This page relates to the year 1897 Gregorian Calendrier.
- winter Warming as from 1897.
- gréco-Turkish War (1897):
- the February 4th, the massacres of the Christians by the Turks take again with Caned the in spite of the conference of Constantinople of the May 28th 1896.
- February 10th: The Greece intervenes in Crete and causes the Turkish mobilization the February 11th. Germany and Russia condemn Greece.
- April 18th: Great Britain “releases” the Turkey.
- June 3rd: Overcome, Greece signs an armistice with the Othoman sultan, who requires the Thessalie.
- December 4th: Peace is signed with Constantinople. Turkey, supported by Berlin and Vienna, leaves singularly reinforced crisis, while Greece is inserted in anarchy. The European powers however impose on Crete a statute of autonomy.
- April 5th: Constitutional crisis in Austria around the laws Badeni: the minister-president grants to the Bohemia the linguistic equality with Austria. This decision starts the sling of the German deputies to the Reichsrat.
- April 8th: The social-Christian Karl Lueger is elected mayor Vienna (fine in 1910).
- April 30th: Convention austro-Russian of Saint-Pétersbourg: it is a question of maintaining the status quo in the Balkans, whereas the situation in Macedonia does not cease worsening. The Russia, all with its Far-Eastern policy, does not intend to call in question the presence of Turkey, while Austria fears that a victory of the Macedonians do not lead to the formation of Large a Bulgaria.
- June: Celebration of the sixtieth birthday of the reign of Victoria of the United Kingdom.
- July 24th, Germany: the Reichstag pushes back a bill restricting the right to meet. The text presented by the emperor Guillaume II of Germany is pushed back with very a small majority.
- August 8th: Assassination with Barcelona by an Italian anarchist of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo. The liberal party of Práxedes Mateo Sagasta control surface in Spain until in 1899.
- 25 - September 27th: Foundation with Wilno of the Bund, General union of the Jewish workers of Russia, Lithuania and Poland. He is opposed to the Sionisme.
- November 30th: Cabinet Paul Gautsch in Austria.
Foundation of the National union of the companies for the female vote with the the United Kingdom.
- colonial Exposure of Tervuren in Belgium.
- Foundation of the catholic party to the Netherlands (RKSP).
- Turbid agrarian in Hungary.
- In Transylvania, the place names are magyarisés and the changes of family names are favoured.
- Russia: Groups “socialist revolutionists” resulting from the populism with Saratov, Minsk and Kharkov. They want to join again with agitation in country medium.
- Creation of the Party Polish national-democrat (Romance Dmowski).
See also: 1897 in France
- January 1st: Sidney Sonnino, which made party of the last government Francesco Crispi, publishes an article - “ Torniamo hello statuto ” (let us return to the Constitution) - in which it criticizes the mode of assembly and wishes a strong executive.
- Mars: Legislative elections. The socialist number of deputies master key from 12 to 20. The middle-class sees the sign of an imminent catastrophe there.
- April 22nd: Attack against Humbert Ier of Italy. A young unemployed, Pietro Acciarito, tries to stab the king.
- December 25th: Continuing the liquidation of the policy imperialist of Crispi, the president of the Council Di Rudini yields Kassala to the Great Britain.
- Fine 1897-beginning 1898: Considerable increase in the price of the bread following a bad world harvest.
- 29 - August 31st: First congress Zionist with Basle. Adoption of a program aiming at creating a Jewish national hearth.
Foundation of the Swiss Union of the peasants with Bern.
- Geneva accommodates the first Swiss Congress for the defense of the interests of the woman.
- the canton of the Grisons repurchases the rhetic Railroads.
- February 10th: Freedom of religion to Madagascar.
- Abolition of the royalty and feudality with Madagascar.
Southern Africa and central
- December 30th: The Zoulouland is attached to the Natal.
the kingdom Lozi (Zambia) becomes British protectorate.
- Failure of the revolt of the ethnos group of the Héhé, directed by the chief Mkwawa against German “pacification” (Zambia). Mkwawa beats to two recovery the colonists, but those end up taking the capital Kalinga and decapitate Mkwawa. In the area of Bagamoyo, risings of Gogo and Chaga are repressed in the same way by the German troops.
- Rhodesia: the British armed forces beat the Machoda, which join in reserves the combatants Matabélé, who had taken the weapons in 1895 to be opposed without success to the British penetration in the area.
- the priests Shona encourage the revolt in the valley of the Zambezi (1897 - 1904).
- the Belgium control 74% of exports and 73% of the imports of the Congo (3% of exports in 1888).
- August: The British Minister for the Colonies Joseph Chamberlain proposes with the Congress Zionist the creation of a Jewish territory to the Kenya.
- December 25th: The Italy yields Kassala to the Great Britain.
Stop of the countryside anglo-Egyptian woman to the Sudan. In spite of several successes and sends it reinforcements of Egypt, the British judge more careful to stop the reconquest of Sudan. They fear indeed that a reverse of situation does not start an insurrection in Egypt where the public opinion is increasingly hostile for them.
the Ethiopia NS subject the Ouallamo, the Borana and the Blessed-Changoul. The Caffa revolted is definitively subjected after nine months of countryside (1897 - 1898). The governor of Harrar Ras Makonnén pacifies the area of the Aoussa to the Ouébi.
- Creation of the red, yellow and green flag Ethiopian
the British fleet intervenes with Zanzibar. It bombards the palate of the sultan and in hunting Seyyid Khaled. The British make go up on the throne Seyyid Hamoud, which signs at once a treaty abolishing the Esclavage with Zanzibar and Pemba (fine of reign in 1911).
Tanganyika : Carl Peters, denounced for its exactions by the catholic and socialist press, is revoked.
a land payment authorizes the ground occupations to the Kenya for one maximum duration of twenty and one years.
- Installation of the hut tax at the Kenya (1897 and 1902).
- February 18th: Murder of Benign the Philippe consul and occupation of , the capital of the Edo, in the south-west of the current Nigeria, by the British.
- a French station is founded with Say (Niger).
- the sovereign of the Baguirmi Abd er-Rhamane II, in front of the growing influence of Rabah, requests the protectorate of France.
- the almani of the Fouta-Djalon accept the protectorate of the France.
- the kingdom of Nupe (Nigeria) east invades by the British.
- Revolt of Bai Bureh against the tax of box and the “Creoles” in Sierra Leone.
- Strike of the workmen of Lagos.
- Joseph Chamberlain removes the small local forces to create the WAFF (Royal West African Frontier Force), strong 6 500 men (of which 6 300 Africans) in 1901.
- Creation of the Gold Coast Aborigines Rights Protection Society (ARPS).
- Beginning of the emigration of “Syrians”, actually of the Lebanon board, in Western Africa: 28 migrants in 1897,1 100 in 1909, 3 approximately 000 in 1929. They succeed in the retail business and of large and in the craft industry.
- October 1st: Louis Lépine is named general governor of the Algérie (fine in 1898).
- the “crisis anti-Jewish” culminates in the Oranais. Part of the colonists is opposed to integration Juifs which acquired the French citizenship thanks to the Décret Crémieux (1870). This wave of Antisémitisme gains the worldwide quickly, in particular Algiers and Constantine.
- Tunisia: the program of French colonization is adopted with the downstream of the European powers. A case of colonization is used from now on as intermediary between the State and the purchasers. Paris also obtains by a series of treaties the end of the mode of the capitulations.
- March 4th: Beginning of the republican presidency of William McKinley with the the United States (fine in 1901).
- May 11th: Felix-Gabriel Marchand (liberal) is elected Prime Minister for the Quebec.
- July 7th: The Congress of the United States adopts the Dingley Tariff Bill . Voted by the Republican majority, it raises customs tariffs on a level never still reached, that is to say 57% on average.
- September 10th: Massacre of Lattimer, at the time of a strike of the minors in Pennsylvania: 19 workmen who refuse to disperse are killed by the sheriff and his troop.
- the American troops take the islands Hawaii which become the first built-in country external with the the United States.
- Opening of the first American subway with Boston.
- September 18th: End of the civil war which opposes colorados and blancos in Uruguay. The president of the Senate, the liberal Juan Lindolfo Cuestas, sign peace with the chief of the conservatives and chief of the rebellion, the preserving caudillo Aparicio Savaria. Six departments pass under the political and administrative domination of the conservatives. From now on two governors cohabit.
the American press pushes with the intervention with Cuba. By bringing back Spanish repression to Cuba (political of “reconcentration” of the population), the American newspapers support the cause of the revolutionists. In order to disarm this sympathy campaign with regard to the rebels, Madrid points out its Weyler governor.
Asia & Indian world
- February 13rd: Paul Doumer becomes general governor of the Indochinese Union (end in October 1902).
- March 29th: A new law establishes the gold standard with the Japan. It is a question for the government of hitherto compensating for the depreciation of the money, used like standard. At the end of the century, Japan starts to maintain finances of great power and must face a strong progression of the military expenditure. Four loans will be emitted to cover the expenditure of the war against China.
- June: Imposing demonstrations celebrating jubilée of the queen Victoria of the United Kingdom in India.
- November 1st, China: Members of the secret society of the Large Knife attack the German mission of Jiazhuang and assassinate two monks.
- November 14th, China: The rear-admiral Von Diederichs takes possession in guarantee of bay of Jiaozhou and founds a naval base with Qingdao with the Shandong. He promises in China to be opposed to the Japanese penetration.
- the king of Korea east restores on its throne with the support of the Russian embassy. He proclaims the Great Empire of Korea, but it is the Russia which becomes the guardian power of Korean monarchy.
- Creation of the first working trade union to the Japan.
- the United Kingdom occupies Xei Haiwei, in China.
- the British explorer Savage Landor is made prisoner with the Tibet South.
- Epidemic of Plague to Bombay.
- nationalist Terrorist attack with Poona (India).
- Agreement between the the United Kingdom and the Siam on the borders between the Siam and the Malaysia.
- Filipino: The Spanish governor Primo de Rivera sign with Aguinaldo, which with proclaimed the Republic, a cease-fire with Biac-Na-Bato. The insurrection of the Filipino nationalists, started in July, is only suspended: the engagements will take again in 1898. The preceding leaders were carried out by the Spaniards like Jose Rizal (1896) or were victims of the competitions reigning among the insurrectionists (Bonifacio in 1896).
The Middle East
- 29 - August 31st: 1st Congress Zionist with Basle under the direction of Theodor Herzl, with the promulgation of the Declaration of Basle according to which the purpose of the Sionisme is creation of a Jewish national hearth, and creation of the bodies of the Organization Zionist world, in charge of the political mobilization. Theodor Herzl is named by it its first president.
- At the time of this congress Pasteur German Lutheran Johann Lepsius, defender of the Armenian cause, persecuted by the German authorities which supported the Othoman government, tried to bind the cause of the two dispersed people, in his report/ratio entitled: “ Armenian and Jews in exile, or future of the East taking into account the Armenian question and the movement Zionist ”.
- Fine of the temporary government to the Lebanon. Istanbul names Naoum Pasha governor of Lebanon. In addition, a census of the population of the sandjak of Beirut reveals a population increase of the Moslems beyond the borders of autonomous Lebanon.
- Resistance of the Arménie NS: raid of Khanassor carried out by the Dachnak S starting from the Persian , which leads to the destruction of the Kurdish tribe Mazrig, person in charge of the massacre of 800 Armenians.
- the Moslems crétois affluent of number in Anatolia after the Crete obtained a statute of autonomy the shortly after the gréco-Turkish war (treated of Constantinople of the December 4th).
Chronologies sets of themes
Arts & culture
- April 3rd: Foundation with Vienna (Austria) of the movement of the Secession, by artists such as Gustav Klimt, or Otto Wagner.
- With Glasgow, Mackintosh found a school of art, British participation in the movement of the Art nouveau.
- Auguste Rodin carves Balzac . He is refused by his silent partner, the Company of the men of letters.
- Scandal of the exposure to the Luxembourg of the collection of impressionist fabrics bequeathed to the State by Caillebotte.
- Night effect, boulevard Montmartre , fabric of Pissarro.
- Nevermore , fabric of Gauguin.
- From which do we come? Who are we? Where do we go? triptych of Gauguin.
- Boats in Saint-Tropez of Signac.
- the British writer Rudyard Kipling publishes courageous Capitaines .
- the British writer of Polish origin Joseph Conrad written to the negro of the Narcisse .
- the French writer Andre Gide written terrestrial foods .
- the Indian writer Rabindranath Tagore writes its Poèmes .
- the French playwright Edmond Rostand written Cyrano of Bergerac .
- the British writer Abraham Stoker written Dracula .
Sciences & technology
- March 7th: The brothers Kellogg invent the cornflakes.
- April 30th: The British physicist Joseph John Thomson, working on the electric properties of the matter, determines the quotient e/m load by the mass of the electron.
- June 19th - the Britannique Percy Pilcher makes steal a sailplane (hawk) equipped with two wheels of bicycle forming the landing gear.
- August 25th: The British doctor to sir Donald Ross discovers the presence of the parasite of the Malaria in the mosquito anophèle with the general hospital of Calcutta.
- October - Clément Ader carries out the first level flight (300 meters) with “Plane III”.
- the chemist Eugene Anatole Demarçay insulates the europium, which will carry the atomic number 63.
- the German engineer Rudolf Diesel invents the engine which bears its name.
- the scientist New Zealand Ernest Rutherford exposes its “structure of the atom”.
- the American scientist John Jacob Abel insulates the Adrénaline.
- Opening of the first American subway with Boston.
- the engineer Charles Algernon Parsons develops the first steamer equipped with a turbine, the Turbinia , which beats all the speed records on water.
- Failure of the polar Forwarding of S.A. Andrée.
- the mountaineer Matthias Zurbriggen is the first to make a success of the rise of the Aconcagua, the culminating point of the the Andes.
- the Belgian explorer Adrien de Gerlache is the first to be wintered in the the Antarctic on board a boat.
- Forwarding of the duke of the Abruzzi in Alaska.
Economy & company
- June 2nd: Limitation of day's work to 11:30, obligation of the Sunday rest.
- First complete census: 129 million inhabitants, including 13% in urban area. 5,7 million inhabitants in Siberia. The annual increase reaches 1,6 million inhabitants.
- monetary Reform of Serge Witte: devaluation of the rouble to a third of its value, adoption of the Gold Standard, convertibility of rouble-paper thanks to strong boxes.
- the community tatare of Kazan account 2,3 million inhabitants. The persistence of the Islam him in license resisting Russianization. It has one the third of the industrial plants of the province and control the trade with the Central Asia.
- Trade agreement between the Canadian Confederation and the metropolis. Important harvests of grain cannot find outlets with the the United States, the Middle West being also a large producer. Also the Confederation turns it to the Great Britain. A preference scheme is established: the rights between the the United Kingdom and the Canada are reduced of 25%.
The United States
- Beginning of a phase of rise of the prices.
- Fine of the depression. The come to power of McKinley reassures the mediums of businesses insofar as, the spectrum of the bimetalism being drawn aside, they can count on the stability of the currency. Neither the government nor the Supreme court intend to apply with rigor the antitrust law. Thus the industrials merger of undertakings will multiply (1897 - 1902). The number of the holdings passes from 12 to 305 of 1897 to 1903.
Births in 1897
- January 2nd: Gaston Monnerville, French politician
- January 17th: Marcel Little laddie, French serial killer
- January 21st: Rene Iché, French sculptor
- March 13rd: Marcel Thiry, Belgian writer of French expression and Walloon militant († September 5th 1977)
- March 17th: Joe Bousquet, French writer
- May 5th: Malla (Agustín García Díaz), Spanish Matador († July 4th 1920).
- May 19th: Frank Capra, American realizer of Italian origin
- May 27th: Douglas John Cockcroft, British physicist
- June 10th: Tatiana Nicolaïevna, large-duchess of Russia, second girl of Nicolas II.
- June 11th: Alexandre Tansman, type-setter of Polish origin († November 15th 1986)
- July 9th: Jean Cassou, writer, French.
- August 11th: Enid Blyton, British novelist.
- August 12th: Otto Struve, American astronomer of Russian origin († April 6th 1963).
- September 12th: Irene Joliot-Curie, French physician
- September 16th: Georges Bataille, French writer
- September 23rd: Paul Delvaux, Belgian painter
- September 25th: William Faulkner, American writer
- September 26th: Giovanni Battista Montini, future pope Paul VI
- October 3rd: Louis Aragon, writer and poet French
- October 16th: Louis de Cazenave, Hairy French, the last still in life
- October 29th: Joseph Goebbels, politician Nazi
- November 3rd: Sir Frederick Stratten Russell, British zoologist († June 5th 1984)
- November 9th: Jacques Tréfouël, Chemist French († July 11th 1977)
- December 17th: Władysław Broniewski, poet Polish († February 10th 1962)
- Etienne Beothy, Hungarian sculptor
Death in 1897
- February 5th: Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, assassinated by an anarchist pro-Cuban.
- April 3rd: Johannes Brahms, type-setter (° 1833).
- May 5th: Theodore Bent, British archeologist (° March 30th 1852)
- May 6th: Alfred Of Cloizeaux, mineralogist French (° 1817).
- May 30th: Fabrilo (Julio Aparici there Pascual), Spanish Matador (° November 1st 1866).
- July 31st: Auguste Lacaussade, French poet (° 1815).
- August 2nd: El Gallo (Fernando Gómez García), Spanish Matador (° August 18th 1847).
- August 10th: James William Abert, Exploring officer and American (° 1820).
- September 30th: Holy Therese de Lisieux, French Carmelite nun canonized in 1925 (° January 2nd 1873).
- December 16th: Alphonse Daudet, French writer (° 1840).
- December 19th: Stanislas de Guaita, poet, French occultist.
- Antoine d' Abbadie d' Arrast, scientist and traveller French (° 1810).
Beats-smg: 1897 Be-X-old: 1897 Map-bms: 1897 Simple: 1897 Zh-yue: 1897 年
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