This page relates to the year 1891 Gregorian Calendrier.
- May 18th: Beginning of the exploration of the Katanga, with the Congo by the Canadian explorer , William Grant Stairs, for Léopold II of Belgium.
- May: Execution of Msiri, king of the Garaganza (capital Bunkeya), in the old field Louba. This prosperous kingdom, located in the area very rich in copper of the Katanga, practical the trade of copper, iron, the ivory and the slaves. Fearing an annexation by the British of the grounds located at the south of Congo, the Belgians seize Garaganza, which will be annexed to the State of Congo.
- July 31st: The Great Britain proclaims that the territories located between the Zambezi and the Fleuve Congo belong to him.
Strike of the “Dahoméens” employed with the Cameroun.
- Charters of the Company of the Mozambique and the Company of the Nyassa (Portugal).
- Forwarding of Antoine Mizon with the Nigeria, the Cameroun and Means-Congo.
- Forwarding of Furnace to the Congo.
- Constitution of a Polizeitruppe in Cameroun by the Germans. Following popular risings and a mutiny in 1893, a Schutztruppe (colonial troop) is created in 1895.
- Decree of the State independent of Congo proclaiming field of the State grounds nonoccupied in an apparent way by the natives (built or cultivated). The exploitation of the Ivory, the rubber, the Gum, etc becomes in fact monopoly of the State.
- the Compagnie of Katanga obtains in freehold one the third of the Katanga and a preferential duty of exploitation on the remainder.
- January 1st: Taken Nioro by the colonel Louis Archinard after the departure of Ahmadou which is folded up with the Macina and with Djenné.
- In July, creation of the French Sudan.
- the French deputy Etienne, leader of the colonial party, launches three missions of occupation of the Chad to precede the British. One leaves the Congo, the other goes up the Bénoué to reach the Bornou, the third (the only one to succeed) share of Saint-Louis of Senegal and crosses French Sudan.
- the commander Monteil connects Saint-Louis to Tripoli by the Lac Chad (1890-1892). It leaves Ségou the December 23rd for Say and passes by San, Kinian and Sikasso.
- the French disperse the Mourides (Senegal).
- Taken again hostilities between the empire of the Ouassoulou and the France, because Samori Touré does not accept the presence of a French military mission at its enemy Tiéba, king of Sikasso. Knowing that it cannot count on an alliance with other African chiefs and that it cannot resist the French troops while being locked up in strengthened stations, Samori divides its forces into three groups. The first, armed with rifles with fast shooting receipts of Sierra Leone or French traffickers, fights the troops Frenchwoman all as a practitioner the scorched earth policy. The second, armed with rifles with stone and piston, has as a responsibility of raise the tax and to recruit warriors among the populations which are behind the first group. The third, armed like the second, fights in the east of the African tribes and conquers territories which make it possible Samori to be folded up without difficulties.
- April 10th: Whereas Italy proclaimed the Ethiopia protectorate and the Erythrée Italian colony, Ménélik II sends to all the European powers (Russia, Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy) a letter of protest in which it does not dissimulate that it is close taking the weapons. It estimates that its country must extend from Khartoum in north with the Lac Nyassa in the south and from the borders Sudan board in the west with the Red Sea in the east. Moreover, it estimates that there cannot remain indifferent to the division of Africa.
- May: The Great Britain assistance the Christians of Bouganda to overcome the Moslems of the Bounyoro and imposes treaties to the chiefs of the Ankole and Toro (Uganda).
- 17 - August 18th: Battle of Lugalo. Beginning of the revolt héhé in German Eastern Africa (1891 - 1898).
Hermann Wissmann is named governor of Africa Orientale German
- a Anglo-Italian agreement recognizes the protectorate of Rome on the Ethiopia and persuades the sultan of Zanzibar to rent with the Italy the coast of the Bénédir (annexed to the Somalia in 1905). In counterpart, Italy commits itself not disturbing the mode of water of the the Nile and its affluents by building stoppings there.
- Resistance in Somalia vis-a-vis the British and to the Italians led by Sayyid Mohammed, “insane Mollah” (1891 - 1920). This Somali Darod makes several pilgrimages with Mecque and becomes the disciple of Mohammed Salih, founder of a mystical and puritan sect, the Salihiya.
- Forwardings of Vittorio Bottego at the Danakil and the Somali (1891 - 1897).
- March 6th: The French Senate names a commission of eighteen members charged to reorganize the administration of the Algérie.
- April 18th: Jules Cambon is named general governor Algérie (fine in 1897). It applies a more liberal indigenous policy, related to a rapid economic advancement.
Establishment of a French station with Salt Goléa, the border algéro-Morrocan woman. The sultan of the Morocco regards this decision as an act of hostility, the more so as the annexation of the oases located at the borders algéro-Morrocans is considered by the French government.
The Middle East
- British Protectorate on Mascate and Oman (fine in 1971). The British control the sea route of the India.
the Porte creates quotas of Kurdish light cavalry for the maintenance of law and order in Anatolia. The presence of these quotas, officially directed against the Russians and the British, will increase the tensions between Arménie Kurdish NS and , the latter giving a character of Djihad to their mission.
Cancellation of the British monopoly on the Persian tobacco in . The shah yields under the pressure of the public opinion to the claims of the Shiite clergy and the moudjahidin opposed to the European influence. In addition a nationalist current and constitutionalist develop at the same time in the intellectual circles.
Asia & Indian world
- June 20th: The British and the Netherlanders define their respective zones of influence in Borneo. The Netherlands obtain most of the island.
China: The army represses in Mandchourie the rising of the sect of the gold Elixir, of orientation antichrétienne.
- May 29th: The founder of the party of freedom, Nobutaka Itagaki, critical militancy and autocracy. He claims a purely defensive foreign politics and the reduction of the military budget.
the general Osawa Takeo denounces the military state of unpreparedness of the country and will be erased for indiscretion in December. However all the deputies with the elected room do not obtain the reduction of the military expenditure.
- pollution in the copper mines of Ashio leads to a Grève and a conflict with the police force. It is about one of the first great social conflicts related to the industrialization of the country.
- March 5th: Victoire of the conservatives of John A. Macdonald with the federal elections.
- June 16th: John Joseph Caldwell Abbott (preserving) becomes Prime Minister of Canada after the death of Macdonald the June 6th (fine in 1892).
- December 16th: nationalist the Prime Minister for the Quebec Honore Draper, shown misuse of public money, is relieved. He is discharged the November 4th 1992.
- December 21st: Charles-Eugene Boucher of Boucherville replaces it like Prime Minister for Quebec.
the Manitoba account close to 153 000 inhabitants. The Territories of the North-West 67 000. Colonization is reduced there to a narrow band around the railway and some hearths in the valley of the Saskatchewan of North. In the west of Regina, the railroad especially supported the extensive breeding of horses and bovines.
The United States
- March 14th: Following the assassination of the superintendent of the police force David Hennessey with the New-Orleans in October 1890, nine Italians then are declared marked innocent for insufficiency of proof. The Italian fishermen of the city celebrate the event, but in the morning of the March 14th, the crowd directed by the lawyer William Pakerson, force the entry of the prison. Two suspects are hung and nine killed with rifle shot. The Italy sends a man-of-war to repatriate the Italians who want to give up the city and suspends the diplomatic relations with the the United States.
May 19th: Creation of the Left the People to Saint-Louis. It born from the gathering of two Alliances of farmers with a certain number of reforming groups and working trade unions. Its program summarizes rural dissatisfaction: flexible currency and striking unlimited of the money, recovery of the grounds yielded to the railway companies, land suppression of the property rights for the foreigners, more flexible system of loans government guaranteed, graduated incomes on the income, nationalizations of means of transport and communication, secret vote and referendum, election of the senators by the vote for all. Although they tried to attract the urban proletariat by asserting better work conditions, the Populist ones will find only little echo in the working world.
- the Populist ones, which publishes more than one hundred newspapers in the Années 1890, also diffuse many books and booklets, with an aim of rehabilitating the rural population.
October: Burden with the minors of Briceville (Tennessee) who refuse to sign an new agreement of work not renégociable by which they are committed not striking, to accept the payments in tickets of provisioning and to give up their right to watch on the quantity of extracted coal. It is broken by the sending of common law criminal framed by the police force. The October 31st, a thousand of armed minors take the control of the extract range and release 500 prisoners. The companies move back.
Colored Alliance decides a strike in the cotton fields to obtain a pay rise. In the Arkansas, a group carried out by Ben Patterson exchanges shots with an small group of White. A manager is killed and égreneuse of cotton destroyed. The strikers are captured and fifteen of them carried out.
the trust of sugar is transformed into holding.
- the first Skyscraper with the structure entirely out of steel, the Second Leiter Building, is completed with Chicago by the architect William the Baron Jenney.
- August 29th: Civil war with the Chile between liberals and positivists. Resignation of the president Jose Manuel Balmaceda.
- August 31st: Installation of a parliamentary republic to the Chile. Jorge Montt, ordering navy which with reversed Balmaceda, must compose with the many parties which block all the political decisions, social or economic. The governments which will follow one another until in 1914 will be struck of opposition to progress.
- February 24th: Promulgation of the new constitution which creates the laic and federal republic Brésil. The general Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca is the first elected president. The constitution, copied on the model of the United States, is hardly adapted to the Brazilian requirements. The provinces become States with their own government, their finances and their armed police force.
- November 3rd: The president Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca chooses to dissolve the National Assembly and to impose a dictatorial capacity, but thorough to the resignation by a revolt of the Navy, it yields the capacity the November 23rd to the vice-president Floriano Peixoto (the iron marshal). It cancels dissolution, revokes all the governors who had supported Deodoro and is made main of the situation. It maintains the Republic under the protection of the army.
the volume of currency in circulation with more than doubled since 1887, which causes a short period of speculation, the encihamento .
- January 31st, Italy: The president of the Council Francesco Crispi, victim of the economic crisis and financial that the country crosses, yields the place to the marquis Antonio Di Rudini, leader of the right-hand side.
- January 31st, Portugal: Republican revolt with Oporto.
- April 9th: Foundation of the League Pangermaniste ( Alldeutscher Verband ) to support the economic interests of the Germany overseas. Composed primarily of soldiers and senior officials, it will quickly extend its activities to patriotic propaganda and will encourage in the leaders of Berlin an aggressive foreign politics. It will become gradually racist and anti-semite, hostile with maintains Austria-Hungary.
- April 24th, Italy: The Room approves a law abolishing the list system, introduced in 1882. Italy returns to the majority poll.
- May 1st, France: Last nines died with Fourmies at the time of the manifestations of the May 1st.
- May 6th: Renewal of the Triple Alliance between the Austria, the Germany and the Italy.
- May 15th: Encyclical Rerum Novarum of the Pope Leon XIII, which for the first time evokes the condition of the workers. Leon XIII challenges the socialism and the class struggle, but encourages associations having a goal “of conciliation and mutual aid”. A social catholic movement develops in Italy under the direction of the Work of the Congresses (Giuseppe Toniolo).
- May: Called into question of the statute of the Finland. Russianization intensifies. The Russia decides to abolish the independent postal service while the removal of the national army is in preparation.
- June 1st: Coming into effect of the law on the protection of workers in Germany. Sunday becomes obligatory day of rest, the factory work of the children of less than thirteen years is prohibited, the working time of the teenager is tiny room to ten hours per day and the retirement age is fixed at 65 years (the life expectancy is only 45 years!).
- June: Agrarian disorders in Hungary.
- July: Visit French fleet with Kronstadt.
- August 27th: Franco-Russian agreement of alliance secret per exchange of letters. The France obtains only Russia a promise of common dialog in the event of European conflict.
- August: The Congress of the Italian workers of Milan recommends the formation of a socialist party.
- October: Congress of Erfurt. German social democracy adopts the Marxist program of Engels - Kautski. The stress and laid on the democratic reforms.
- October, the United Kingdom: The liberals adopt a new program, which includes/understands in particular the recognition of the Home Rule for the Ireland and the reduction in the working time for the workmen.
- November: Expulsion of more than 20 000 Juifs of Moscow, which are constrained to gather in Ghetto S
- the capacity passes to the liberals to the Netherlands (1891 - 1901).
- anarchistic Agitation in France (1891 - 1894).
- Zionism: Creation of the Jewish Colonization Association (ICA or JCA) by the baron de Hirsch.
- Foundation with Bucharest by professors and students of a “cultural League for all the Roumanians”.
- Alfred von Schlieffen, becomes chief of staff in Germany (fine in 1906). It works out a plan of attack in the event of war: to crush France in six weeks by violating Belgian neutrality to take with reverse the French Army, then to launch the totality of the troops against the Russia. This plan will be applied in 1914.
- the United Kingdom: Thomas Burberry opens a shop with number 30 of the large commercial street Haymarket in the west of London.
See also: 1891 in France
- Foundation of the factory Brown-Boveri SA to Baden.
- Introduction of the popular initiative to the federal level.
- June 14th: a railway viaduct crumbles with Münchenstein. Assessment: 73 died and a hundred casualties.
- the Academy of Lausanne is high with the row of university.
- Creation of the International office of peace with Bern.
- is declared festival national.
- Invented by Joseph Oller and instituted by the law of June 2nd, 1891, the mutual bet puts an end to arbitrary bookmakers in the recording and the treatment of the bets on horse-races in France.
Chronologies sets of themes
Religion and Philosophy
- Encyclical Rerum Novarum of Leon XIII on the working condition.
- Leon XIII invites the French catholics to be joined the Republic.
Arts & culture
- August 30th: With the Puerto de Santa María (Spain, Province of Cadiz), alternate of Jose Rodríguez Davie known as “Pepete”, Spanish Matador.
- September 16th: With Madrid (Spain), alternative of Antonio Reverte, Spanish matador.
- Art schools
- First exposure nabis.
- the French painter Henri of Toulouse-Lautrec painted the moulin-Rouge .
- the French painter Paul Gauguin share for Tahiti (1891 - 1893). Do it paints On the beach (1891), Quand marry you you? (1892) and the Esprit of dead takes care (1893).
- the Circus (1890 -1891), fabric of Seurat.
- Rocks in Huelgoat of Paul Sérusier.
- Women with the garden of Bonnard.
- the Zaporogues Cossacks writing to the Turkish sultan , fabric of Répine.
- Literature & theater
- the British novelist Thomas Hardy written Tess off the D' Urbervilles .
- the writer britannico - Irish Oscar Wilde publishes its single novel, the portrait of Dorian Gray .
popular Festivals and rejoicings
Sciences & technology''' Railroads '''
- 13 964 km of railroad in Italy.
- Construction of Trans-Siberian (1891 - 1902).
- August: The Dutch anatomist Eugene Dubois discovers the first remainders of Homo erectus in Trinil, in the east of the island of Java in Indonesia. He names it Pithécanthrope ( Pithecanthropus erectus ) in a study published in 1894.
- Developed of the petrol engine.
- Automobile with gasoline of Rene Panhard and Emile Levassor which obtained the license of the engine Daimler.
- Invention of the Periscope for the submarines by Jean Ray and Jules Carpentier.
- Invention of the domestic iron electric.
- Invention of the ventilator.
Economy & company
- Commercial treaty enters the Germany and the Austria-Hungary, the Italy, the Belgium and the Suisse.
- the United Kingdom: 4% of the national labor are employed by the State. The proportion of the public expenditure falls to 9% from the national revenue (16% in 1831). 3,2 million people is employed in the area of London.
- Creation of Philips to Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
- Constitution with the Portugal of the Company of the tobaccos, made up to 70% of foreign assets, French majority.
- Famine in Russia, in the east of the black cotton soils, concerning 40 million peasants.
- Short economic recession in Russia related to a world-wide crisis (1891 - 1892).
- prohibitory Customs tariff in Russia which starts a commercial war with Germany (1892 - 1894).
See also: 1891 in sport
Births in 1891
- January 8th: Bronislava Nijinska, dancer and Russian choreographer († 1972).
- April 2nd: max Ernst, painter and French sculptor of German origin († 1976).
- April 23rd: Sergueï Prokofiev, Russian type-setter († March 5th 1953).
- March 19th: Earl Warren, lawyer and an American politician († July 9th 1974)
- May 2nd: Mikhaïl Boulgakov, Russian writer († 1940).
- May 27th: Claude Champagne, type-setter, Canadian pedagog († 1965).
- June 6th: Ignacio Sánchez Mejías, Spanish Matador († August 13rd 1934).
- June 30th: Stanley Spencer, British painter .
- July 13rd: Fréhel, French singer († February 3rd 1951).
- September 10th: Raymond Abescat, French veteran of the First World War.
- October 20th: James Chadwick, British physicist († 1974).
- November 15th: Erwin Rommel, general German († October 14th 1944)
- December 26th: Jean Galtier-Boissière, writer and journalist French († January 22nd 1965)
- December 26th: Henry Miller, American writer († 1980).
Death in 1891
- January 11th: Baron Eugene Haussmann, prefect of the Seine (° 1809).
- January 16th: Léo Delibes, type-setter (° 1836).
- January 22nd: Benjamin Constant Botelho de Magalhães, Brazilian positivist, keen lawyer of the abolition of slavery, the republican mode, the separation of the Church and the State.
- January 25th: Theo van Gogh, trader of art (° May 1st 1857)
- January 28th: Felipe Poey, cuban zoologist (° 1799).
- January 31st: Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, French painter.
- February 9th: Johan Barthold Jongkind, Dutch painter.
- March 17th: Pierre-Jules Hetzel, French editor. (° January 15th 1814).
- March 29th: Georges Seurat, French painter (° 1859).
- April 7th: Phineas Taylor Barnum, founder of the famous circus.
- April 18th: Felix Antoine Appert, soldier and French diplomat of 19th century, Lieutenant-general of army. (° June 12th 1817).
- May 28th: Peter Martin Duncan, British paleontologist (° 1824).
- September 9th: Jules Grévy, former president of France (° 1807).
- September 10th: Georges Baker, general and politician French (° 1837).
- November 10th: Arthur Rimbaud, French poet (° 1854).
- December 9th: Andrew Ramsay, British geologist (° 1814).
- December 29th: Léopold Kronecker, German Mathematician (° 1823).
Beats-smg: 1891 Be-X-old: 1891 Map-bms: 1891 Simple: 1891 Zh-yue: 1891 年
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