This page relates to the year 1909 Gregorian Calendrier.
- February 23rd: The new Serbe Prime Minister announces his programme of constitution of a “Large Serbia” by asserting the Bosnia-Herzégovine, the Dalmatie and the Croatia.
- February 26th: The Ottoman Empire agrees to recognize the annexation of the Bosnia-Herzégovine by the Austria-Hungary. In exchange, Vienna gives up occupying the sandjak of Novi-Bazaar.
- March 31st: The German pressure on the Russia obliges the Serbia to be inclined in the Balkan crisis. The Serbia accepts the annexation of the Bosnia-Herzégovine by the Austria-Hungary.
- April 19th: The Ottoman Empire recognizes the independence of the Bulgaria.
- May 31st: Law reinforcing the Russianization of the Finland.
- July 25th - July 31st: tragic Week with Barcelona. The Socialists pushed the people to be opposed to the call reservists in the Rif, but the movement, exceeded by the violence of the anarchists, undergoes a violent repression. The anarchistic theorist Francisco Ferrer is stopped and carried out in spite of international indignation. The PSOE decides to be combined with the republicans, which starts its rise.
- October 21st: Fall of the government Antonio Maura in Spain. The ministries follow one another.
- October 24th: Agreements of Racconigi (Piedmont) between Nicolas II of Russia and Victor-Emmanuel III of Italy: observation of the status quo in the Balkans, recognition of the Italian interests in Tripolitaine and Cyrénaïque and of the Russian aimings on the Straits.
- December 11th, Italy: The president of the Council Giovanni Giolitti resigns and is replaced by Sidney Sonnino.
- December 23rd: Albert Ier of Belgium becomes king of the Belgian after the death of Léopold II of Belgium the December 17th.
Foundation of the social democrat party (SDP) of Marxist inspiration to the Netherlands.
- the crown prince to Austria-Hungary François-Ferdinand returns visit to the king Carol of Romania to Sinaïa what causes the anger of the Magyars.
- Political crisis with the Duma: part of the octobrists (Goutchkov) want to defend the prerogatives of the deputies.
- Division of the Bolsheviks: “conciliators”, in favor of a bringing together with the Mencheviks, “otzovists”, claiming the recall ( otzyv ) of the social democrat deputies, “manufacturers of God”, calling into question the materialism of the orthodoxe Marxism (Bazarov, Bogdanov).
- the Council of State refuses the legal formation of congregations of Old Believers.
- University of Saratov.
- Access control of the women to the university. Applications strict of the numerus clausus imposed on the Jewish .
Bumper crops. The Russia becomes the first cereal world supplier (30% of the marketed quantities).
See also: 1909 in France
- July 14th: Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg becomes chancellor of the Reich, and replaces Bernhard von Bülow, outgoing chancellor put in minority.
Creation of the Hansabund in Germany, reforming party which claims the establishment of the universal direct suffrage in all the elections.
- Foundation of trade unions of farm laborers in Germany.
- Increase in the indirect taxes in Germany to face an enormous increase in expenditure.
The United Kingdom
- “the budget of the people”, progressive tax reforms of Lloyd George, Chancellor of the Exchequer: tax on the great land and buildings and “super tax” on the large wages. The reform causes a constitutional crisis. The Room of the Pars, with preserving majority, rejects the budget. Asquith dissolves the Parliament (elections in January 1910).
the British authorities fix unilaterally the limits of Gibraltar.
- New program of naval constructions.
- the line of the Gothard is nationalized.
- Foundation of the University of Neuchâtel.
- Creation of the Swiss League for protection of nature.
- January 10th: With Nax (Were worth), the roof of a church crumbles during the religious service; 31 people are buried.
- February 9th: Franco-German agreement on the Morocco. The France guaranteed to the Germany a commercial and industrial access to Morocco. Germany recognizes the political interests of France in the country.
- May 11th: Foundation of the African southern Union. A Constitution and a bicameral parliamentary system are granted to the four provinces.
- Rising separatist of the “sultan” My Al-Ainin in Mauritania.
- Ethiopia: The Négus Ménélik II, out of state to control, indicates to succeed Lidj-Yasou to him, still child, wire of the Ras Micaél of the Ouarra-Himano. Regency is exerted until in 1911 by Ras Tésamma, then by Ras Micaél until the death of Ménélik in 1913.
Abolition of the Slavery to Zanzibar.
- Madagascar: Railway line Brickaville - Tananarive.
- After the catch of the Ouadaï by the French and of the Libya by the Italians (1912), the commercial axis Sudan - Cyrénaïque, already competition by the railroad, loses of its importance.
- the Belgian Congo produced 3 492 392 kg of rubber (30 050 kg in 1887).
February 12th: Foundation with National New York of the Association for the Advancement off Colored People (NAACP) under the impulse of the historian W.E.B. Wood.
- March 4th: Beginning of the republican presidency of William Howard Taft with the the United States which succeeds Theodore Roosevelt (fine in 1913).
- September 15th: Inauguration of the road racing set of Indianapolis, with the E. - U..
General strike of the workers of the workshops of clothes industry to New York during the winter. More 20 000 people cease work with the call of the International Ladies' Garment Workers Union.
- racial Riot with Springfield (Illinois).
the United States: 1% of the firms ensure 44% of the manufacturing output. 1% of the population hold 47% of all the goods.
- Ford sells 10 700 cars in 1909.
- Foundation of the team of Hockey of the Canadian of Montreal.
- Foundation of Saint-Redeemer on the bank-south of Quebec
- January 5th: The Colombia recognizes the independence of Panama.
- January 28th: The American troops leave Cuba, but keep the base of Guantánamo.
- Risings with the Nicaragua directed by liberals (Juan Jose Estrada) or conservatives (Emiliano Chamoro, Adolfo Diaz) who put in difficulty the dictator Jose Santos Zelaya for the fourteenth time. The the United States, upset by the refusal of Zelaya to negociate loans near New Yorkean bankers and his will posted to collaborate with the Great Britain and the Japan for the construction of a channel, encourage the revolt (December 1st). Zelaya is withdrawn and the congress names with the presidency the liberal Jose Madriz who is not recognized by the administration Taft (December 18th).
- China: Meeting of the provincial councils which pass to the opposition.
- March 10th: Anglo-Siamese treaty of Bangkog. The Siam gives up four States of the Malayan peninsula to the the United Kingdom. N the other hand, the British give up the majority of their off-shore rights in the remainder of the kingdom.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale, which directs the Parti the Congress, succeeds in persuading the new Secretary of State to the India, John Morley, to start reforms in spite of the reserves of the viceroy, Lord Minto. Indian Council' S Act (Morley-Minto reform) introduced the elective principle into the member nomination of the legislative councils. A group of notable, led by the young Sultan Muhammad Aga Khan (1877-1857) is received by Lord Minto as a delegation and obtains the organization of elections separated for the Moslems.
- Lord Sinha is the first Indian with becoming member of the executive council of the general government of the British Indies.
- Institution of provincial assemblies in India.
- Return of the Khmer king Sisovath to Angkor, under French protection.
- Tender of Bali to the Dutchmen.
- Tibet : The Dalai Lama Thubten Gyatso returns to Lhassa after five years of exile. It enters immediately in conflict with the amban Lian Yu, which calls 2 000 men of the Sichuan in reinforcement. Lhassa is partly plundered.
- Mongolia: Revolt in the aïmak khanal tsetsene. The warehouses and the shops of the Chinese merchants are set fire to, and many killed owners. Manchu troops sent to fight it oblige Toktokho, the chief of the revolt to be taken refuge beyond the Baïkal but the units partisanes carry out periodic raids against the aïmak.
Oceania & the Pacific
The Middle East
- April 11th: Foundation of Tel-Aviv, first Jewish city in Palestine.
- April 27th: Beginning of the Othoman sultanate of Mehmed V Resad which succeeds Abdülhamid II (fine in 1918).
- Abdülhamid II intrigues to take again the capacity. It makes excite by its agents the fanaticism of the Moslems, making run the noise that the legislation “cherished” was going to be abolished. In April, crowd raises itself with Constantinople. The Committee “Union and Progress” takes refuge with Salonique and the sultan becomes again main of the country. Following disorders to Adana, the massacres of Christians extend to all the Cilicie. Twenty-five thousand of them, Arménie NS for the majority, are victims of massacres. The army intervenes again. The 3rd Body goes on Constantinople, takes the city and deposits Abdülhamid II to substitute his/her brother to him. The Committee “Union and Progress” is pointed out. Abdülhamid II and imprisoned in Salonique (1910).
- After the revolution, the elements Turkish of the government stick to “turquifier” the administration, justice and teaching, which causes the disaffection of many Arabs.
- July 16th: Beginning of the reign of Ahmad Shah Qajar, Shah of Persia following the dismissal of his/her father Mohammad Ali Shah (fine in 1925).
Chronologies sets of themes
- Aeronautical: 1909 in aeronautics.
- Railroads: 1909 in the railroads.
- Sports: 1909 in sport.
- Sciences: 1909 in science
Arts & culture
- September 29th: Living room of Fall to Paris: success of Maillol and Bourdelle, first participation of Utrillo.
- September 30th: Victor Hugo , of Auguste Rodin.
- Fruit dish on the table of Fernand Leger
- Nobel Prize of physics: Guglielmo Marconi and Carl Ferdinand Braun
- Nobel Prize of chemistry: Wilhelm Ostwald
- Nobel Prize of physiology or medicine: Emil Theodor Kocher
- Nobel Prize of literature: Selma Lagerlöf
- Nobel Prize of peace: Auguste Marie François Beernaert and Paul-Henri-Benjamin d' Estournelles de Constant
Births in 1909
- January 1st: Barry Goldwater, American politician
- January 13rd: Marinus van der Lubbe, alleged incendiary of the Reichstag († 1934)
- January 24th: Andre Barsacq, French setter-in-scene
- January 26th: Rene Étiemble, French writer
- February 3rd: Simone Weil, woman Philosopher French
- February 7th: Anna Świrszczyńska, Polish poetess . († September 30th 1984).
- February 10th: Henri Alekan, French operator chief
- February 11th: Joseph L. Mankiewicz, realizer and producing American
- February 24th: August Derleth, writer, anthologist and American editor († July 4th 1971)
- March 7th: Léo Malet, French writer
- March 22nd: Gabrielle Roy, écrivaine Canadian († 1983)
- March 30th: Ernst Gombrich, Austrian historian († 2001)
- April 22nd: Andre Girard, resistant French († 1993)
- April 29th: Daniel Mayer, French political personality, († 1996)
- April 30th: Juliana of the Netherlands, queen of the Netherlands
- May 9th: Lew Christensen, dancer, choreographer and American ballet master († 1984)
- May 15th: James Mason, British actor († 1984)
- May 30th: Benny Goodman, American jazzman († 1986)
- June 7th: Jessica Tandy, British actress naturalized American († 1994)
- June 19th: Osamu Dazai, writer Japan board († 1948)
- June 20th: Errol Flynn, actor Australia N († 1959)
- June 24th: Katherine Dunham, dancer and choreographer Afro-American
- July 5th: Andrei Gromyko, Soviet statesman († 1989)
- July 17th: Ignace Strasfogel, Type-setter and Leader Polish († February 6th 1994)
- July 24th: Jerzy Różycki, mathematician and cryptologist Polish († January 9th 1942)
- July 28th: Malcolm Lowry, British writer
- August 4th: Saunders MacLane, American mathematician
- August 17th: Raoul Motoret, French writer
- August 18th: Flesh-colored Marcel, French scenario writer
- August 19th: Jerzy Andrzejewski, writer Polish († April 19th 1983)
- August 27th: Sylvère Maes, Belgian cyclist
- September 7th: Elia Kazan, realizer states-unien of Turkish origin
- September 8th: max Blecher, Rumanian writer
- September 14th: Edouard Ramonet, French politician († 1980).
- October 13rd: Art Tatum, pianist of American Jazz
- October 23rd: Zellig Harris, American linguist
- October 28th: Francis Bacon, British painter
- November 5th: Pierre Reference mark, humorist and actor French.
- November 16th: Maurizio Valenzi, Italian politician.
Death in 1909
- January 27th:
- January 29th: Wilfred Hudleston Hudleston], (born Simpson), British geologist (° June 2nd 1828)
- February 7th: Catulle Mendès, French writer (° 1841).
- February 8th: Mieczysław Karłowicz, type-setter Polish (° December 11th 1876)
- February 17th: Geronimo, Indian chief of the tribe of the Apaches Chiricahua, established with the the United States (° 1829).
- April 8th: Helena Modjeska, Polish actress (° October 12th 1844)
- June 14th: Witold Wojtkiewicz, Polish painter (° December 29th 1879)
- July 18th: the prince Charles of Bourbon (61 years), duke of Madrid, elder of the Capétiens and chief of the House of France (° 1848).
- August 11th: Cheche (Jose Marrero Bez), Mexican Matador (° March 19th 1870).
- October 26th: Hirobumi Itō, Japanese politician (° 1841).
- November 3rd: Albert-Auguste Exploring Fauvel, and Naturalist French (° 1851).
- December 10th: Red Cloud, the last big boss Sioux.
- December 17th: Léopold II of Saxony-Cobourg-Gotha, second king of the Belgian (° 1835).
- December 24th: Nicolaas Pierson, economist and politician Dutch.
Beats-smg: 1909 Be-X-old: 1909 Map-bms: 1909 Simple: 1909 Zh-yue: 1909 年
|Random links:||Alan J. Pakula | Donzère | Mollégès | Striated Souimanga | Akwa United Football Club|