This page relates to the year 1896 Gregorian Calendrier.
- February: Massacres in Crete.
August 25th: Conference of Constantinople, which rules on the crétoise question. Since February, Moslem and Christian Turks clash in violent one engagements. This situation alerts the European powers which agree to impose on the island a mode autonomy accepted by the sultan and an assembly of elected officials crétois.
October 27th: Bismarck reveals the secret protocol of the German-Russian treaty of reinsurance of 1887. According to this secret shutter, the Germany recognized the Russian interests in Bulgaria, in contradiction with the agreement of the Triplice . The revelation of the former chancellor results in to cause the mistrust of the Austria and the Italy towards Germany.
Widening of the right to vote to the Netherlands (law Van Houten).
- Karl Hjalmar Branting is the first deputy with the Riksdag of the democratic social Party of Sweden.
- the tsar Nicolas II of Russia recognizes Ferdinand of Saxony-Cobourg, candidate of Austria and Germany, as king of Bulgaria.
- the Badeni ordinances, which envisaged supplements it equality of the Czech and of the German in Bohemia is not imposed with sufficient authority by the emperor.
- Exposure of the millenium in Hungary: Budapest is the first city of the continent of Europe to be obtained a subway.
- Rebuilding of the Hungarian Parliament by the architect Steindl.
- March 5th: Resignation of the president of the Council Francesco Crispi, disputed so much in the field of the foreign policy (failure of the countryside of Ethiopia) that of the interior policy (bloody repression of the riots of 1894). It yields the capacity to the marquis Di Rudini, in favor of the social peace, which inherits a disastrous economic situation (end in June 1898).
- December 25th: Publication with Milan of the socialist daily newspaper Avanti! directed by Leonida Bissolati. It draws with 40 000 specimens and until 400 000 at the beginning of the First World War.
See also: 1896 in France
- October 1st: Foundation of the factory of chemicals Hoffmann it Rock with Basle.
- the national Exposure to Geneva attracts six million visitors.
- Creation of the Landis company & Gyr with Zoug.
- May: Tragedy scuffle at the time of the festivals of the crowning of Nicolas II with Moscow. More than 1000 dead.
- May - June: 35000 workmen of the textile in strike with Saint-Pétersbourg.
Office of the migrations to encourage the settlement of the Siberia.
- the First cinematographic projection with Saint-Pétersbourg.
- January 6th: Resignation of Cecil Rhodos following its implication in the Raid Jameson.
- January: The Britanniques take again Kumasi, capital of the Ashanti (current Ghana). Their king Prempeh and the queen mother is off-set in the islands Seychelles (1896-1924).
- March 1st: Victoire of the Négus Ménélik II against the Italian troops of the general Oreste Baratieri with Adoua in Ethiopia, guaranteeing the independence of its country. 100 000 Ethiopian are opposed to 17 000 Italians at the time of the Battle of Adoua.
- August 6th: Madagascar becomes French colony. The protectorate founded in 1885 and the royalty remain a time in the center of the island. The insurrection Hova gives place to a wild repression. The general Gallieni, resident general, will make exile the queen and shoot the Minister of Interior Department (fine in 1905).
- August 16th: A British resident is installed with Kumasi. The Asante becomes British protectorate.
- the battle of Boumba (1896). Under the blow of Abdoulaye Bayèro (a warlike chief of Djihadiste Sokoto), Iso Korombé and 3000 gerriers Zarma found death.
- September, Sudan: The sirdar Kitchener Pasha, with the head of an army britannico - Egyptian, seizes Dongola. It conducts a difficult campaign by going up the valley of the Nile.
- October 26th: Treaty of Addis-Abeba. The Italians recognize the independence of the Ethiopia.
- December 31st, Algeria: a decree marks the end of the mode of fastenings. The administrative and legal statute of the colony is similar to that of 1860 (before the creation of the minister of Algeria). Moreover, the general governor sees his increased capacities.
- Attack of a Christian mission to the Nyassaland.
- the quarrels of succession which burst with dead of the sultan of Zanzibar Seyyid Ahmed make it possible the Britanniques to increase their zone of influence.
- Youhi V Musinga succeeds Mibamboué on the throne of the Ruanda. It will support the German establishment.
- Departure of Loango of the French mission of the Commercial captain . The purpose of it is to join the two oceans (1896 - 1899).
- Creation of body of Méhariste S in the area of Tombouctou.
- Famine with the Chad.
- June 23rd: Victoire of the liberals to the federal elections.
- August 17th: Discovered of gold in the Yukon, causing the gold rush of the Klondike.
- July 11th: Wilfrid Laurier becomes Prime Minister of Canada. It gives up the policy free-trader of Mackenzie and approaches the the United Kingdom by a policy of preferential duties.
Inauguration of the second railway line transcontinental starting from Bearing the Meadow. The Canadian Northern Railway , after having essaimé its lines in the Meadow, having reached the higher lake in 1902. In parallel, the way of the Grand Trunk Pacific advances towards the West in direction of Prince Rupert on the Pacific (1904).
- Wilfrid Laurier (helped of the Prime Minister manitobain Thomas Greenway) abolishes the separate French-speaking schools of the Manitoba; it authorizes however religious teaching in French (or in any other foreign language) in last half an hour of course, provided that the school joins together ten child speaking a language other than the English.
The United States
- January 4th: The Utah becomes the forty-fifth state of the American Union.
- May 18th: In its stop Plessy v. Ferguson, the supreme court of the the United States recognizes in the States the right to impose the racial segregation in the schools and the public places, provided that the conditions offered to the two races are equal. The judges justify the racial segregation by posing the principle of the coexistence of “separate but equal” establishments.
- May 26th: Creation of the Dow Jones.
- August: Gold rush in Alaska (fine in 1898). The gold of Alaska goes makes it possible the government McKinley to overcome the monetary crisis. In a few months, more 100 000 people precipitate in a particularly inhospitable area to try to make fortune there.
- In November, election of William McKinley (R) like President of the United States.
- With democratic Convention, the representatives of the producing money States and the small white farmers prevent the delegates of the North-East from defending the President. The party denounces the influence of Wall Street and rejoins the Populist ones.
- Industriels and financial is joined the republican William McKinley who beats the democratic candidate William Jennings Bryan with presidential in November, at the conclusion of a campaign whose quarrel on the bimetalism constituted the main part of the debates. Industrial America overrides that of the campaigns. The old dream jeffersonien belongs to the history.
- September 18th: Federico Errázuriz Echaurren is elected president of the Chile (fine in 1901). Parliamentary republic with the Chile until in 1925.
Beginning of the Spanish policy of “concentration” in the fight against the cuban freedom fighters.
- Great famine with Cuba, 50 000 died with Havana.
- the devaluation of the milréis prevents the Brésil from undergoing the international crisis.
Asia and Indian sub-continent
- January 15th: British agreement free on the spheres of influence to the Siam. The British give up the requirement of a glacis between the French colonies and the Burma, France committing themselves guaranteeing the independence of Siam. The province of Angkor is yielded to the Kampuchea.
- May 14th: Signature of the agreement Yamagata - Lobanov between the Japan and the Russia. The two powers, which are regarded as protective Korea, agree to limit their military manpower and promise to be informed mutually in advance in the event of movements.
- May 26th, Filipino: New insurrection against the colonial capacity with Manila. Directed by Emilio Aguinaldo, it gains the whole of the archipelago but is subdued by an effective repression.
- June 3rd: Treaty enters the China and the Russia envisaging a defensive alliance against the Japan.
- June 15th: A Tsunami keep silent 27 000 people with the Japan.
- August 27th: The Russo-Chinese Bank obtains to build and exploit during eighty years a Railroad in Mandchourie (hot line Tchita - Vladivostok) then to prolong the line until Port-Arthur (March 15th 1898).
- December 30th: the Filipino nationalist chief Jose Rizal is carried out with Manila by the Spaniards.
- Great epidemic of Plague in India which costs the life more than 10 million Indians (1896 - 1918).
- Incidents antijaponais in Korea. King Kojong takes refuge in legation Russian with Seoul, which causes a renewal of tension between the Japan and the Russia which fight, after the elimination of the China, for the preponderance in Korea.
- Foundation in Korea of a Club of independence animated by nationalist liberal intellectuals who seek to gain the confidence of popular environments.
The Middle East and world arabo-Moslem
- February 15th: Publication with Vienna of the State of the Jews , of Hungarian Theodor Herzl, who takes again the theses Zionists. Herzl, convinced that the assimilation of the Juifs is a lure, defends the creation of a Parliament entitled to speak in the name of all the Jews about the world. He seeks financial and political contests. He meets Abdül-Hamid II to convince it to support the Jewish emigration in Palestine, but the sultan refuses. In the same way, the great Jewish financial aristocracy is reticent with a financing of the Zionist project.
- May 1st, Persian Revolt of the tobaccos in (1896 - 1898). Assassination of the shah Aldine Naser at the instigation of Afghani. His/her son Aldine Muzzafar succeeds to him (fine in 1907).
- July 1st: Promulgation in Egypt of an important law of reform of teaching to the Mosque Al-Azhar, prepared by the vice-chancellor Hassûnah Year-Nawâwî.
nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- Massacres in Arménie. The war between Kurdish and Armenian redoubles intensity whereas Armenian nationalism takes an increasingly revolutionary character. New massacres are organized with Mouch, Van and Killis. The party Dachnak then decides to call upon the international opinion by an spectacular action: the August 26th, 26 dachnak taken along by Babken Siuni and Armen Garo Pasdermadjian seize the Othoman Bank, with Constantinople, after having killed the sentinels of guard. The Powers are moved by the catch of the first financial institution of the East. The Western ambassadors link themselves to ask for the evacuation and to promise reforms of it. Seven thousand Armenians are massacred with Constantinople by the rabble.
- the Armenian population of Turkey is reduced of 400 000 inhabitants: 100 000 Armenians have summers killed or martyrized, 50.000 died of hunger or cold in the 2 500 devastated villages, 100 000 fled in Transcaucasie or in the Balkans.
- a British commission is charged to delimit the borders perso-baloutches.
- the Syrian sunnite Rashid Rida founds in Egypt the review political and literary Al-Manar ( the Headlight ), which in the line of the Salafiyyah, pleads for a raising of the Arab company by the values of the Islam. He proposes the establishment of a Califat with Mecque.
Chronologies sets of themes
- Creation of a ministry for the railroads in Austria.
- 6 - April 15th: The first Games Olympic, organized by the baron Pierre de Coubertin, take place with Athens.
- the pope Leon III decides against the validity of ordinations of the Church Anglican in her apostolic letter Apostolicae curae .
Arts & culture
- Henri Bergson publishes Matière and memory , regarded as its most important work.
- the Italian type-setter Giacomo Puccini writes its opera “ Bohemian the ”.
- February 15th: The founder of the movement Zionist Theodor Herzl (1860-1904), publishes “ the Jewish State, seeks of a modern answer to the Jewish question ”, ( Der Judenstaat ).
- September 29th: With Seville (Spain), alternate of Emilio Torres Reina known as “Bombita”, Spanish Matador.
Sciences & technology
- January 7th: The doctor Röntgen makes his first communication on the X-rays and radiographs it.
- April 14th: The brothers Lumière carry out the first photography colors.
- June 4th: Professors Londe and Brissaud proceed to the first radios with medical use.
- August 10th: Otto Lilienthal is killed in sailplane. It accomplished some 2.000 flights out of the 18 machines which it built between 1891 and 1896. These flying machines held more of the hang glider than of the plane.
- September 12th: Octave Chanute builds sailplanes. The longest flight is of 123 meters for 14 seconds of vol.
- the British scientist Havelock Ellis begins its work on the psychology of sexuality.
- the French scientist Antoine Henri Becquerel discovers the natural radioactivity of salts of Uranium.
- the French scientists Pierre and Marie Curie discover the Radium.
- Marconi deposits the patent of the TSF, which enables him to send messages without electric wire by modifying the Hertzian waves thanks to a device ground-antenna.
Births in 1896
- January 2nd: Dziga Vertov, Russian scenario writer
- January 23rd: Large-duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg, queen of the Luxembourg
- February 18th: André Breton, writer and poet French.
- February 24th: Richard Thorpe, American realizer.
- July 10th: Stefan Askenase, pianist Polish († October 18th 1985)
- July 16th
- September 4th: Antonin Artaud, playwright and poet French.
- September 17th: Denise Grey, French actress.
- November 15th: Charles Tchoréré, military Frenchwoman of Gabonese origin, carried out by the enemy the June 7th 1940
- November 28th: Józef Koffler, type-setter Polish († 1943)
- February 1st: Georgi Konstantinovich Joukov, victorious Soviet commander with Stalingrad († June 18th 1974)
- December 27th: Maurice De Waele, Belgian racing cyclist († February 14th 1952)
Death in 1896
- January 25th: Frederic Leighton, painter and British sculptor .
- May 29th: Auguste Daubrée, geologist French.
- June 8th: Jules Simon ( Swiss François-Jules ), Philosopher and French statesman. (° December 27th 1814).
- June 23rd: Joseph Prestwich, British geologist .
- July 1st: Harriet Beecher Stowe, writer American, author of Uncle Tom's cabin (° June 14th 1811).
- July 18th: Joséphine Rostkowska, army medical officer Polish (° March 19th 1784)
- August 10th: Otto Lilienthal, German aviator.
- August 13rd: Sir John Everett Millais, British painter (° June 8th 1829).
- September 23rd: Gilbert Duprez, singer of French opera.
- October 3rd: William Morris, painter, writer and British decorator .
- October 11th: Anton Bruckner, Austrian type-setter.
- October 15th: Juan Gómez de Lesca, Spanish Matador (° June 24th 1867).
- October 18th: Antonio Meucci, Italian-American inventor.
- October 20th: Felix Tisserand, French astronomer.
- November 5th: Karl Verner, Danish linguist.
- December 10th: Alfred Nobel, industrial Swedish and instigator of the Nobel Prize.
- December 30th: Jose Rizal, poet, writer and Filipino politician.
Be-X-old: 1896 Map-bms: 1896 Simple: 1896 Zh-yue: 1896 年
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