This page relates to the year 1901 Gregorian Calendrier.
- November 18th, Panama: The the United Kingdom and the the United States sign an agreement (Traité Hay-Pauncefote) on the boring of the Panama Canal.
- December 6th: Aggravation of the Andean conflict enters the Argentine and the Chile.
the last communities independent Mayas are subjected by the Mexican government.
- the Bolivia gives the Acre between the hands of an American group: Bolivian Syndicate .
- Canada: Beginning of a vast program, one 15 years duration, plantation of 50 million young trees in the Canadian “meadows”, intended to help the pioneers to fix the grounds, to retain snow and to stabilize harvests.
- March 2nd: The Amendement Platt recognizes a right of intervention from the United States to Cuba. Initially rejected by cuban constitutional Convention, it is finally adopted after three months of American pressures.
- June 12th: Cuba becomes an American protectorate. The the United States have the right to intervene in the island. They receive bay of Guantánamo and control the economy of the island.
- republican Constitution.
the United States
- January 10th: Discovered first large oil-bearing field with the Texas with Beaumont.
- September 6th: Attack against the president of the E. - U., William McKinley, which will succumb to its wounds one week later (the 14).
- September 14th: Following the death of William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt becomes President of the United States of America. Roosevelt is anxious to restore the democracy to defend the free-company of the dangers to which its own excesses expose. It is surrounded advisers representing the capital and finance (Hanna, Robert Bacon, George W. Perkins, Elihu Root, Nelson W. Aldrich, James Stillman…).
- November 18th: Treaty Hay-Pauncefote. The the United Kingdom gives freehand to the United States with the the Antilles. The United States receives the exclusive right build and exploit the Panama Canal.
- December 12th: First radiotelegraphic message sent through the Atlantic (Marconi).
Vague of reforms progressists (1901 - 1910). The middle-classes revolt against “ the jungle ” and seek to remove excesses which are denounced to him: exploitation of the Work of the children and the women, arrogant domination of the great private interests, corruption of the political machines, wasting of the national resources and sale of goods of bad quality, even damaged.
Formation of the US Steel Company by John Pierpont Morgan, first trust with the capital of more than one billion dollar which produces the 3/5° steel of the country and 170  employment; 000 paid.
- the fields of Coton S are devastated by a parasite, the anthonomist.
- Law on housing (better ventilation and separate toilets).
- April 26th, Algeria: the inhabitants of Margueritte are attacked by Moslems. Five Europeans are killed and repression will make sixteen dead among the insurrectionists.
- September: Abd Al-Aziz of Morocco, which controls with the assistance of European advisers, applies a great administrative reform and tax: suppression of the Koranic taxes and transformation of the caïds into paid Makhzen. These brutally imposed revolutionary measurements cause a wave of dissatisfaction at the notable ones which enter in open fight against the central government. Morocco divides between several factions which the sultan does not have the means of controlling.
exploring the Isabella Bird meets the Berbères mounts Atlas.
- the confederation Ashanti is dismantled and becomes a British colony placed under the authority of the Gold Coast, colony since 1874.
- Beginning of the reign of Abou-Ghazali, sultan of the Ouadaï (fine in 1902).
- Creation of the Bank of Western Africa for the emission of currency in the French colonies.
- Completion of the railroad of the Uganda.
Oceania & peaceful
- January 1st: The colonies of Western Australia, of the Victoria, Australia of the South, Tasmanie, the Queensland, and News-Wales of the South federate to form the the Commonwealth of Australia.
- January 6th: The Filipino reject the American supervision and claim independence.
- March 23rd, Filipino: Emilio Aguinaldo is deposited and imprisoned by the Americans.
- April 2nd: Under the pressure of the Japan and the United Kingdom, China refuses to yield the Mandchourie to the Russia.
- April 15th: Emilio Aguinaldo, Filipino leader, request with his compatriots to subject itself to the E. - U..
- September 7th: With Beijing, the Western countries sign with the China an agreement which puts an end to the Révolte Boxers.
- October 3rd: Beginning of the reign of Habibollah Khan, king of Afghanistan.
Beginning of the reforms in China: modernization of the state, assemblies elected, modern army, modern penal code, reform of teaching (abolition of the system of the examinations, person in charge of the preserving attitude of the administration).
The Middle East
- a British company receives a concession of oil drilling for 60 years in Perse.
- Resistance of the Armenians in Turkey: business of the monastery of Arakelotz, carried out by Andranik.
- April 25th: Demonstrations in Catalonia against the Jesuits. The Separation of the Church and the State is claimed. Foundation of the Catalan regional League (the Lliga ).
- July 24th: Defeats of the Conservatives to the elections with the Lower House with the Denmark, which obtain only eight seats. The king must name Johan Henrik Deuntzer as chief of the government, which forms the first Danish ministry having the majority with the Folketing. A parliamentary mode is established without constitutional change.
- : Abraham Kuyper (1837 - 1920), becomes Prime Minister for the Netherlands.
- December 10th: With Stockholm, given of the first Nobel Prize. The Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to Switzerland Henri Dunant and French Frederic Passy.
- December 21st: In Norway, women vote for the first time (with the local elections). It is necessary to pay 300 (in the countryside) with 400 (downtown) crowns minimum to have the right to vote.
Dealt with of the wages of the schoolmasters by the state in Spain.
- the congregation nuns devoting itself to educational and caritative activities are authorized with the Portugal.
- the equality in front of the military service is voted by the Riksdag of Sweden on the proposal of the Billing bishop.
- military Law in the Netherlands allowing a broad and fast mobilization.
- mining Law in the Netherlands: beginning of the coal mining of the Limbourg.
- March 6th: anarchistic attack against the emperor Guillaume II.
- Creation with Berlin of the Hilfsverein der Deutschen Juden by James Simon, industrialist of cottons and friend of Kaiser.
See also: 1901 in France
- July 1st: Relative law with the contract of association.
- January 22nd: Died with Osberne of the queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. Beginning of the reign of Edouard VII of the United Kingdom (fine in 1910).
- January 23rd: Speech from the throne of Edouard VII, new British sovereign .
- April 1st: Publication of the census to the the United Kingdom which counts 37 093 436 British and 4 440 000 Irishmen.
- November 12th: The British Isles are struck by a violent storm which killed nearly 200 people.
- April 7th: The Suisse decides to extradite a person suspected of having taken share with the attack against the king Umberto Ier of Italy the July 29th 1900. This decision causes violent demonstrations denouncing an infringement of the right of asylum.
- 5th Congress Zionist with Basle, and creation of the Funds Jewish national, in charge of the purchase of the grounds in Palestine. Creation of the Keren Kayemeth LeIsraël (K.K.L.), bases Israeli public land field.
- Foundation of Caritas, catholic organization of mutual aid.
- January 26th: The pope Leon XIII publishes his encyclical Graves communi concerning the Christian Democrat. He insists on the apostolic character which the Christian Democrat must take.
- February 15th: Resignation of Giuseppe Saracco. Victor-Emmanuel III of Italy entrusts the government to an old liberal progressist, Giuseppe Zanardelli, which recalls to the businesses Giovanni Giolitti as Minister of Interior Department.
- Beginning one period liberal, known as giolittienne (fine in 1914). Giovanni Giolitti belongs to the constitutional but practical left a policy of consensus with the opponents. This policy supports political stability, but involves the clientelism, corruption, the “ mala vita ”.
- April: Parliamentary debate on the country trade-union organizations. Giolitti defends the right of association.
- October 9th: The Italian minister of religion prohibited to the use of the churches for all activities not nun.
- Failure of two laws on the divorce presented to the Room in December 1901 and February 1902.
Series of social laws: laws on the industrial accidents, work of the women and the children, on the weekly rest, the retirements, etc
- 1042 strikes in 1901. 413 959 strikers (190 974 in industry, 222 985 in agriculture).
- 16 451 km of railroad.
- February: Assassination of the Minister for the State education Bogoliepov by the revolutionary Socialist Karpovitch.
- Mars: Recrudescence of agitation coed; violently repressed street demonstrations.
- March 23rd of the Calendar Julien : Prohibition of the direct relationships between Zemstvo S.
Foundation with Berlin of the revolutionary Socialist party (SR) by the meeting of the groups of Russia, of the Union of the revolutionary Socialists abroad and the agrarian socialist league which preserves its autonomy (Tchernov, Brechko-Brechkovskaïa, Guerchouni, Goetz). Agitation in country medium, federalistic program, recourse to terrorism (Guerchouni, Azev).
- the public prosecutor of the holy synod Pobiedonostsev makes pronounce the excommunication of Leon Tolstoï.
- Bad harvests.
Chronologies sets of themes
Arts & culture
- March 15th: First exposure to Paris of works of Vincent van Gogh.
- June 24th: First exposure in France of works of Pablo Picasso. The event takes place with Paris, at Ambroise Vollard.
- August 15th: First exposure to Munich of works of the group Phalanx founded by Wassily Kandinsky and Alexi von Jawlensky.
- September: Discovered frescos paleolithic of the Cave of Make-to-Gaume in the Dordogne.
- September 10th: Gauguin share for the Marchionesses where it paints And the gold of their body .
- February 1st: Opening of the gallery Berthe-Weil with Paris.
- the Austrian painter Gustav Klimt painted Judith I .
Nobel PrizeThe year 1901 marks the attribution of the first Nobel Prize, which was decreed with the following prizes winner:
- Nobel Prize of physics: Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
- Nobel Prize of chemistry: Jacobus Henricus van 'T Hoff
- Nobel Prize of physiology or medicine: Emil Adolf von Behring
- Nobel Prize of literature: Sully Prudhomme
- Nobel Prize of peace: Henri Dunant and Frederic Passy
Births in 1901
- January 16th: Fulgencio Batista, dictator Cuba in († 1973)
- January 22nd: Alberto Hurtado, Chilean priest, canonized († 1952)
- January 24th: Cassandre ( pseudonym of Adolphe Jean Marie Pimpernel ), graphic designer and poster artist French. († June 17th 1968).
- : Clark Gable, American actor († 1960)
- February 2nd: Jascha Heifetz, violonist Lithuania N († 1987)
- February 28th: Linus Pauling, American chemist, double Nobel Prize († 1994
- March 6th: German Poinso-Chapuis, political woman, First woman with being a minister
- March 27th: Louis Leprince-Ringuet, French physicist, academician († 2000)
- April 15th: Rene Pleven, politician French († 1993)
- April 29th: Hirohito , emperor of the Japan under the name of Shōwa († 1989)
- May 2nd: Bing Crosby, actor, American producer († 1977)
- May 3rd: Gino Cervi, actor Italy N († 1974)
- May 6th: Albert Decaris, French artist-painter († 1988)
- May 7th: Gary Cooper, American actor
- May 9th: Boris Ephrussi, biologist, academician († 1979)
- May 17th: Romul Ladea, Rumanian sculptor († 1970)
- May 18th: Henri Sauguet, French type-setter († 1989)
- May 20th: max Euwe, player of failures Dutch
- May 21st: Suzanne Lilar, Belgian writer † 1992)
- May 27th: Carl Barks, American draftsman
- June 6th: Sukarno, statesman Indonesia N
- June 18th: Anastasia, girl of the tsar Nicolas II of Russia
- July 13rd: Jean Dubuffet, painter French († 1985)
- July 7th: Vittorio De Sica, actor and realizer Italy N
- July 9th: Barbara Cartland, British writer , author of hundreds of novels of “romantic fiction”, († 2000).
- August 4th: Louis Armstrong, Singer and Trumpet player of American Jazz († 1971).
- August 5th: Claude Autant-Lara, realizer French
- August 11th: Luigi Corbellini, Italian painter († 1968)
- August 15th: Pierre Lépine, French biologist, academician († 1989)
- August 17th: Francis Perrin, French physicist, academician († 1992)
- August 20th: Salvatore Low Sunday, writer Italy N
- September 21st: Lanza del Vasto ( Giuseppe Lanza di Trabia-Branciforte ), writer French and in favor of non-violence
- September 23rd: Jaroslav Seifert, Czechoslovakian poet
- September 25th: Robert Bresson, realizer French
- September 29th: Enrico Fermi, physicist Italy N
- October 2nd: Kiki de Montparnasse, model, artist - Queen of Montparnasse
- October 3rd :
- October 10th: Alberto Giacometti, Swiss sculptor
- November 3rd :
- November 17th: Lee Strasberg, American actor and founder of the Actor' S Studio.
- November 18th: George Gallup, journalist and American statistician .
- December 5th :
- Walt Disney, producer and American realizer of cartoons
- Werner Heisenberg Physicist, prize winner of the Nobel Prize of physics in 1932
- December 9th: Jean Mermoz, aviator French
- December 14th: Henri Cockerel, tennis player French
- December 22nd: Georges Truffaut, Belgian Politician († April 3rd 1942)
- December 27th: Marlène Dietrich, German actress
Death in 1901
- January 5th: Pierre Potain, French surgeon, academician, born in 1825
- January 14th: Charles Hermite, French geographer, academician, born in 1822
- January 22nd: Victoria of Saxony-Cobourg-Gotha, queen of the United Kingdom, empress of the Indies, born in 1819
- January 27th: Giuseppe Verdi, Italian type-setter
- February 17th: Major Arthur L. Howard, Canadian officer in South Africa, founder and ordering of Canadian Scouts.
- July 4th: Gaspard Chatin, French botanist, academician, born in 1813
- August 5th: Victoria Adelaide, girl of the queen Victoria
- August 12th: Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld, the exploring Arctic Finnish (° 1832)
- September 9th: Henri of Toulouse-Lautrec, painter and draftsman French
- September 14th: William McKinley, president of the the United States
- October 2nd: Charles Draper, American geographer, academician, († 1987)
Beats-smg: 1901 Be-X-old: 1901 Cbk-zam: 1901 Map-bms: 1901 Simple: 1901 Zh-yue: 1901 年
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