This page relates to the year 1895 Gregorian Calendrier.
- January 1st: Fall of the cabinet Sándor Wekerle in Hungary on the question of the civil wedding.
- January 13rd, Italy: The Italian Socialist party, which had been dissolved by Francesco Crispi, is reconstituted at the time of a secret congress with Parma.
- January 14th, Hungary: Beginning of the liberal government of the count Dezső Bánffy (fine in 1899). It practices a policy of repression against the claims of the minorities, against the agrarian socialist movement, the social democrat party and the worship of Kossuth, died with Turin in 1894.
- January 29th: In answer to the address of the deputies of the provincial zemstvo De Tver, Nicolas II of Russia condemns the “foolish dream” of an assembly elected in Russia.
- May: Dissolution of the Room and elections in Italy. Francesco Crispi gains seemingly a considerable success but the voters send to the Room - which will not validate the results three of the chiefs most representative of the sicilian beams.
- June 25th: End of the liberal ministry Gladstone - Roseberry, Lord Salisbury (preserving unionistic), Prime Minister for the the United Kingdom (fine in 1902).
- October 6th: Joseph Chamberlain, Secretary of State to the colonies (1895 - 1903), is declared for the establishment of free trade inside the British Empire.
- In November, Vladimir Ilitch Oulianov (Lénine) federates the Marxists of Saint-Pétersbourg ( Union of fight for the release of the working class ).
- the December 7th, the principal ones directing Russian Marxist group, whose Lénine And Martov, is stopped. Lénine spends 15 month in prison, then 3 years of exile in Siberia.
- the movement of Fascio|Fasci, which developed in Sicily during the years 1890, is violently repressed by Francesco Crispi.
- Foundation in Hungary of the college Eötvös, copied on the National university of Paris.
- First electric tram line with Moscow.
- May 11th: The Reichstag pushes back the law on the revolutionary parties, which considered, apart from the offenses already envisaged, the judgment of the attacks against the Catholic church.
- June 21st: Inauguration of the channel connecting the the North Sea to the the Baltic (Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal).
See also: 1895 in France
- 27 - August 28th: Inauguration of the new monument with Guillaume Tell with Altdorf.
- the Russian revolutionist Vladimir Ilitch Oulianov, known as Lénine, comes to Switzerland for the first time.
- a census of the factories gives a report on 4994 companies.
January: Beginnings of the countryside of Ethiopia of the Italian forces: after the denunciation of the Treated of Ucciali (1893), the Italy sends 30 000 men directed by Baratieri, who progress towards the Adoua and until the Enda-Mohoni. Italian successes with Coatit in January and Abdigrat in March.
July 1st: The Kenya becomes a British protectorate ( East Africa Protectorate ).
September: Beginning of a British war ashanti- in West Africa (fine in 1896). The delegation sent by the Asante to London to protest against the British policy is not received. In September, the British address an ultimatum to the ashanti to obtain the right to send a resident to Kumasi.
- September 31st: The queen Ranavalona sign the treaty which is subjected to him by the winners: a French general resident is in charge of the relationship with the agents of the foreign powers.
- October 1st: Catch of Tananarive by the French (fine of the forwarding of Madagascar).
December 7th: The Italians are crushed by the Ethiopian ones with Amba-Alagui, then driven out Macallé. Ménélik continues its advance.
December 29th - January 2nd 1896: The Raid Jameson, attacks missed Betchouanaland against the republic Boer of the Transvaal, increases the feeling anti British and leads to the resignation of Cecil Rhodos. Jameson projected to reverse the Afrikaner government of Paul Kruger.
nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- Mutinies of the Police force in the State independent of Congo (1895, 1897 - 1898, 1900). They are forces armed arabo- Swahili rejoined with the EIC in 1893 which operates in the east of Congo and tries to control the old territory of Tippou Tib.
- Building site of the railroad of the Uganda. Many Indian workmen take part in his construction.
- Creation of the African Lakes Company with the Nyassaland, whose best soldiers are recruited among the slave traders arabo - Swahili and their partners Yao and Makua.
- Pressure of the white colonists to the Kenya to obtain new grounds.
- the British help the Egypt to make respect its rights on the valley of the Nile and establish a condominium on the Sudan (1895 - 1898).
- In the Voltaic countries , Mossi and Gourma are occupied by the French while Britanniques and Germans subject the Dagomba.
- the British impose their protectorate on the Alafin of Oyo.
- the French exile Ahmadou Bamba with the Gabon then in Mauritania.
- Of the white Pères come from the Senegal founds the first mission of the Mali to Ségou, then settle with Kati.
- Libya: the capital of the brotherhood of the Senousis moves with Kufra (El Giof). Decided by Muhammad Al-Madhi, this displacement is a consequence of advanced Europeans in the the Sahara. Kufra, crossroads caravaneer, quickly become a place of pilgrimage.
- January 3rd: Creation, in Egypt of a Board of directors ( Majlis Al-Idarah ) intended to return the administration of the mosque and university more democratic Al-Azhar.
- July 1st: In Egypt, a decree of the khedive Abbas II names Hassûnah Year-Nawâwî vice-chancellor (Grand Imâm) of the Mosquée Al-Azhar.
November 28th: Following the death of the Large Mufti of Egypt, sheik Al-Mahdî, sheik Hassûnah Year-Nawâwî is selected to succeed to him, and, preserving its functions of vice-chancellor of the Mosquée Al-Azhar, it thus cumulates the two religious stations most important of the country.
the British obtain the resignation of Nubar Pasha, the chief of the government. The Khedive Abbas II Hilmi was forced to take for minister Mustafa Fahmi Pasha, man considered to be more flexible, the British occupation appears final.
- the valley of the the Nile is declared under influence “anglo-Egyptian woman”. This turning of the Egyptian policy of Great Britain opens one period of tension between London and Paris.
The Middle East
- 26 - September 30th: An incident between soldiers Turkish and Armenians degenerates into true massacre. Under the pressure of Europeans, the sultan promises the autonomy of the Arménie. Armenian refugees (Gregorian and catholic) affluent with the Lebanon.
- the massacres extend to all the Eastern Anatolia: Trébizonde, Erzeroum, Ersindjian, Bitlis, Diarbékir, Malatya, Sivas, Mardin, Césarée.
- December: With Ourfa, the week of Christmas, 3000 Armenians are alive flarings. The Armenians resist Van, where the three parties were linked (Armenakan, Hentchak and Dachnak), and with Zeïtoun, where the inhabitants seize the citadel. The the United Kingdom request then of the explanations to the Sultan, which stops temporarily the massacres (December). The Turks answer that they did nothing but repress one Armenian revolt. The Germany and the Russia are satisfied with this explanation and English the Prime Minister Salisbury does not dare to only act.
March 11th: Convention of Simla. A Anglo-Russian agreement fixes the zones of respective influences at the Pamir in the west of the chain of Sarykol so that the Russian Empire and the India do not have common borders. The agreement does not take account of the protests of the China which did not give up its suzerainty on the Pamir occupied by the Russians since 1892.
- April 15th, India: Creation with Raigarhpour by nationalists of the Swaf festival, intended to support the national spirit and to release the country of the foreign influences.
- Several sultanates Malayan federate (Perak, Selangor, Pahang, Negeri Sembilan, States Minang) except for Johor and of the four States of North, that the British will remove with the Siam in 1909. Abd Al
- the king of Afghanistan Abdur Rahman Khan abolishes slavery.
The Far East
- February 12th: The Japan board take Weihai Wei.
- March 4th: The Japanese take Liaoyang and unload with Taiwan.
- April 17th: Treaty of Shimonoseki, end of the Sino-Japanese war. The Japan obtains Taiwan, the islands Pescadores, the Liaodong with Port-Arthur and Dalian and political preeminence in Korea. The China is committed giving to the Japanese the same rights of trade and navigation that to the Occident to.
- October: In Korea, the queen Min calls upon ministers favorable to the Russia. She is assassinated in her palate by Japanese elements which acted without order. The Japanese ambassador is recalled to Tōkyō where he is discharged. Following this incident, the Russian influence increases in Korea.
- November 8th: The Russia, the France and the Germany make pressure so that the Japan restores the Liaodong with the China against a strong gold allowance.
- the Japan obtains a fleet of war and is combined with the the United Kingdom.
- Abolition of the recruitment competition of the civils servant in Korea.
- the Russia obtains the concession of a railway in Mandchourie. The Germany is made yield for ninety years Jiaozhou. France establishes its influence on the provinces bordering on the Tonkin. Great Britain settles with Kowloon, vis-a-vis HongKong.
- Rise of heavy industry to the Japan.
- February, the United States: New governmental loan near Morgan and Belmont. To suppress the financial crisis, which he considers related to the reduction in the gold reserves, the Federal state calls upon the large banks to proceed to massive purchases of gold. This decision causes the anger of Populist and certain democrats attached to the bimetalism.
Beginning of the conquest of the West by the first railway line East-West on the basis of Chicago.
- the Supreme court limits the application of the Loi Sherman to the only marketing activities (US vs E.C. Knight Co.).
- the the United States produce 100 million crude barrel.
- Beginning of the second war of independence with Cuba, pitilessly repressed by the Spain: twenty-five years after the first proclamation of independence, the Cubans try to free themselves from the Spanish supervision. This time the insurrectionists know themselves supported by the Americans who have invests important capital in the plantations of tobacco and sugar. The poet Jose Martí revival the fight for independence. The May 19th, it is the first victim of a violent repression carried out by the Spaniards. Hundreds of thousands of civilians are interned in camps.
- the baron of Rio Branco, chief of the diplomacy, obtains for the Brésil immense “the territory of the Missions”.
June: Coup d'etat and civil war with Guayaquil. 20 years of ultra-liberalism in Ecuador, since 1875, lead to the revolution of Guayaquil. The pronunciamiento carries to the capacity the doctor Eloy Alfaro, supported by the growers of Cacao of the coast. Alfaro is proclaimed at the same time president of the Republic (June 19th 1895) and general-in-chief of the armies. President Eloy Alfaro grants one eleventh Constitution. It envisages the progressive laicization of the Republic and the separation of the Church and the State, prohibiting the formation of new religious orders and expropriant the Church of its goods. Radical liberalism until in 1916.
December: The United States intervenes in a frontier conflict between the the United Kingdom (Guyana British) and the Venezuela. The arbitration of Grover Cleveland is rejected by London which considers “exaggerated” the claims of Caracas. An agreement will be reached in 1897.
- Economic crisis with Cuba partially caused by the decision of the United States to again tax the imports with sugar.
- Foundation of the Polytechnic school of São Paulo, with the Brazil.
Arts and culture
- April 21st: With Seville (Spain), alternate of Juan Gómez de Lesca, Spanish Matador.
- April 30th: Biennial first of modern art with Venice.
- September 22nd: With Madrid alternate Spain, of Jose García Rodríguez known as “El Algabeño”, Spanish Matador.
- September 28th: With Ciotat, the Eden the first room of Cinéma of the history is born.
- December 28th: With Paris: The first projection of the film Left the factories Light by the brothers Louis and Auguste Lumière. Price of the ticket of entgrée: 1,02 F.
- Ambroise Vollard organizes an exposure of works of Cézanne.
- Institution with the the United Kingdom of the National Trust , allowing to safeguard historic buildings and natural sites.
Sciences and technology
- the French sociologist Emile Durkheim publishes his sociological Méthode .
- the Austrian doctor Sigmund Freud publishes its first work on the psychoanalysis.
- Dr. Ferdinand Widal created in France the first biological analysis laboratory hospital.
- Analysis , of the mathematician Henri Poincaré, birth certificate of the Topology.
- Pierre Curie shows that diamagnetism is independent of the temperature and that with the top of a certain temperature (not of Curie) the ferromagnetism is transformed into paramagnetism.
- the Frères Light deposit the patent of the cinematograph.
- the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi invents the wireless telegraphy.
- Wireless telegraphy, of Popov.
- Edouard Michelin makes patent the dismountable tire for cars.
- Discovered X-rays by the German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen which carries out the first radiography. It examines their capacity of penetration and observes that they produce an ionization of the air.
- Bull, Borchgrevink and Kristensen is the first to pose the foot on the continent the Antarctic with the course Adare.
Economy & company
- In Romania, 6 500 great landowners have half of the cultivated ground, as much as a million country families. They reside at Bucharest where with Paris and lease the majority of their grounds to farmers who sub-lease with peasants, from where the weakness of technological advance. Many farmers are Juifs, especially in Moldavie, which increases the tensions anti-semites in the campaigns. Owners and farmers make profitable the exploitations by the production of wheat intended for export with the detriment of the domestic consumption limited to corn, with the food deficiencies (pellagras) which follow. 300 000 peasants without ground constitute a tank of labor for the fields but also a factor of instability.
Births in 1895
- January 7th: Clara Haskil, Swiss pianist of Rumanian origin. († December 7th 1960)
- February 3rd: Norman Rockwell, American illustrator. († November 8th 1978)
- February 28th: Marcel Pagnol, writer, producer and realizer French. († April 18th 1974)
- March 20th: Robert Benoist, racing driver. († September 9th 1944)
- March 29th: Ernst Jünger, German writer († 1998).
- March 30th: Jean Giono, writer, scenario writer and realizer French. († October 9th 1970)
- April 17th: Antonio Locatelli, Aviator, Politician, writer, Journalist, painter and Draftsman Italy N. († June 27th 1936).
- May 8th: Jose Gómez Ortega known as “Joselito” or “Gallito”, Spanish Matador († May 16th 1920).
- June 1st: Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, general Polish († August 24th 1966)
- June 11th: Jacques Nectarine, tennis player. († March 20th 1978)
- July 10th: Carl Orff, type-setter. († March 29th 1982)
- July 12th: Richard Buckminster Fuller, architect, designer, inventor and American writer († July 1st 1983)
- September 16th: Karol Rathaus, type-setter Polish († November 21st 1954)
- October 2nd: Marceau Green woodpecker, Socialist militant . († 1958)
- October 4th: Buster Keaton, American actor. (1966)
- October 8th
- Juan Perón, president of the Argentinian . († July 1st 1974)
- Zog Ier, king d' Albanie († April 9th 1961).
- November 15th: Olga Nicolaïevna, large-duchess of Russia, oldest daughter of Nicolas II. († July 17th 1918)
- November 16th: Paul Hindemith, type-setter. (December 28th 1963)
- December 14th: Georges VI, king of the the United Kingdom. (February 6th 1952)
- December 14th: Paul Éluard, French poet († November 18th 1952)
Death in 1895
- March 2nd: Berthe Morisot, painter Frenchwoman.
- January 9th: Aaron Lufkin Dennison, initiator of the American System off Watch Manufacturing, with Birmingham, the United Kingdom.
- February 16th: Raymond Adolphe Séré de Rivières, military French called Vauban of the 19th century (° 1815).
- February 19th: John Whitaker Hulke, Surgery N and British geologist .
- April 14th: James Dwight Dana, geologist, mineralogist and zoologist states-unien.
- June 23rd: William Crawford Williamson, British Naturalist .
- July 28th: Jan Kappeyne van of Coppello, politician Dutch
- August 5th: Friedrich Engels, German Marxist philosopher, died with London.
- September 28th: Louis Pasteur, physicist, chemist and microbiologist.
- November 27th: Alexandre Dumas wire, writer French.
- December 22nd: John Russell Hind, British Astronomer .
- December 27th: Gabriel Milin, Breton-speaking militant.
Beats-smg: 1895 Be-X-old: 1895 Map-bms: 1895 Simple: 1895 Zh-yue: 1895 年
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