This page relates to the year 1911 Gregorian Calendrier.
EventsThe March 8th, first international Day of the Women: a million women express in Europe.
- Resistance Hutu Tutsi and to the British and the Germans (1911 - 1917).
- With the Kenya, the Masaï are expelled of their grounds and are gathered by the force in the reserves.
- Revolt of the Acholi against the tax in Uganda.
- the Color Bar interdict with the Blacks of South Africa to postulate the use of semi-skilled workers. The pass-system assigns them with residence.
- Famine in Angola (fine in 1916).
the Belgian Congo produces 998 tons of copper (136 992 in 1929,163 610 in 1944).
- the Belgian State signs a contract with the British company Lever to create the HCB (Huileries of Belgian Congo). It envisages the concession by stage of 750 000 ha of ground to exploit the palm oil there. In 1930, the HCB will treat 96 900 of fruits and will export 18 000 tons of oil and 10 300 tons of almonds.
- 5 973 000 inhabitants in South Africa including 67,28% of Blacks, 21,36 of White, 2,54% the Asian ones and 8,80% of “Coloured”.
- 13 167 white colonists with the Kenya. 12 000 Indians.
- June 28th: A general decree detaches the circle of Gao military territory to integrate it into the area of Tombouctou.
- November 4th: The Cameroun extends towards the Congo and the Oubangui following the agreements from Agadir between the Germany and the France.
- December 7th: A decree transforms the military territory of Zinder into military territory of the Niger.
- Senoussi, which directed the Dar Kouti, is killed. The territory of the Chad is created.
- the emir of the Adrar, driven out Mauritania by the French Army and taken refuge in the Hodh, in the North-West of Tombouctou, is overcome and made captive. After this operation, a military station is established with Oualata.
- Railway lines Konakry - Bouaké and Cotonou - Savé.
- March 30th: Signature with Fès of the treaty which imposes French protectorate on the Morocco.
- April 23rd: The France intervenes militarily in Morocco to release Fès threatened by the hostile tribes with the sultan.
- July 1st: Business of Agadir: second Moroccan crisis: a German battleship, the Panther, is presented in the port of Agadir, to protest against the projection of the French troops to the Morocco.
- November 4th: Franco-German convention regulating the second Moroccan crisis, the Germans obtaining for their withdrawal of Morocco a compensation to the Congo, the French recover the Duck Nozzle to the Chad.
- November 7th: Business of Djellaz in Tunisia followed martial law until in 1921.
- September 29th: The Italy declares the war with the Turkey. A task force of 100 000 men is made up.
- October 1st: First Air raid carried out by the Italian officer Giulio Guidoti in Tripolitaine.
- 3 - October 5th: The Italian fleet bombards the coast of the Cyrénaïque and the Tripolitaine (current Libya) and sends to ground a detachment of the marine.
- October 5th: Italian intervention in Tripolitaine. Catch of Tripoli.
- October 20th: The Italian army seizes Benghazi.
- October 23rd: The Turks and the Arabs tackle the Italian positions in the oasis of Tripoli while part of the population rises against its backs and in the city. A regiment of bersaglieri undergoes heavy losses.
- November 4th: the Othoman army of Libya is overcome by the Italy.
- the November 5th, the Italy proclaims its sovereignty on the Tripolitaine and the Cyrénaïque.
The Middle East & Arab world
- August 19th: German-Russian agreement of Potsdam on a Persian division of influence in and on the railroad of Baghdad.
the Shah of Perse Mohammad Ali Shah is restored, and the removed majlis.
- Horatio Herbert Kitchener becomes British consul of Egypt. He carries out a severe political repression against the nationalists.
- Turbid with the Yemen.
- Formation of the liberal Agreement by the opposition to the turquisation of the Ottoman Empire.
- Foundation in Paris by young Arab students of Al-Fatat, secret society which aims to the independence of the Arab countries.
- Foundation in Indonesia of the Sarekat Islam Indonesia and awakening of the national feeling.
- October: The dynasty Qing is deposited in China. Sun Yat-SEN founds a republic.
- October 10th: The revolt prepared by Sun Yat-SEN (directing party Tongmenghui) bursts with Wuchang where the garrison is raised. The insurrectionists proclaim the republic and organize a provisional government chaired by Li Yuanhong and Wu Tingfang. Canton revolts in its turn and involves all China of the South.
- 27 - October 28th: The imperial ones manage to take again Hanyang and Hankou.
- 4 and November 30th: The republicans succeed in gaining Shanghai and Nankin where they establish their capital.
- October 1st: The regent calls upon Yuan Shikai to restore the situation. This one requires of him to resign (December 6th).
- December 30th: Election of Sun Yat-SEN like first president of the Republic.
- February 1st: TheExternal one makes secession with the Russian support.
- Following the inversion of the Qing by the revolution in China, the Tibet becomes de facto independent although always depend on China taking into consideration international law. The last Chinese soldiers are driven out of Lhassa.
- December 11th: The decision to cancel the partition of the province of the Bengal is pronounced by the king Georges V of the United Kingdom during its crowning as emperor of the Indies in Large Durbar (assembled the notable ones), with Delhi.
- December 12th: The town of New Delhi is in construction to become the capital of the British empire of the Indies in the place of Calcutta.
Criminal Castes and Tribes Act .
Oceania & the Pacific
- March 25th: Set fire to factory of clothes industry Triangle Shirtwaist Company with New York. Hundred forty six paid, for the majority of the women, find death in the fire or while being thrown by the windows.
- September 21st: The negotiations that Wilfrid Laurier engages with the the United States in seen the concluding of a treaty of reciprocity allow to the conservatives Ontario to reverse it by showing it to prepare the annexation formerly denounced by Sir John A. Macdonald.
- October 10th: Robert Laird Borden (preserving) is elected Prime Minister with the Canada.
- Creation of the Progressive National Republican League , directed by the reformist Robert Follette.
- 4,5 million immigrants to the the United States between 1911 and 1915.
- January 1st: Juan Jose Estrada takes her functions of president in Nicaragua. It meets the constituent opposition of Assemblé. Its Minister for the war, the general Carried out, plots against him.
- March 1st: Jose Batlle Ordóñez is re-elected there with the presidency of the Uruguay (fine in 1915). It launches a broad reform program social and economic.
- May 9th, Nicaragua: The the United States force Estrada to resign and the vice-president Adolfo Díaz succeeds to him. More reconciling, it yields to the North-Americans control national railroads, maritime company of the lake and national Bank.
- July 24th: The American explorer Hiram Bingham discovers the city of Machu Picchu with the Peru.
- May: Porfirio Díaz gives up the capacity then leaves the country definitively on October 1st.
- September 1st: Francisco Madero gains the presidential elections. It cannot put an end to the political movements and soldiers who agitate the country. Others rebellious, like Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa, refuse to be subjected to its authority. Its partisans are divided, and creation by the new president of the constitutional party progressist exacerbates passions. The country leaders are shocked decision of Madero to dissolve the revolutionary armies and not the federal army, overcome. Madero is not shown able to hold its shy persons promises of land reforms.
- November 25th: Zapata lance its plan of Ayala, second very critical revolutionary proclamation with regard to Madero and announces the intention of the peasants to seize the grounds of which they were dispossessed. Zapata takes again the fight against the federal army. Agitation reaches the working mediums.
- Madero decides more heavily to tax the activities with extraction of Pétrole, which attracts to him the opposition of the alien companies and thus of the the United States.
- May 26th, Germany: Adoption of a constitution project for the Alsace-Lorraine by the Reichstag, but Reichsland does not acquire the equal rights with the confederated States.
- May 31st: first international congress of air regulation to Paris.
- June 17th, Belgium: Cabinet Charles de Broqueville
- August 10th, the United Kingdom: Parliament Act . Reduction of the capacities of the Senate, which loses her right to veto on the finance laws. The members of the House of Commons receive an allowance.
Cabinet Karl von Stürgkh in Austria
- Constitutional reform in Greece: Eleftherios Venizelos begins the administrative, military and economic reorganization of the country.
- Zita of Bourbon-Parma wife that which will become the emperor Charles Ier of Austria with died of François-Joseph; they will reign only two years (1916-1918).
- the Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to the Netherlander Tobias Asser and to the Austrian Alfred Fried.
- Dealt with of the wages of the schoolmasters by the State in Spain.
- universal Congress of the Races with London.
- the farm laborers obtain the benefit of the Social Security in Germany.
- National Insurance Act with the the United Kingdom: social protection against the disease for those which have an employment.
See also: 1911 in France
- March 31st: The tunnel of the Lötschberg is bored.
- the first concession of reception of broadcasting is granted to the School of the clock and watch makers of Neuchâtel.
- April: Law of separation of the Church and the State.
- December: In reaction, pastoral letter, whose reading in the churches is prohibited by the Parliament. Exile of the patriarch of Lisbon, the archbishops of Evora and Braga, of the bishops. The priests refuse to 80% the pensions offered by the state. The conflict will calm down quickly.
Constitution based on the principle of the separation of the three capacities, giving the priority to the Parliament (bicameral system).
- Vote for all with the major citizens (21 years), knowing to read and write, or household head since at least a year. This to fight against the phenomenon of the “caciquism”. Indeed, in the campaigns, cacique, often the priest, dictates to the inhabitants (illiterate) their political attitudes.
- Week six days following the strike movements.
- the Portugal removes the subsidies at the private schools (1911 - 1926).
- Compulsory schooling from 7 to 10 years.
- a new currency, the Escudo, replaces the réal.
- the nationalists publish a weekly magazine, the Idea Nazionale , and choose like starting date on March 1st, birthday of the Bataille of Adoua.
- March 30th: Luigi Luzzatti resigns and Giovanni Giolitti returns to the businesses (end in 1914). At the instigation of Giolitti, the king receives for the first time a socialist deputy, Leonida Bissolati. Although this last refuses a wallet in the new Giolitti cabinet, the event causes polemical sharp within the socialist party.
- March-April: The Italy celebrates the 50e birthday of its unit by a series of exposures to Rome, Florence and Turin.
- June 4th: The king inaugurates the monument with Victor-Emmanuel II of Italy on the Capitole in the presence of all the mayors of the country and the war veterans of the wars of the Risorgimento.
- September 29th: After a violent nationalist campaign and not to prejudge its aspirations on the Tripolitaine, Italy declares the war with the Ottoman Empire.
RussiaDates of the Calendar Julien
- January: Agitation coed.
- May 29th: Agrarian law supporting the dissolution of the rural district.
- March 14th: Introduction of the Zemstvo S into the Western provinces.
- September 5th: Died of the Prime Minister Piotr Stolypine following an attack. Vladimir Kokovtsov becomes president of the council (fine in 1914).
Chronologies sets of themes
- Aeronautical: 1911 in aeronautics.
- Railroads: 1911 in the railroads.
- Sports: 1911 in sport.
- Sciences & technology: 1911 in science.
- Beautiful arts :
- March 28th: First exposure of Picasso to the the United States.
- August 10th: the Portuguese , fabric of Directs.
- Japan: Construction of the Palate of Akasaka, out of stone and according to the guns of traditional Western architecture.
Arts & culture
- Nobel Prize of physics: Wilhelm Wien
- Nobel Prize of chemistry: Marie Curie
- Nobel Prize of physiology or medicine: Allvar Gullstrand
- Nobel Prize of literature: Maurice Polidore Marie Bernhard Maeterlinck
- Nobel Prize of peace: Tobias Michael Carel Asser Alfred Hermann Fried
Births in 1911
- January 5th: Jean-Pierre Aumont, actor French († January 30th 2001)
- January 6th: Joey Adams, singer and actor the United States
- January 14th: Edward George Bowen, electronics specialist Welsh
- January 22nd
- January 24th: Rene Barjavel, writer and journalist French († November 24th 1995)
- March 9th: Clara Rockmore, instrumentalist virtuoso of the Thérémine († May 10th 1998)
- March 12th: Gustavo Díaz Ordaz, president of the Mexico of 1964 with 1970
- March 26th: Tennessee Williams, American writer († February 25th 1983)
- April 1st: Adam Kozlowiecki, man of the church Polish
- April 5th
- Muhammad Mitwallî Ash-Sha râwî, religious Egyptian, exégète of the Coran. († 1998).
- Hédi Nouira, politician Tunisia N († January 25th 1993).
- April 8th: Emil Cioran, Philosopher and Rumanian writer
- April 9th: Alfred Coste-Floret, politician French († January 9th 1990)
- April 10th: Maurice Schumann, politician and academician French († February 9th 1998)
- April 17th: Herve Bazin, writer French († February 17th 1996)
- June 4th: Faustino Oramas, called “ El Guayabero ”, singer Cuba in, legend of the “sound”. († March 27th 2007).
- June 24th: Manual Juan Fangio, racing driver Argentinian († July 17th 1995)
- June 30th: Czesław Miłosz, poet, novelist, essay writer and translator Polish († August 14th 2004)
- August 8th: Philippe de Scitivaux, Aviator French of the Second world war, Companion of the Release. († August 10th 1986).
- August 12th: Samuel Fuller, scenario writer and realizer the United States († October 30th 1997)
- August 17th: Mikhaïl Botvinnik, Russian player of failures († May 5th 1995)
- September 19th: William Golding, British writer , Nobel Prize of literature 1983 († June 19th 1993)
- September 24th: Konstantin Tchernenko, Soviet politician († March 10th 1985)
- November 1st: Henri Troyat, ( Lev Aslanovitch Tarassov known as), French writer of Russian origin. (+ March 2nd 2007).
- November 11th: Roberto Matta, Surrealist painter Chile in
- November 26th :
- December 5th
- December 18th: Jules Dassin, realizer the United States
- December 25th: Ball Hogarth, American draftsman of Cartoon
Death in 1911
- March 1st: Jacobus Henricus van 'T Hoff, Physicist and Chemist Dutch (Nobel Prize of chemistry 1901) (° 1852).
- May 18th: Gustav Mahler, Type-setter (° 1860).
- May 20th: Nevil Story Maskelyne, Politicking photographer and British (° 1823).
- September 14th: Piotr Stolypine, (assassinated)
- November 26th: Paul Lafargue, writer and politician French (° 1842).
Beats-smg: 1911 Be-X-old: 1911 Map-bms: 1911 Simple: 1911 Zh-yue: 1911 年
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