This page relates to the year 1912 Gregorian Calendrier.
- April 14th: against 23:45, the RMS Titanic runs up against an iceberg against 150 km against broad of Newfoundland.
- April 15th: with 2:20, RMS Titanic runs.
- At the time of its first crossing, of Southampton to New York, Titanic, the largest steamer of the world (269 m) appears to have to gain the blue Ruban. But it runs up against a Iceberg off Newfoundland. The block of ice breaks the prow, with starboard, in lower part of the water line. The double hold is torn on 90 Mr. In spite of the work of the pumps, the building runs in two hours and half. 2224 people were on board, but the lifeboats could accommodate only 1178 passengers. Only the women and the children are authorized to embark. 1513 people perish in ice-cold water.
- January 12th: Socialist success with the elections with the Reichstag in Germany. The conservatives obtain only 163 seats for 197 with the progressists. Victoire of the social democrats: with 34,8% of the votes, it secure 110 seats. It is the party more represented. The shortly after the poll, the liberals, frightened by the socialist push, reject the idea of an alliance gathering all the reformers. The chancellor cannot find a majority likely to vote the reform projects.
- February: Negotiations between the Germany and the Great Britain for the limitation of the naval armaments. Germany is laid out to limit its naval armament in exchange of the neutrality of London, which refuses. The negotiations are broken.
- March 13rd: Creation of the Royal Flying Body with the the United Kingdom.
- the April 10th, the government of Reich announces the vote of the new naval law.
- May: General strike and riots with Budapest organized by the social democrats. Repression by the police force makes six dead, 182 wounded and 300 arrests.
- May 14th: Beginning of the reign of Christian X of Denmark (fine in 1947).
- Berlin supports Vienna in the Balkan questions.
- Law giving the Home Rule to the Ireland, executory in 1914 in spite of the opposition of the Lords. Threaten of civil war. The loyal supporters gather in the paramilitary association of the Volunteers of Ulster ( Ulster Volunteer Force ).
- December: The Germany manages to make renew, by anticipation, the Triple Alliance.
- December 8th: The Council of war in Germany: for Moltke and Guillaume II of Germany, the war is inevitable. Tirpitz wishes to wait to finish the underwater base of Heligoland. The chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg, who did not take part in the council, imposes his point of view: to obtain English neutrality, to prepare economically and psychologically the Germany with the war.
Minimum wage guaranteed for the minors with the the United Kingdom.
- Considerable increase of the military expenditure in Germany. The government does not manage to find the 750 billion marks necessary for the army and the navy.
- Strike of the minors in Germany.
- the company Krupp Ag employs 73 000 workmen and minors.
- Success of the congress eucharistic in Austria. Adoption of two years the military service in Austria-Hungary.
- Law of working insurance in Romania.
- March 13rd: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Serbia then Greece and Montenegro) form the Balkan Ligue, supported by the Russia, which is opposed to the Ottoman Empire for the stake of the Macedonia (October 17th).
- October 17th: First Balkan war , demolished Turkey against the Balkan allies. Vienna must give up its project to carry help to the Bulgaria to create a counterweight with the Russians and Serb vis-a-vis the opposition of the Italy and the Germany.
- November 28th: Ismaël Kemal Vlorë proclaims the independence of the Albania in the town of Vlora.
- December 16th: The Ottoman Empire having required an armistice, an International Conference for peace opens with London. The Turks give up the Macedonia and accept the independence of the Albania.
RussiaDates of the Calendar Julien
- 5 - January 17th: Life conference of POSDR to Prague. Rupture between Bolsheviks and Mencheviks.
- Mars: Blamed by Goutchkov at the Duma of the part which Raspoutine in the imperial entourage plays.
- April 4th: Massacre Léna. Repression of a manifestation of the workmen of the gold mines of Siberia (270 dead).
- April: First number of the daily newspaper Bolshevik Pravda (“ the Truth ”) with Saint-Pétersbourg. 40 000 specimens in 1913.
- June: Lénine leaves Paris to settle in Galicie Autrichienne.
- June 15th: Restoration of the district court abolished in 1889. The Juifs are excluded from it.
- August: Trotski form with Vienna the “block of August”, attempt at reunification of the social democracy which fails.
- Meeting of the 4th Duma. Reinforcement of the right-hand side, erosion of the center Octobriste.
See also: 1912 in France
- the Swiss Civil code between into force.
- the German Emperor Guillaume II attends the operations of the Swiss army.
- the canton of Schwytz interdict with the motorists to circulate Sunday.
- Creation of the Foundation Pro Juventute.
- January: First general strike with the Portugal.
- February: Scission of the Republican party in three rival parties: the democratic party, directed by Afonso Costa (1912 - 1917), at the center left. On its line, the evolutionary party of António Jose de Almeida and the unionistic party of Brito Camacho.
the accounts of the state are balanced (1912 and 1913).
- Creation of the free universities and the popular universities with Lisbon and Oporto.
- March 14th: An anarchistic mason, Antonio D' Alba, car on the king Victor-Emmanuel III without reaching it whereas it goes to the the Pantheon of Rome. Three socialist deputies - Bissolati, Cabrini, Bonomi - congratulate the king.
- June 30th: Electoral law instituting the male vote for all. 52 Socialists and 33 catholics enter to the Parliament in 1913.
- 7 - October 10th: XIIIe socialist congress with Reggio Emilia. Benito Mussolini highly attacks the deputies reformists who congratulated the king. The Congress decides their expulsion.
- February 1st: Costantino Lazzari becomes the chief of the Italian Socialist party and the Avanti! is entrusted to Mussolini.
Appearance of nationalist movements inspired by Oriani and Enrico Corradini. Creation of Italian nationalist Association and its body the Idea Nazionale (1911). With Florence, Giovanni Papini and Giuseppe Prezzolini create a nationalist newspaper, Voce .
- January 8th: Conference of Bloemfontein. Birth of a party bantou in South Africa: National African Congress (ANC).
- Hanging of Rudolf Duala Manga with the Cameroun, followed several executions.
- Creation of the Left the Young Senegaleses .
- Decree imposing the conscription in the French colonies.
- Creation of a Service of Teaching in AOF, directed by the general governor, assisted of an inspector of teaching.
- Native Creation of the Nyassa Association .
- Creation of the Anti-Slavery and Aborigines Protection Society (Nigeria).
- Creation of the Civil Nigerian Being useful Union .
- Creation of the Western African Currency Board for the emission of currency in the British colonies of West Africa.
- Native Autority Ordinance with the Kenya: right to require 24 workdays forced per annum for the needs for the community (carried at 60 days in 1920 except for the people having worked three months in the past year).
- March 30th: Convention of Fès. Signature with Fès of the treaty which imposes French protectorate on the Morocco.
- November 27th: Treaty of Madrid between the Spain and the France for the division of the Morocco. Tangier obtains a specific scheme.
- Of the Saharan nomads, carried out by El Hiba (the blue sultan), wire of the marabout My El Aïnin seize Marrakech from where they are rejected by the French Army.
The Middle East & Arab world
- January: The Italian fleet hails two French boats - the Carthage and the Manouba - which travelled towards the Tunisia, because they transported a plane and a mission of the Othoman green Crescent. It follows a diplomatic serious incident that the president of the Italian council Giovanni Giolitti solves by subjecting to the judgment Court of $the Hague.
- February 24th: The Italian fleet destroys two ships Turkish in the port of Beirut and bombards the city.
- April 4th: The Italy seizes Rhodos.
- April-May: The Italian fleet unloads a task force in the Dodécanèse.
- October 18th: Treated of fine Ouchy putting at the italo-Turkish War; the Italy obtains the Cyrénaïque, the Tripolitaine and the Dodécanèse.
- the elections are faked by the capacity, which imposes its candidates in all the districts. In July, CUP loses the capacity with the profit of the liberal Agreement.
- Foundation of the Committee of the reforms of Beirut which asserts the creation of an assembly made up of Christians and Moslems with equality which would have all the administrative capacities.
- a Franco-British naval agreement makes it possible to put an end to any dispute between the two countries on the Syrian question. The Great Britain agrees to entrust the defense of its possessions of the Eastern Mediterranean to the French fleet in exchange of a protection of the French coasts by its ships. In December, the British government declares with the France that it does not have political aimings in Syria.
- January 1st: Constitution of the government of the Republic of China by Sun Yat-SEN.
- February 12th: The emperor of China Puyi abdicates in favor of the republic and gives the capacity to Yuan Shikai.
- February 15th: Sun Yat-SEN resigns and the assembly of Nankin names Yuan Shikai president of the republic. This one equitably distributes the ministries between the partisans of the Guomindang and them his.
- March 7th: The République of China is proclaimed with Lhassa. But the population Tibetan rises against the Chinese presence.
- April 12th (?) : Expulsion of Ambans and soldiers Chinese out of the Tibet by the forces Tibetans.
- June 22nd (?) : The 13th Dalaï LAMA returns to Lhassa after its exile in India.
- July 30th, Japan: Died of the emperor Meiji. Commit suicide of the Nogi general and his wife. Beginning of the era Taishō (fine in 1926) and of the reign of the emperor Yoshihito.
- August 12th: Signature of an agreement in three points between the Tibet and the Republic of China in the presence of representative of the Nepal.
- After one half-century of modernization and following the wars against the China and the Russia, the Japan is terribly involved in debt.
- the Gouvernement of Tibet orders the expulsion of all Chinese.
- Indonesia: The nationalist organization Sarekat Islam (Islamic Union), resulting from an association of the merchants of batik , is founded in Indonesia. Its starting goal is to protect the trade java are born from Chinese and European competition. It quickly takes a political character with national targets. It will have more than two million members in all the archipelago as of 1918.
- Constitution of trade-union organizations in Indonesia.
- March 24th: Opening of the first public school with Ourga in spite of the protest of the ecclesiastical lords. It receives 47 pupils the first year.
- May: Sit of Kobdo whose governor Mandchou, who counts on a help of the province of the Xinjiang, resists.
- August 7th: Capitulation of Kobdo to the approach of the Chinese troops. A Russian intevention avoids the resumption of the hostilities. Kobdo joined the new Mongolian state in winter 1913.
- November 3rd: Russo-Mongolian agreement concluded with Ourga. The Russia recognizes prudently the autonomy of the Mongolia and obtains commercial concessions.
- a military academy is founded in Houdjirboulane.
- the First printing works and first newspapers with Ourga: new of the Capital ( Niyslel houreniy sonine ) and the New Mirror ( Clouded toli ).
Oceania & the Pacific
- April 1st: The federal government gives to the Quebec the Ungava (the New Quebec).
- May 15th: Lomer Gouin (liberal) is re-elected with the Quebec.
- June 24th: Large fire of Chicoutimi to the Quebec: a fire begins in the Château Saguenay and is propagated in all the downtown area of Chicoutimi. 104 buildings, houses or trade are destroyed but no loss of life is recorded.
The United States
- January 6th: The New Mexico becomes the 47e State of the the United States.
- Strike in January in the factories textile of the American Wollen Company with Lawrence (Massachusetts). IWW organizes processions and gatherings which join together 50 000 people. After confrontations with the police force which make a death, the martial law is issued.
- February 10th: The children of the strikers are sent in families of reception for allows their parents to continue the movement.
- the American Wollen Company ends up granting 5 to 11% pay rise, 25 hundreds for overtime, and is committed not taking any measurement against the strikers.
- March 4th: The end of the strike is voted by 10 000 strikers chaired by Bill Haywood.
- February 14th: The Arizona becomes the State forty-eighth of the American Union.
- April 20th: Inauguration of the Fenway Park of Boston (residence of Red Sox of Boston, MLB).
- 6 - June 8th: The eruption of the Novarupta in Alaska, most important of the 20th century.
- July 13rd: Radio operator Act . The operators must obtain an authorization of the ministry for the Trade before emitting.
- August 5th: The republicans reformists vote by plebiscite Roosevelt against Taft, indicated by national convention like candidate with the elections presidential.
- August 24th: The Alaska becomes a territory of the the United States.
- September: Lawsuit Ettor - Giovanitti, militants of IWW shown to be responsible for dead for a striker, Anna LoPizzo, at the time of the strikes of the textile with Lawrence. A campaign is supported is organized in all the country. They are cleared.
- November 5th: Election of Woodrow Wilson (D) like chair the United States, against Taft (R), on a program of reform, the “New Freedom”, which proposes to restore the free-company. The Socialist Eugene Debs obtains 900 000 votes.
- December: The Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to American Elihu Root.
Integration of the territories reserved to the Indians with the Union.
- Organization of the “Chamber of commerce” of the United States. She decides soon in favor of a “self-discipline” as regards restriction on competition.
- July: Plot of the general Luis Led against the government to the Nicaragua. Rising of the liberal cities (León, Masaya). The National Assembly chooses to name Mena president of the Republic, but in August, 400 navy unloads to support the preserving president Adolfo Díaz.
- August 14th: The the United States occupy the Nicaragua which is the theater of riots (1912 - 1925, 1926 - 1933).
- October: War of Contestado to the Brazil (end in August 1916).
- electoral Reform in Argentinian, founding the vote for all.
Chronologies sets of themes
Aeronautics1912 in aeronautics
Railroads1912 in the railroads
Sport1912 in sport
Sciences & technology
- 1912 in science
- the German geophysicist Alfred Wegener formula his theory of the continental drift.
- the mail is transported for the first time in the plane.
Arts & culture
- April 30th: the blue Rider , almanac designed by Wassily Kandinsky, Franz Marc and August Macke.
- May 28th, Venice: Exposure of 29 fabrics of Monet.
- September: First “stuck papers”, of Directs.
- October 2nd: First exposure of Kandinsky to Berlin.
- October 10th: Exposure of the Section of gold cubist (Albert Gleizes, Francis Picabia, Jean Metzinger, Fernand Leger) to Paris.
- Exposure of the Tail of the ass organized by Michel Larionov in Moscow (Kasimir Malevitch, Tatline).
- the artist Hobby-horse French Marcel Duchamp painted Naked descending a staircase .
- Nobel Prize of physics: the Nile Gustaf Dalén
- Nobel Prize of chemistry: Victor Hard grindstone and Paul Sabatier
- Nobel Prize of physiology or medicine: Alexis Carrel
- Nobel Prize of literature: Gerhart Johann Robert Hauptmann
- Nobel Prize of peace: Elihu Root
Births in 1912
- January 4th: Gianfranco Contini, critical arts person and philologist Italy N. († March 28th 1990).
- January 15th: Michel Debré, French politician
- January 28th: Jackson Pollock, American painter
- February 3rd: Jacques Soustelle, anthropologist and politician French
- February 9th: Ginette Leclerc (Genevieve Menut), French actress
- February 20th: Pierre Swell, writer French
- February 25th: Emile Went, skier French
- March 13rd: Mohamed Khider, founding member of the FLN, Algerian
- March 23rd: Wernher von Braun, American engineer of German origin
- March 25th: Jean Vilar, actor and director of French theater
- March 28th: Marina Raskova, Soviet aviatrice († January 4th 1943)
- April 8th: Sonja Neighed, artistic skater and Norwegian actress
- April 14th: Robert Doisneau, French photographer
- April 26th: A.E. van Vogt, American writer of Science fiction
- June 23rd: Alan Mathison Turing, mathematician and British data processing specialist
- July 8th: Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller, American politician
- July 14th: Woodie Guthrie, American musician
- July 31st: Milton Friedman, American economist, “Nobel Prize” of economy in 1976.
- August 5th: Abbot Pierre, French priest († January 22nd 2007)
- August 10th: Jorge Amado, Brazilian writer
- August 12th: Samuel Fuller, realizer of American cinema († October 30th 1997)
- August 23rd: Gene Kelly, actor, choreographer and American realizer
- September 5th: John Cage, American type-setter
- September 29th: Michelangelo Antonioni, realizer and Italian scenario writer († July 30th 2007)
- October 2nd: Frank Malina, American aeronautical engineer († November 9th 1981)
- October 2nd: David Feuerwerker, rabbi and historian French
- October 15th: Jadwiga Jedrzejowska, Polish tennis player
- October 17th: Albino Luciani, future pope Jean-Paul Ier
- October 22nd: Harry Callahan, American photographer
- October 26th: Mitri Naaman, writer, poet, Lebanese editor
- November 20th: Otto de Habsbourg, archduke of Austria
- November 26th: Eugene Ionesco, French writer of Rumanian origin
- December 5th: Henri Pillow, French alpine skier, two gold medals with the OJ
- December 21st: Paul Meurisse, French actor
Death in 1912
- February 16th: Nikolai Kasatkin (Holy Nikolai of Japan) Russian priest
- March 29th: John Gerrard Keulemans, painter and Illustrator Dutch (° 1842)
- March 30th: Karl May, German writer (° 1842)
- April 15th:
- More than 1.500 victims of the Shipwreck of the Titanic
- Jacques Futrelle, American writer , passenger of the Titanic
- April 21st: Bram Stoker, Irish writer author of Dracula
- May 14th: Frederic VIII, king of the Denmark
- June 12th:
- Ferdinand Zirkel, geologist and German petrologist
- Frederic Passy, French politician, Nobel Prize of peace in 1901
- June 25th: Sir Laurens Alma-Tadema, British painter of Dutch origin
- July 30th: Meiji (emperor of Japan) (° 1852)
- August 20th: William Booth, Pasteur British methodist , founder of the Salvation Army (° April 10th 1829).
- October 7th: El Jerezano (Manual Lara Reyes), Spanish Matador (° December 8th 1867).
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