This page relates to the year 1894 Gregorian Calendrier.
April - May: Rumanian lawsuits of Mémorandistes with Cluj. Judgment of the leaders to the prison and prohibition of the Rumanian national Party.
August 26th: Pieter Jelles Troelstra (1860-1930) bases the left the workers social democrat (SDAP, Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij ) to the Netherlands on the base of the program of Gotha of 1875.
October 26th: End of the ministry Caprivi in Germany. The chancellor, in favor of a simple hardening of the legislative arsenal, opposed the emperor Guillaume II which intends to make vote a new law against the revolutionary parties. He is congédié and Kaiser appoints chancellor the prince Chlodwig Hohenlohe, 76 years old, who will be erased behind the personality of his Minister for Finance, Johannes Miquel.
November 3rd, Germany: Creation of the Union of the Steps of the East. This association intends to direct the empire towards a policy of economic and cultural colonization antipolonaise, as well as a germanisation of the provinces of the East.
Tensions between the legislature and the executive with the Denmark (1894 - 1901). The Folketing intends to impose on the royal capacity the obligation to choose the members of the government among the parties forming the majority with the Lower House. But the policy of the president of the Council is based on the principle of the equality between the two Rooms. The Lower House regularly refuses to vote the finance law, considering the budget of defense too high. The king must dissolve several times the Parliament, while the Government recourse to provisional finance laws, as many attacks to the Constitution.
- Cabinet Badeni in Austria.
- Reunification of the Hungarian social democrat Party under the direction of Ignace Silberberg. The congress adopts an agrarian program of Marxist inspiration, far from the claim country-women.
- the Roumanians, the Serb ones and the Slovak ones of Hungary hold a “Congress of Nationalities” with Budapest.
- Beginning of Greek rising in Crete (fine in 1897).
- the United Kingdom: The cities nonbuilt-in the Local Government Act of 1887 obtain the statute of “municipal borough”.
- February 10th: Commercial treaty with the Germany.
- November 1st: Beginning of the reign of Nicolas II, tsar of Russia (fine in 1917). It continues the autocratic policy of his father.
- November 26th: The Tsar of Russia Nicolas II wife Alexandra of Hesse-Darmstadt (1872 - 1918), princess of Hesse.
- nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- Taken again diplomatic relations with the the Holy See.
- Continuation of the controversy on the ways of the Russian development. Critical Marxist of the Populisme (Lénine, Strouve).
- Repression of the Stundistes (Ukrainian Baptists ).
- Monopoly of the State on the sale of alcohols (1/4 of the budget revenue between 1894 and 1899).
- the fall in the price of cereals, started in 1875, reached its maximum.
- March 26th, adoption of the " Charter of Quaregnon " , ideological declaration, of the ancestor of the Socialist party, the Left Working Belgian (P.O.B.), made up in 1885.
- Introduction of the plural Vote
- World Fair of Antwerp.
- September 13rd: With Seville, alternative first of Handbook García Cuesta known as “El Espartero”, Spanish Matador. He will take one second time the alternative the October 11th 1885.
See also: 1894 in France
- June 24th: assassination of the president of the Republic Sadi Carnot by an Anarchistic Italy N, Caserio.
- June 27th: Jean Casimir-Périer is elected president of the Republic.
- July 28th: vote “Lois scélérates” against the anarchists.
- September: Beginning of the Business Dreyfus, military French suspected of espionage to the profit of the Germany.
- December 22nd: Dreyfus is condemned to the deportation.
- the doctor of Vaud Alexandre Yersin discovers the bacillus of the plague and develops a serum against this disease.
- the International Olympic committee settles with Lausanne.
- the Female association of Zurich opens the first restaurants without alcohol.
- the president of the Council Francesco Crispi takes series of measure intended to break interior resistances. In a context where the social situation is degraded on bottom of economic crisis and financial worsened by the countryside of Ethiopia, Crispi makes revise the electoral rolls, sends the troop against the peasants and the workmen (monumental masons of Carrare, beams sicilian), while scorning the decisions of the municipalities and the Parliament.
January 3rd: Francesco Crispi makes proclaim the State of siege in Sicily where it sends 40 000 soldiers. Repression unchains an anarchistic revolt in Lunigiana (Toscane) and Crispi reacts by proclaiming there too the state of siege.
- June 16th: The anarchist Paolo Lega car a blow of revolver against Crispi years to reach it.
- June: Crispi, whose majority weakens, resigns and returns to the businesses after a rehandling.
- After the assassination of Sadi Carnot with Lyon by Health Caserio the June 24th, 3000 emigrants Italian must leave the city.
- July 17th: The Baratieri general occupies Kassala with the Sudan.
- July 17th: In Ethiopia, the Italy NS reach Agordat and Kassala. Beginning of the war of Abyssinie (fine in 1896).
- Forwarding of the French general Joseph Gallieni with Madagascar.
- December 12th: The French troops seize Tamatave. For a few years, the Prime Minister Rainilairanivony had called in question collaboration free-Madagascan while trying, in vain, to obtain the support of the Great Britain. In October, French nationals left the capital, Tananarive, after France had announced to exert its protectorate on the island.
- the Great Britain makes an agreement with the Belgium according to which Léopold II of Belgium would yield the band to him is Congo. The British would thus have a territory of only one holding, of the Egypt to the Cape. The German and French protests make move back the contractors.
a commission of the indigenous reserves is charged to distribute the ground in Southern Rhodesia. Reserves are created for the black population. In 1914, 24 870 000 acres gather 104 concerning 834 000 Africans, of which approximately 500 000 live indeed in these reserves; 22 000 000 acres are given to the companies and to the white families of settlers; 48 000 000 acres are reserved for BSAC.
the British obtain a concession of the sultanate of Zanzibar on the Kenya. The annual rent of the sultan is increased by 6000 pounds.
Thanks to the intervention of the British, the Toro (Uganda) and the Bouganda can annex most of the Bounyoro.
Forwarding of D. Smith towards the Lake Rodolphe and the Borana (1894-1899).
- Mary Kingsley côtoie tribes of cannibals of current the Gabon.
- the Imperial British East Africa Company gives its privileges to the British government.
- Creation of the Malagasy Protestant Church Tranozozoro Antranobiriky .
- January 29th: The king of Abomey (Dahomey) Béhanzin subjects himself after two years of fights. He is off-set with Martinique, then in Algérie where he dies in 1906
Started from Sansanding, the column of reinforcement ordered by the lieutenant-colonel Etienne Bonnier, was to arrive the January 10th at Tombouctou. The 14, it is attacked by the Touareg with Takoubao, close to Goundam, which destroys it. The commander Joffre restores the situation as of the January 20th. He reaches Niafunké and inflicts a bloody defeat with the Touaregs later a few days. With Tombouctou, Joffre builds strong Bonnier and builds fortifications with Kabara, Korioumé and Goundam. Then it launches forwardings against the various factions which took part in the combat of Takoubao, forcing them to make their tender officially. Joffre leaves Tombouctou the July 10th, after having firmly the control of the French Army establishes on the city and its surroundings.
Samori Touré takes again the offensive and tries to conquer new territories in the North-East (1894 - 1898). It beats a French column sent to protect the town of Kong, which it occupies and destroys. It makes peace proposals, which are pushed back. Blocked to the North-East after the occupation of Sore-Dioulasso by the French, Samori reconsiders its steps and attacks Bissandougou, but the forest populations of Ivory Coast refuse the passage to him and it is captured with Guélémou in 1898.
- Samori Touré makes carry out his/her son Dyanli Karamogho for treason.
- Rabah founds with the Bornou a new named capital Dikoa. It is at the top of its power.
the British sign new agreements with the neighbors of the Asante, which feels threatened. Mission ashanti with London.
- Countryside against black doctor J.F. Easmon, appointed head doctor in Gold Coast. It is finally suspended of its load in 1897.
- June 7th: Died of the sultan Hassan Ier of Morocco. His/her oldest son having been disinherited, the young person Abd Al-Aziz, 14 years old, succeeds to him under the regency of the top dog Ba-Ahmed (fine of reign in 1908). Ba-Ahmed continues the policy of balance between the European powers (end of regency in 1900).
Reform of teaching in Tunisia: a school of moueddebs , or Koranic schoolmasters ( kuttab ) east creates. In parallel, the nonMoslem school network develops; religious and laic establishments are founded in addition to the Italian and Jewish Catholic schools of the Alliance Jew already in place.
The Middle East
- August: Five thousand Armenians are massacred in Petite Arménie (Turkey). Perpetrated by the Kurdish Turks and the , this massacre is guaranteed by the Othoman sultan. The Armenian movement Hintchak had called with the revolt against the Kurds. This action causes a great emotion in Europe, where is born an important movement arménophile. The ambassadors of the United Kingdom and France to Constantinople protest and present to the sultan a reform project. the EC-last, encouraged by the attitude of the Russian Foreign Minister Lobanof, openly anti-Armenian, fact with the ambassadors of the answers courteous, but vague, and conceives the project to exterminate the Armenians. It isolates the Armenian provinces from the outside world by prohibiting the voyages and establishing the postal censure. It makes to haranguer the population in the mosques by mollah which denounce a great Armenian conspiracy against the Turkey and against Islam. Weapons are distributed to the Kurdish tribes and fanaticized Turk bands, the Bachi-bouzouk S.
Creation of the Committee union and progress with Salonique. In the beginning entitled young Committee Turkish, the C.U.P. joins together all the dissatisfied ones with the policy hamidienne among the young elites of the Empire.
the Khedive of Egypt `Abbas Hilmi II encourages resistance to the British occupation. It encourages the Egyptian troops to criticize their commander-in-chief, the British Kitchener. Threatened of reference, the khedive must finally accept the return of Nubar Pasha with the head of the government.
- June 2nd: The king of Korea requests the assistance of the China to fight against opponents belonging to the Secte of Tonghak.
- June 5th: Chinese buildings travel towards Korea. In reaction, a Japanese fleet is dispatched on the spot.
- July 22nd: The Great Britain proposes a compromise: the China and the Japan will occupy the Korea together.
- July 23rd: The Japanese troops invest the royal palace of Seoul and reverse the king of Korea, then force its substitute to declare with them the war with the China the July 27th.
- August: Beginning of the first Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) which will lead to the Japanese seizure on Formosa (fine in 1895).
- : Destruction of the Chinese fleet by the Japan which declares officially the war with the China.
- 15 - September 16th: Japan crushes the Chinese with the Bataille of Pyongyang
- October 24th: Japan passes in Mandchourie.
- November 21st: Catch of Port-Arthur (Lushun) by the Japanese general Nogi Kiten.
- November 22nd: Puputan (collective suicide) in the War of Lombok in Indonesia.
December 31st: End of the mandate of Lanessan, general governor of the Indochinese Union since June 1891. Since the creation of the Indochinese Union (1887), the general governors were respectful particularism buildings.
- “the unequal treaties” between the Japan and the Westerners are revised.
- Epidemic of plague in China. It gains the Africa, the islands of the Pacifique, the Australia, the American continent and reached San Francisco in 1900.
- Plantation of Hévéa S in Malaysia.
- Adoption of the system of social conciliation protecting the trade unions in New Zealand. The followed industrial relations policy (right to vote with the women in 1893, eight hours day in 1897, pension for the old men) will be worth in New Zealand the reputation to practice a very advanced “socialism” compared to the European countries.
- December 12th: Death of the Prime Minister for the Canada John Sparrow David Thompson. Mackenzie Bowell succeeds the December 21st to him.
The United States
May 11th: The workmen of Pullman City , from which one comes to reduce by five times the wages, stop work, constant by the trade union Railways Union .
- June: Eugene Debs, the president of the Railways Union , invites all the railroad workers to support those of Pullman. The trade union of the owners of railroad of the area, the General Managers Association , reacts while returning those of his employees who take part in the boycott of solidarity. Railways Union is solved with the strike. All the traffic in the west of Chicago is paralyzed by a movement which affects 100 000 paid. President Grover Cleveland obtains a “ injunction ” against the marked railwaymen to block the postal service and the trade inter-States (law Sherman).
- July: The intervention of the federal troops and the systematic obstruction of “fraternities” of railwaymen make degenerate the strike. Yielding to violence, the railwaymen are not long in discrediting themselves. The strikers of Pullman resume work in August without to have obtained satisfaction.
- September: In New York, the workmen of the clothes industry put themselves in strike.
Grover Cleveland must resort to two loans to reconstitute the gold reserves.
- Surplus of the foreign trade.
- Corner' S Financial School , praise of the bimetalism, William Harvey.
- February 22nd: Policarpo Bonilla becomes president of the Republic of the Honduras. He answers initially favorably at the request of the Guatemala to reconstitute the centraméricaine Federation, but gives up his ally when this last decides to invade the El Salvador which had refused to enter the future federation.
- May 8th: Rafael Yglesias Castro is elected president of the Costa Rica.
- August 10th: The general Andrés Avelino Cáceres is elected president of the Republic of the Peru. He encounters dice his nomination a coalition including/understanding the democrats, directed by Nicolás de Piérola, and of the “common lawyers” leagued to defend electoral freedom and the right to vote.
- November 15th, Brazil: Prudente of Morais becomes president of the Brazilian Republic. Careful of Morais Barros, governor of São Paulo is the first civil president, elected official at the time of election free organized by his predecessor Floriano Peixoto. It is charged to make triumph the interests over the Café, agriculture, of free trade, against the projects of the industrialists in favor of protectionism. Its first gesture will be to amnesty the insurrectionists of the Rio Grande C Sul, who had drawn up themselves against the capacity under the presidency of Peixoto.
Chronologies sets of themes
Arts & cultures
- September 30th: The Archeologist and Italian Egyptologist Ernesto Schiaparelli is named director of the collection of Egyptian antiquities of the Musée of Turin.
- November 18th: With alternative Valence (Spain), of Felix Robert, Matador French. He is first French to take the alternative.
- nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- the British artist Aubrey Beardsley illustrates the Salome Oscar Wilde.
- the Czech artist Alfons Mucha designs a poster for the French actress Sarah Bernhardt.
- the War , of the Douanier Rousseau, is exposed to the Salon of Independent the in Paris.
- With the living room of the street of the Mills , fabric of Toulouse-Lautrec.
- the Czech type-setter Antonín Dvořák composes its Fifth symphony .
Science & Technology
- nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- the American Astronome Percival Lowell makes build an observatory to study the Canaux Martians.
- the Russian engineer Aleksandr Popov invents the antenna.
- the German bacteriologist Paul Ehrlich invents the Chimiothérapie.
- the French doctor and bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin, installed in Indo-China, and the Japanese Kitasato Shibasaburo discovers jointly the bacillus of the bubonic Peste.
- Anti-diphtheric serum of Red-headed Emile.
See also: 1894 in sport
Births in 1894
- January 7th: Maximilien Kolbe, man of the church Polish († August 14th 1941)
- February 8th: King Vidor, American realizer.
- February 20th: Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz, writer and playwright Polish († March 2nd 1980).
- April 14th: Mary Marquet, French actress of Russian origin
- April 15th: Bessie Smith, American Singer († 1937)
- April 22nd: Mariano Assemble, Spanish Matador († June 13rd 1926).
- April 26th: Rudolf Hess, dignitary of the Germany Nazi († August 17th 1987)
- April 27th: Marcel Gimond, Sculptor French († October 13rd 1961)
- May 11th: Martha Graham, dancer and American choreographer († 1991).
- May 13rd: Ásgeir Ásgeirsson, Icelandic politician († September 15th 1972)
- May 19th: Josef von Sternberg, realizer
- May 27th: Louis-Ferdinand Celine, French writer
- May 27th: Dashiell Hammett, American writer
- June 4th: Bolduc, author-compositrice-interprets, harmonicist, violoneuse Québécois († 1941)
- June 13rd: Jacques Henri Lartigue, French photographer
- June 23rd: Edouard VIII, king of the the United Kingdom
- June 23rd: Alfred Kinsey, scientific American
- July 17th: Georges Lemaître, catholic priest, astronomer and Belgian physicist
- July 25th: Gavrilo Princip, Serb anarchist († 1918)
- July 26th: Aldous Huxley writer
- September 15th: Jean Renoir, French realizer
- October 20th: Henryk Berlewi, painter and draftsman Polish († August 2nd 1967)
- October 21st: Edogawa Rampo, Japanese author
- October 30th: Jean Rostand, biologist
- December 31st: Pola Negri, Polish actress (the USA)
Death in 1894
- February 4th: Adolphe Sax, inventor of the saxophone.
- February 9th: Maxime of the Camp, French writer. (° February 8th 1822).
- February 21st: Gustave Caillebotte, painter and collector French.
- May 27th: El Espartero (Manual García Cuesta), Spanish Matador (° January 18th 1865).
- June 24th: Sadi Carnot (assassinated), president of the French Republic.
- October 22nd: Philipp Bertkau German Zoologist (° 1849).
- November 1st: Alexandre III, tsar of Russia.
- November 26th: Pafnouti Tchebychev, Russian mathematician (° May 4th 1821)
- December 7th: Ferdinand de Lesseps, diplomatic and contractor French
- December 31st: Thomas Joannes Stieltjes, Mathematician Dutch. (° December 29th 1856).
Beats-smg: 1894 Be-X-old: 1894 Map-bms: 1894 Simple: 1894 Zh-yue: 1894 年
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