This page relates to the year 1899 Gregorian Calendrier.
May 18th: Opening of the first Conference of peace with $the Hague, proposed by the tsar for the Pacific regulation of the disagreements between the powers. The twenty-six States represented will separate without great results, if it is not the creation of a International court of arbitration under the pressure of the Russia and the Great Britain (fine the July 29th).
the Gold Standard becomes the international monetary reference.
- Zionism: 3rd Congress Zionist with Basle, and creation of the Jewish colonial Bank, charged to generate the financing of the activities for the purchase of grounds in Palestine.
- September, Germany: To the congress of social democracy with Hanover, Rosa Luxembourg critical the reformism of Bernstein, such as it is exposed in theoretical Socialisme and practical social democracy.
- December 7th, Germany: The Reichstag adopts the law Hohenlohe, which raises prohibition on the creation of the political associations, making it possible new parties to be born.
Law on cereals with the Portugal: protection of the interior market of cereals by the increase in the customs duties, to increase the national production. The surface cultivateds (Alentejo) and the outputs increase, but the country remains overdrawn. Following its measurements, the price of the bread will increase by 45 to 50%.
- February 3rd: Imperial proclamation announcing the preeminence of the laws of the Russian Empire on the Finnish legislation . Russianization of the Finland (Bobrikov).
- February: Agitation coed; demonstrations and strikes in Russia.
- August 9th: Visit with Saint-Pétersbourg of the French Minister for the Foreign affairs Theophilus Delcassé. Secret modification of the Franco-Russian agreement. The mobilization will be automatic in the event of mobilization German, and subordinated to a encas prior agreement of Austrian mobilization. Russia is ensured of supports French in the Othoman question.
- August 10th, Russia: Provisional payment of the Minister for the State education allowing to enlist of force the student leaders like privates.
New Marxist currents: economism of the Union of Saint-Pétersbourg ( the working Thought ), economism of the Union of the Russian social democrats abroad ( the working Cause , the Creed ), legal Marxism, influenced by German Bernstein and evolving with Strouve to liberalism.
- Report/ratio of Mendeleïev showing the delay of the Metallurgy the Ural ienne (cast iron with the charcoal, few foreign assets).
- the Ukraine produces 65% of coal, 50% of the cast iron and 45% of Russian steel.
See also: 1899 in France
- February 23rd: Attempt at Coup d'etat of Paul Déroulède.
- June 3rd: The judgment of Alfred Dreyfus is broken.
- August 8th - September 19th: second lawsuit of Alfred Dreyfus, it is condemned then pardoned.
- February 4th: The president of the Council Luigi Pelloux presents to the Room a series of decrees which aim, amongst other things, to regularize the strikes of the public office and to control freedom of the press.
- May: Pelloux resigns following a debate on the Chinese policy of the government and represents himself with the Room after a rehandling moved towards the line.
- Initially approved in first reading, the decrees of February are systematically refused and declared “liberticides”. Vis-a-vis the obstruction of the Room, Pelloux proposes a new parliamentary payment and the introduction of the “guillotine”, in fact a reform of the Constitution reinforcing the executive. It presents or prepares in same time a series of bills against the privileges of economic and financial oligarchies.
- May 18th: Italy is opposed to the participation of the pope in the first conference of peace in $the Hague.
- July 11th: Creation of FIAT by Giovanni Agnelli with Turin.
- December 31st: Proclamation of an amnesty for the political crimes from which profit condemned 1898.
Forwarding of the duke of the Abruzzi to the north pole.
- Creation of the Car Club.
- has Zurich, the department store Jelmoli SA opens its “crystal palate”.
- Foundation of the School of the high commercial studies of Saint-Gall.
- Creation of the Permanent Station of alarm with Geneva (today Fire protection organization and Help of the town of Geneva).
- October 11th: Beginning of the War of Boers or war of the Transvaal between the Dutch colonists and the British army in South Africa (fine in 1902).
- Eager to obtain the tender of Boers by legal channel, Joseph Chamberlain requires the naturalization of the British immigrants. Boers ruin the negotiations on the rights of Uitlanders (emigrated recent). Ultimatum of Kruger which starts again the hostilities.
the journalist and future British statesman Winston Churchill escapes from the prisons boers.
- pro-African Campaigns in the Central African Times of the Nyassaland.
- Mozambique: Chinsinga, one of the chiefs of the valley of the Zambezi, lance a revolt against the Companhia da Zambezia . It joins together the various African tribes with an aim of expelling the Portuguese.
- Forwarding of Van de Velde on the river Kassaï (1899 - 1900).
- January 19th: The Sudan passes under British administration .
- Abd Allah, caliph of Sudan, is killed whereas it resisted to the Anglo-Egyptians. Sudan becomes a condominium anglo-Egyptian, distinct from the Egypt, but placed under the authority of a general governor named by Egypt on the recommendations of Great Britain. At the end of the day, the right of conquest recognized by London to Egypt is transformed into military and financial obligations.
- Kitchener becomes general governor of Sudan. Its Wingate assistant succeeds a few months later to him.
- Mars: The French give up any domination on the the Nile after the business of Fachoda.
In Somalia, Sayyid Mohammed, “insane Mollah”, proclaims Mahdi and declares the holy war with the British and the Somali S remained faithful to the Kadriya. During 21 years, it holds in failure the Ethiopian, Italian armies and British and carries out a bloody war and without mercy. The rebellion could be reduced only after its death with Imi of the Spanish Grippe, in 1920.
- the king of the Bounyoro Kabarega is captured and exiled by the British.
- the mouami Mouezi IV Gisabo, sovereign of the Burundi and Youhi V Musinga, sovereign of the Ruanda, recognize German protectorate.
- Epidemic of Variola in East Africa.
- Forwarding of Neuman in the Ethiopian South.
- Forwarding of Erlanger on the Ouébi and the Ganalé (fine in 1901).
- the March 12th, the railway reached Toukoto, halfway between Kayes and Bamako.
- Mars: Franco-British agreement fixing the septentrional limits of the British Nigeria on the line Say - Barroua. Convention recognizing the rights of the France on the Chad.
- May: The Mission Voulet-Canon takes the town of Birni Konni in country Haoussa. Part of the population is massacred.
- July 14th: The lieutenant-colonel Klobb, sent to raise the command of the Mission Voulet-Canon is killed by ball.
- July 18th: With the Baguirmi, Rabah destroys a small station left by Gentil under the command of Bretonnet. It is then with the head of a powerful State, centered on the Bornou and extending from the Lac Chad with the province of the Bahr el-Ghazal.
- October 17th:
- Decree of October 17th, which dismembers the French Sudan between the Senegal, the Guinea, the Ivory Coast, the Dahomey and creates two military territories including the area of Tombouctou, the Volta and Zinder; a budget special, known as of high Senegal and average Niger, is incorporated in that of Senegal for the administration of the countries of high Senegal, the the Sahel and high Niger attached to the colony of Senegal and the two territories soldier.
- Bamako becomes the capital of the French Sudan (High Senegal-Niger).
- William Merlaud-Ponty becomes governor of French Sudan (1899-1908).
October 29th: A combat opposes to Kouno on the river Chari the troops of Rabah cut off in the city with the French from the Robillot general. The battle is dubious. The French troops are folded up on Fort-Archambault, while Rabah evacuates the city the November 8th.
- Insurrection of the Zarma to the Niger (fine in 1906).
- Creation of the Mission of African Union to the Dahomey.
- Conquest of the Adamaoua (Cameroun) by the Germans.
- the company of the geographers of Algiers pleads in favor of the establishment of a protectorate on the Morocco. It shows all the advantages which such a situation would represent, in particular for the commercial relations, and evokes the possibility of prolonging the railway connecting Tunis to Tlemcen until Fès and Tangier.
- Forwarding of Fischer in Morocco.
- Forwarding of Larras in Morocco (1899 - 1903).
The Middle East and world arabo-Moslem
- January: British protectorate on the emirate of the Kuwait.
- March 26th: The German archeologist Robert Johann Koldewey discovers the walls of the antique city Mésopotamie Babylon.
- May 22nd: Following a conflict with the khedive Abbas II, which wished to make sit two civil judges with the supreme Islamic Cour, the Grand Mufti of Egypt and vice-chancellor of the Mosquée Al-Azhar Hassûnah Year-Nawâwî is dislocated of all its functions.
nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- Palestine: The baron Edmond de Rothschild decides transfer of his colonies in Palestine to the ICA.
- Creation of the first Arab nationalist Committee. Founded on the initiative of Salim Ammoun, it precedes the birth of a better organized movement which applies the principles diffused hitherto by the publications of intellectuals.
Asia & Indian world
January 1st: Emilio Aguinaldo is elected president of the Filipino . The Filipinos proclaim their Constitution.
January 6th: Lord Curzon is named viceroy of the the Indies (fine in 1905). Its government illustrates the preponderance of the ideology imperialist, according to which the racial superiority of the English imposes a strict separation with the Indians.
Fine February, the American armed forces obliges the Filipino freedom fighters to flee. Emilio Aguinaldo starts a movement of guerilla against the United States. He proposes independence within the framework of an American protectorate, but its proposal is refused.
July 16th: Beginning of the abrogation of the unequal treaties With Japan: the new treaty of friendship and trade with the Great Britain devotes the accession of Japan to the row of regional power as well as the new bringing together between Tokyo and London vis-a-vis Russian hegemony in the Far East.
September 6th: Washington proposes a policy of “open door” with regard to the China. John Hay defines the right for the national of any power to travel, to trade without least discrimination inside the zones of influence of the others. This position is finally adopted by all the Western great powers.
In China, the movement of the boxers extends quickly, attacking the foreign establishments. Composed of peasants, generated by the foreign presence, the movement constitutes a development of the fight continued after the Sino-Japanese war against the division of China. It expresses also an aversion against the presence of the missionaries.
- Famine in the North of the India, which touches 59 million people (1899-1900).
- Agreement Scott- Muraviev: the Russia obtains Great Britain not to build railroads, nor to help with any project in the Russo-Chinese border region.
- Repression of a movement separatist in Mongolia by the Manchou S.
Oceania & the Pacific
- January 17th: The United States takes possession of the Île Wake.
- December 2nd: treaty enters the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States. Divide Samoa between the Germany and the the United States. Great Britain gives up its rights on Savaii and Upolu in Germany and those on Tituila in the United States
- the the Northern Marianna Islands pass under German administration.
- the Spain sells the Carolines, Mariannes and Palau in Germany. The chancellor Von Bülow will declare that these archipelagoes would be “the columns and the buttresses” of the new German colonial empire.
the United States
- February 6th: The Senate ratifies the treated of Paris. A stormy debate was instituted between imperialists and anti-impérialistes before a majority emerges.
Morgan opens the US market with the European investments.
- Rockefeller resorts to the holding: It creates the Standard Oil of the New Jersey which will be able to pour dividends from 30 to 48% with its shareholders in the eight following years.
- the the United States become the first world producer of coal, before the Great Britain (250 million tons).
January 1st: end of Spanish sovereignty with Cuba.
- : The general Terencio Sierra is elected president of the Republic of the Honduras (fine in 1903). Succeeding the writer Policarpe Nonilla, it will attempt to regulate the problems of border of Honduras with the Nicaragua. Like its predecessors, it will consolidate the capacity of the caudillos acting in the interest of preserving oligarchy.
- March 1st: Juan Lindolfo Cuestas becomes president of the Republic in Uruguay (fine in 1903). Chief of the government by interim since 1897, Cuestas imposes the constitution of a government of national union to try to put a term at the conflict between liberals and conservatives.
- September: General strike with Havana.
- September 8th: Eduardo López de Romaña arrives at the capacity at the Peru (fine in 1903).
- October 17th: New civil war in Colombia, known as War the Thousand Day old, which opposes liberal, in favor of the federalism, with holding of the centralist Constitution of 1886. The government will triumph over the liberals in 1903, but Colombia will leave bloodless the two civil wars.
- October 20th: The general Cipriano Castro, with the head of an army known as of Resuration , shift the general Ignacio Andrade with the Venezuela, which deposited itself the nationalist caudillo Jose Manuel Hernández in 1898. With the coup d'etat of Castro, they are the officers of the the Andes which settle with the capacity until in 1945.
- October 25th: The president of the Republic of Bolivia, Severo Fernández Alonso, is reversed by a liberal revolution. He yields the place to the general putschist Jose Manuel Pando who reinforces still a little more the capacity of oligarchy (fine in 1904). Under its presidency, Bolivia will lose the territory of Acre.
Cuba: Installation of an American governor.
- In order to reconquer the Acre, the Bolivia founds an administrative seat for tax purposes: Puerto Alonso called today Oporto Acre
Chronologies sets of themes
Arts & culture
- April 2nd: With Seville (Spain), alternate of Antonio Montes, Spanish Matador.
- September 24th: With Madrid (Spain), alternate of Ricardo Torres Reina known as “Bombita”, Spanish Matador.
- October 29th: With alternate Barcelona (Spain), of Handbook Lara Reyes known as “El Jerezano”, Spanish Matador.
- the French painter Paul Gauguin painted From which do we come, that we are, where we go? and centres with the red flowers .
- the Basin with the nymphea, harmonizes green , of Monet.
- the Large Bathers , (v. 1899-1906), of Cézanne.
- First exposure of the nabis.
- De Delacroix with the neo-impressionists , work of Paul Signac.
Foundation of the Olympic of Marseilles
Sciences & technology
- March 6th: Deposit of the patent of the Aspirine by the German laboratory Bayer.
- May 1st (or April 29th according to certain sources): The Jamais Satisfies , Electric car, exceeds the 100 km per hour.
- October 21st: Launching of the Narval , first true submarine French.
- Ferdinand von Zeppelin builds its Dirigeable S.
- the Bases of the geometry , of the German mathematician David Hilbert.
- Identification of the alpha radiations and beta of the Uranium by the English physicist Ernest Rutherford.
- Invention of the Radiator of Central heating <--! to check, because my sources rather indicate 1855 in Russia or even earlier to the United States -->
- the Norwegian explorer Karsten Borchgrevink is the first to be wintered on the ground of the the Antarctic.
Births in 1899
- January 7th: Francis Poulenc, French type-setter
- January 17th: Al Capone, Italian-American gangster
- January 20th: Pierre Gandon, draftsman and engraver French
- January 25th: Paul-Henri Spaak, Belgian politician
- April 13rd: Alfred Schütz, Austrian/American philosopher
- April 22nd: Vladimir Nabokov, American writer
- May 8th: Friedrich August von Hayek, economist of the Austrian School
- May 10th: Fred Astaire, actor, American dancer
- May 12th: Maurice Lent, writer and Belgian poet († January 13rd 1978)
- May 24th: Henri Michaux, painter and French poet of Belgian origin
- May 24th: Suzanne Lenglen, champion of tennis
- June 12th: Weegee (Arthur Fellig), American photographer
- June 20th: Jean Moulin, politician and large Resistant French († July 8th 1943)
- June 22nd: Michał Kalecki, economist Polish († March 17th 1970)
- June 26th: Maria Nicolaïevna, large-duchess of Russia, third girl of Nicolas II.
- July 1st: Charles Laughton, Actor of Theater and Cinema and American Realizer British then
- July 5th: Marcel Achard, French realizer
- July 5th: Marcel Arland, French writer
- July 7th: George Cukor, American realizer
- July 17th: James Cagney, American actor
- July 21st: Ernest Hemingway, American writer
- July 22nd: Alexander Calder, American sculptor
- : Jimmy Angel, aviator and American explorer
- August 3rd: Louis Chiron, racing driver
- August 13rd: Alfred Hitchcock, British realizer
- December 25th: Humphrey Bogart, American actor
- Gregory Breit: American physicist
- Ferhat Abbas: Algerian politician
- Roger Vitrac: French poet and playwright
- Wen Yiduo, Chinese writer
Death in 1899
- January 29th: Alfred Sisley, French painter (° 1839).
- February 16th: Felix Faure, president of the French Republic (° 1841).
- February 18th: Sophus Binds, mathematician Norwegian (° 1842).
- March 20th: Franz Ritter von Hauer, Austrian geologist (° 1822).
- April 11th: Monier Monier-Williams, English linguist (° November 12th 1819)
- April 12th: Henry Becque, French playwright (° 1837)
- May 25th: Rosa Happiness, French animalist painter.
- June 4th: Johann Strauss (wire), Austrian Type-setter of famous waltz (° 1825).
- July 5th: Hippolyte Lucas, Entomologist French (° 1814).
- September 13rd: Pepete (Jose Rodríguez Davie), Spanish Matador (° May 14th 1867).
- November 19th: Yan Dargent, Breton painter (° 1824).
- November 27th: Felipe Villanueva there Gutierrez, Mexican type-setter. (° February 5th 1862).
- November 28th: Countess of Castiglione, Italian courtesan (° March 23rd 1837)
- December 15th: Numa Droz, Swiss politician (° 1844).
- December 25th: Elliott Coues, Doctor - Military, historian, author and ornithologist states-unien (° September 9th 1842).
Beats-smg: 1899 Be-X-old: 1899 Map-bms: 1899 Simple: 1899 Zh-yue: 1899 年
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