becomes British colony.
- Origin of the worship Mumbo, with the Kenya: a gigantic snake left the Lake Victoria would have addressed a message to a man, enjoignant to him to preach against Christianity and Europeans. He predicts the nearest and spectacular end of the domination of the White. As of 1914, the mumbo is spread among the Gusii, by integrating beliefs like the myth of the return of the prophet Zakawa.
- Beginning of the sermons of William Wade Harris with the Liberia and in Ivory Coast.
- Creation of the Superior council of Primary school education in AOF.
- 468 schools free-Arabic in Algeria.
- Famine with the Chad and in Ethiopia (1913 - 1914).
- Railway line Thiès - Kayes. Tram line Porto-Novo - Sakété. Railway line Djibouti - Addis-Abeba. Railway line Brickaville - Tamatave.
- the Nigeria, under the impulse of the tradesmen Haoussa, produces close to 20 000 tons of groundnuts.
The United States
- February 2nd: Inauguration of the Central Station with New York, the largest station of the world.
- February 3rd: XVIe amendment of the American Constitution founding a federal tax on the income.
- February: Introduction of the Federal system of Reserve, controlling the whole of the banking system. The law aims at making more elastic the emission of currency by the creation of twelve federal banks of reserve and leaves, under federal control, bankings with the hands of the private interests. The national banks are authorized to create subsidiary companies to compete with the the United Kingdom abroad.
- March 4th: Beginning of the democratic American presidency of Thomas W. Wilson (fine in 1921).
- April 8th: XVIIe amendment: direct election of the senators.
- August 10th: Assembly with the chain in the factories of the Ford Motor Company: the productivity increases by 400%. Ford sells 178 000 cars in 1913 and 248 000 in 1914 (45% of the national production).
- August 26th: Inauguration of most dam of the world with Keokuk, in Iowa.
- September: Burden with the mines of the coal of the Colorado. The strikers of Colorado Fuel & Iron Corporation , properties of the family Rockefeller, are expelled of the residences which they occupy in the cities had by the mining company. Supported by the United Undermines Workers Union , they establish campings of tents in the close hills and maintain the strike pickets. The men of the agency Baldwin-Felt detective carry out raids armed on their campings and of the strikers are assassinated. The governor of Colorado calls upon the national guard, which introduces strikebreakers of night and represses the demonstrations.
- February 18th: Victoriano Huerta shift Francisco Madero.
- tragic Week. With the support of the ambassador of the the United States, the general Victoriano Huerta, chief of the army of Madero, seizes Mexico City, makes assassinate Madero and seizes capacity, restoring the Porfiriste mode by terror. The Americans support the government of Huerta, supposed to restore the constitutional government.
- the revolt of the country sectors is radicalized. In north, Pancho Villa and its army of mercenaries takes the control of the State de Chihuahua. Alvaro Obregón, a country rich person, makes in the same way in the Neighboring state of Sonora. In South-west, in the State of Morelos, Zapata attracts the peasants eager to recover their grounds in an army liberator of the South. Venustiano Carranza, a great landowner appointed governor of the State of Coahuila by Madero, manages to rejoin the war leaders.
- March 26th: Venustiano Carranza states in its plan of Guadalupe not to recognize the authority of Huerta and is posed as a leader “constitutionalists”, in favor of one return to the democratic order.
- May 30th: Emiliano Zapata reform its plan of Ayala.
- October: Taken of Torréon by constitutionalize.
- nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- Rébellion against the president Jose Bordered Valdés in Dominican Republic. The United States intervenes like mediators and obtains the suspension of the hostilities to the constituent organization of elections for one Assembled. That Ci is gained by the opposition, but the presidential elections of 1914 are gained by the official candidate.
- Fine of the boring of the Panama Canal (Inaugurated the August 15th 1914).
- Medical college and of Surgery of São Paulo.
- January - February: Elections with the room of the representatives in China. The presidential candidates carry it in North, those of the Guomindang in the south.
- February 14th: The Tibet proclaims independent State. The Chinese troops and official authorities are expelled of Tibet.
- March 20th: Assassination of Song Jiaoren at the station of Shanghai.
- April 8th: Opening of the first Chinese Parliament with Beijing. The Guomindang starts an exaggerated opposition which prevents any parliamentary work.
- Be: Revolt in Mongolia-Interior which declares its fastening with the autonomous Mongolia.
- In July with Nankin, Guomindang votes the forfeiture of Yuan Shikai which retorts by the force of the 12 to the July 29th.
- August 27th: Yuan Shikai occupies Nankin. Sun Yat-SEN must flee with the Japan.
- September 2nd: Three hundred deputies and hundred senators of Guomindang are expelled.
- November 4th: The Guomindang is declared illegal.
- October 5th: Sino-Russian agreement recognizing the autonomy of the Outer Mongolia. The Russian government prohibited to the Mongols any intervention in Inner Mongolia.
Oceania & the Pacific
The Middle East & Arab World
- January 23rd: The Young person-Turks seize the power by a coup d'etat carried out by the triumvirate formed by Enver Pasha, Talaat Pasha and Djemal Pasha.
- April: Political repression of the activities of the committees separatists by Young person-Turkish: the chiefs of the Comité of the reforms of Beirut are stopped and the organization is prohibited.
- May 30th: The Turkey loses to it quasi totality of its European territory.
- June: In reaction to political repression, the separatists organize with Paris a Arab congress, whose repercussion encourages the government young person-Turkish to accept concessions. The use of the Arab language in the administration and the schools of the Arab provinces is accepted. A certain number of notable Arabic are seen proposing stations important in Syria. While accepting, they are discredited with the eyes of the separatists.
nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- Abdelaziz Ibn Sa' ud seizes the coastal region of the Hasa, on the Persian Gulf.
- Foundation with the Cairo of the left Othoman administrative decentralization , primarily by emigrants syro-Lebanese, like members of Syrian big families the such `Azm Moslem or reformists as Rashid Wrinkled. Its program consists primarily with the granting of decentralizing reforms for the Syria, near of autonomy or within the framework to a federation with the Egypt.
- Contacts between the Organization Zionist and certain members of the Left Othoman administrative decentralization of the Cairo. Those seem to give their agreement for a Jewish immigration in Palestine but preach the equal rights between Arabs and Zionists. Arabic of Palestine worries about these attempts at agreements over them.
Chronologies sets of themes
Aeronautics1913 in aeronautics.
Railroads1913 in the railroads.
Sports1913 in sport.
Sciences and technology1913 in science
Arts & cultures
- Formulation of the Rayonnisme by Larionov and Gontcharova.
- Square black on white zone , painting of Kasimir Malevitch.
- Wheel of Bicycle , first Ready made, of Marcel Duchamp
Economy & company
- the value of the international business quadrupled since 1870.
The United States
- Economic depression with the the United States with the autumn. Crisis of the businesses, deflation of the farm prices, unemployment, under production in industry.
- Underwood Tariff: the rights are reduced to 30% on average. The rights on iron, steel, raw wool and sugar are cancelled. The income tax compensates for the fall of the customs incomes.
- Commission Pujo antitrust, which studies the concentration of the capacities in banking industry. Senatorial commission on the social reports/ratios.
- Creation of the American Central bank federal The reserve with the end of the year.
- the production of oil quadruples of 1913 with 1929 from 33 to 138 million tons.
- the United States has invests with the Mexico 25% their exported capital and control 70% of oil industry and 80% of the railway credits.
- the Brazil produced 316 000 quintals of cocoa (4th world rank) including 95% with Ilhéus, in the south of Bahia.
- the Great Britain ensures 14% of the world industrial production, with the third rank behind the the United States (36%) and the Germany (16%), but in front of the France (6%). It preserves its place of leader in the international business (30% of the exchanges compared with 41% in 1881).
- Winter 1913 - 1914: Economic crisis in Germany due to the high price of money.
- In Germany, birth rate passes from 35,6 0/00 in 1900 to 27,5 0/00. The death rate of 23 0/00 to 15 0/00.
- Germany produces 191,5 million tons of coal (third world rank). 63% come from the the Ruhr, 17% of the Silesia, 7% of the the Saar and 2% of Lorraine. The production of lignite doubled since 1900. The production of coke passes from 11,6 million tons in 1900 to 32,2 million (2nd world rank). The production of iron ores of the Zollverein is of 36 million tons (with the Luxembourg and the Lorraine). Germany produces 19 million tons of steel.
- 872 598 Italy NS leave the country. 376 776 of them unload with the the United States.
- the Netherlands count 6,163 million inhabitants.
- the number of factory in Hungary passed from 2500 at the end of the 19th century to 5000 in 1913, with manpower of workmen and employees who also doubled (250 000 in 1901, more 474 000 in 1913). At the head food industry comes, then those of wood and the body, followed by construction, the metallurgy and the mechanical engineering industry. The number of banks and finance companies passed from 634 in 1890 to 1842 in 1913. Eight large banks add up 37% of the activities. The national revenue passed from index 100 in 1867 to index 453 in 1913.
- the Russian Empire counts 170 million inhabitants. The rail network is of 70 000 km
Nobel Prize of physics: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
- Nobel Prize of chemistry: Alfred Werner
- Nobel Prize of physiology or medicine: Charles Robert Richet
- Nobel Prize of literature: Rabindranath Tagore
- Nobel Prize of peace: Henri the Fountain
Births in 1913
- January 6th: Edward Gierek, Polish politician.
- January 9th: Richard Nixon, President of the United States.
- January 10th: Gustáv Husák, Czechoslovakian politician.
- January 22nd: Henry Bauchau, Belgian writer.
- January 25th: Witold Lutosławski, type-setter and leader Polish († February 7th 1994)
- March 8th: Mouloud Feraoun, Algerian writer of French expression († March 15th 1962).
- March 10th: Adam Schaff, philosopher Polish († November 12th 2006)
- March 17th: Clay Shaw, business man of the New-Orleans, accused of the assassination of the president John F. Kennedy († August 14th 1974)
- March 18th: Rene Clement, French realizer.
- April 6th: Muhtar Başoğlu, Turkish herpetologist († February 21st 1981)
- April 20th: Irene Joachim, soprano Frenchwoman.
- June 12th: Maurice Ohana, Type-setter French
- June 18th: Bahi Ladgham, politician Tunisia N. Old Prime Minister († April 13rd 1998).
- June 23rd: Jacques Rabemananjara, writer and Malagasy politician.
- June 26th: Aime Césaire, Poet and politician French.
- June 30th: Alfonso López Michelsen, president of the Republic of Colombia of 1974 with 1978.
- July 14th: Gerald Ford, future President of the United States.
- July 17th: Roger Garaudy, philosopher and Moslem politician.
- August 13rd: Makarios III, orthodoxe archbishop, first president of the Republic of Cyprus.
- August 17th: W. Mark Felt, known as deep Throat , n°2 of FBI, at the origin of the Scandal of Watergate.
- August 28th: Robertson William Davies, writer, journalist, Canadian professor († 1995).
- September 3rd: Alan Ladd, American actor.
- September 12th: Jesse Owens, American athlete.
- September 16th: Félicien Marceau, writer, playwright and academician French.
- September 25th: Gilbert Cesbron, French writer.
- October 22nd: Robert Wrapped, photographer American of Hungarian origin.
- October 25th: Klaus Barbie, chief of the Gestapo of Lyon during the Second world war, condemned in 1987 for Crimes against humanity.
- October 27th: Otto Wichterle, Czech Chemist inventive of the flexible contact lenses.
- November 2nd: Burt Lancaster, American actor.
- November 7th: Albert Camus, French writer.
- November 22nd: Benjamin Britten, British type-setter .
Death in 1913
- January 9th: Hjalmar Johansen, Norwegian polar explorer (° 1867)
- January 20th: Jose Guadalupe Posada, Mexican draftsman.
- February 22nd: Francisco Madero, president of the Mexico between 1911 and 1913 (° 1873).
- April 18th: Paul Janson, Belgian politician, minister of state, grandfather of Paul-Henri Spaak (° 1840).
- May 28th: John Lubbock, prehistorian, Naturalist and British politician (° 1834).
- June 13rd: Camille Lemonnier, novelist, storyteller, short story writer, Belgian essay writer (° 1844).
- June 27th: Philip Lutley Sclater, lawyer and British zoologist (° 1829).
- September 30th: Diesel Rudolf, inventor of the heat engine with heavy fuel.
- November 7th: Alfred Russel Wallace, British Naturalist (° 1823).
- December 12th: Ménélik II, emperor of Ethiopia
Beats-smg: 1913 Be-X-old: 1913 Map-bms: 1913 Simple: 1913 Zh-yue: 1913 年
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