This page relates to the year 1887 Gregorian Calendrier.
- January 6th: Victoire Ethiopia of Ménélik to the Battle of Chelenqo (Tchalénko) on the emir of the Harrar. The forces of Ménélik massacre 11 000 soldiers and seize some guns Krupp. Annexation of the Harrar and the Iloubabor. Ménélik installs his/her cousin there the Ras Makonnén (death in 1907).
- Harrar is one of the plates hinged of the trade of the weapons in Eastern Africa. Arthur Rimbaud, which resides at it between 1880 and 1891, described in its correspondence importance of the profits of this traffic.
- January 20th: Beginning of a forwarding of Africa by Stanley and Stairs intended to bring of the assistance for Mehmed Emin Pasha.
- January 26th: An Italian military column left the colonies of the Red Sea ventures in Ethiopia to carry helps to besieged town of Saati. Close-cropped Alula, chief of the Asmara, demolishes the Italians with the Bataille of Dogali, who lose 430 men.
- February 9th: Foundation of the Gold Fields off South Africa by Cecil Rhodos and Charles Rudd.
- February 24th: Treaty signed between Tippou Tib and Stanley. The merchant Swahili becomes the wali ( governor ) of the district of Stanley Falls (Kisangani), remunerated by the State léopoldien. The principal stake of the treaty is the Ivoire whose Tippou Tib controls the trade.
- March 25th: Treaty of Bissandougou between France and Samori Touré which grants new territorial modifications and requests the protectorate of France.
- April: Departure of Bamako of the forwarding of Binger in the Top Niger and in Ivory Coast (1887 - 1889).
- May 12th: Treaty of Gouri. The sultan toucoulor of Ségou, Ahmadou, accepts French protectorate on the territories which it controls. In 1880, it had granted to the France the most-favoured nation clause, provided no territory Toucouleur would be conquered.
- July 20th: The Ishaq and the Darod of Somalia pass under British protectorate . These populations, which emigrated of Arabia to the XVe century, live on the African coasts of the gulf of Aden. The Somali S continue to progress towards the Ethiopia, the Kenya and the area of Djibouti.
- August 16th: A French drain-hole reaches the doors of Tombouctou.
- Gallieni lance a forwarding on the Niger to check of it the navigability until Tombouctou, in order to conclude from the treaties of protectorate. The lieutenant Aube goes up until Mopti on board the drain-hole Mage (July 15th), then until Korioumé, in the vicinity immediate of Tombouctou. He runs up against Tidiani, sultan Touareg of the independent Macina, which prohibits the access of Tombouctou to him. They are vassal Peuls of Tidiani which will facilitate its entry in the city.
- August: An army of Derviche S inserts the troops of the Négus to the Godjam and invades Gondar which it ransacks and burns by massacring its inhabitants.
- September 5th: Capture Jaja, king of Opobo, with the Nigeria. It is off-set with Saint-Vincent the 16.
- October 18th: The Nigeria becomes British protectorate on the initiative of George Goldie, founder of the Royal Niger Company , charged since July 1886 to colonize the area.
- 8 - December 12th, Senegal: The Marabout Mamadou Lamine Dramé is overcome and killed by the French with the battle of Toubakouta at the border with the Gambia.
- December 27th: Foundation of the Company of the Congo for the Trade and Industry (CCCI) by Albert Thys.
- Conflict between ten British firms and allemandes in the area of the Tanned (1887 - 1888).
- Civil war in Asante.
- Samori Touré makes carry out two of his/her daughters for immorality.
- Rabah invades the Darfur, recruits bazingirs , settles in Dar Kouti, but fails against the Ouaddaï. From 1887 with 1889, it does not launch forwardings, but devotes its time in talks with the Mahdi which required of him of the assistance to fight the infidels.
- Return to the sources of the elites and the African intellectuals in Sierra Leone and with Lagos: traditional clothing is rehabilitated; certain converts with Christianity turn over to the traditional worships; the Europeanized names take again a local turning and the native tongue returns to the honor.
- Sati (southern of the Burkina Faso) is besieged by the Zarma under the conduit of Alpha Babatou (1887). Locked up in the strengthened enclosure which surrounded the village, Moussa Kadio and the Gourounsi resist during three years. The Dagomba, the close villages bring their assistance to their brothers Gourounsi but the Zarma ended up overcoming united.
See also: 1887 in Canada
- January 6th: The general Ulysses Heureaux is elected president of the Dominican Republic. He controls as a dictator until his assassination in 1899. He plunges the Dominican Republic in very an economic serious attack.
- December 31st: The government Colombia N signs a Concordat with the Church. This signature reveals the new and preserving orientation of the Colombia: liberalism and the federalism are little by little abandoned while increase the presidential capacities.
The United States
- February 4th: Interstate Trades Act . The Congrès adopts a law on the trade inter-State: a federal commission of control denounces the railway agreements between company, which will not be able to agree any more to maintain the tariffs of freight high prejudicial to the farmers of the Middle West.
- February 8th: Vote Dawes Severalty Act , which reorganizes the Indian reserves by envisaging attribution with each family of a batch of 64 hectares. This authoritative measurement aims to transform the Indians into sedentary farmers, all by reducing to nothing their traditional institutions (collective ownership). The Indians then have 140 million acres of grounds (50 million fifty years later).
- March 3rd: The Congrès defers the Tenure off Office Act of 1867, which removed with the president the right to revoke a minister whose nomination was approved by the Senate. By restoring this right to dislocate federal civils servant, the Congress offers a political victory to the president Grover Cleveland.
- May 1st: following the events of the previous year with Chicago, on May 1st is one day of general strike in all the big cities of the country. These actions will make it possible to obtain the eight hours day.
- May: Repression forces by the police force of a strike of the drivers of Tramway to New York.
- 17 - September 21st: Convention of the Socialist Labor Party , which remains groupusculaire.
- November 1st: Burden with ten thousand cutters of cane with sugar of Louisiana which require a pay rise of 50 hundreds. Paid 65 hundreds per day, they perceive most of the time only goods of valid purchase in the stores of the plantations. The militia will put an end to the strike at the end of the month.
- November 11th: Black Friday , day when four of the eight anarchists stopped after the events of Haymarket Square are carried out, with Chicago.
- December: Attacks of Grover Cleveland against the customs tariff. He proposes the revision with the fall on the imports most necessary. The problem doubles of a financial question: the incomes of the customs pile up in the trunks of the Treasury, dangerously freezing an increasing part of the money supply. Some propose to give this money in circulation in the form of pensions poured to the war veterans, of subsidies or great harbor work. Cleveland prefers to strike exceed it with the source. The project written under its impulse by the Room of the Representatives is too favorable to the interests Southerners and is refused by the Senate.
Oceania & the Pacific
- June 20th: The islands Kermadec are annexed by the New Zealand. Their annexation confirms the expansionist aimings of the colony. Already in 1871, the government had tried to be obtained, in vain, the agreement of the the United Kingdom to annex the islands Samoa.
- June 20th: The United States establishes with Pearl Harbor (Hawaii) a deposit of coal to supply the navy.
- October 16th: Convention free - British establishing a mixed naval commission on the New Hebrides (Condominium in 1906).
Asia and Indian world
- February 2nd: Creation with the Bengal of the national Room of trade and industry. It is the first institution of this kind to being organized on the colonial territory British of the Indies.
- March 26th: The Portugal appendix Macao.
- August 5th, Filipino: Return of the nationalist writer Jose Rizal to Manila. In exile in Europe, he denounced the colonial yoke which weighs on its country.
- September 4th: Gandhi leaves the India to start studies of right to London. Of return in 1891, it will follow the lawyer occupation before going in South Africa in 1893, where it will defend the Indian community against racial discrimination.
- October 1st: The Balouchistan (north-western of the Indian sub-continent) is set up in territory British and integrated into the Empire of the Indies.
- October: The France creates the Indochinese Union (Cochinchine, Annam, Tonkin, Kampuchea and Laos in 1893) under the authority of a general governor representing France (of which Lanessan, Paul Doumer, Albert Sarraut). If the royalty is preserved in protectorates, it is emptied of any substance to the profit of the residents. The not very obliging kings will be exiled.
- February 1st: The treaty of Beijing confirms by the China “the permanent occupation and the administration of Macao and its islands adjacent by the government of Portugal”.
The Middle East
- August: Creation of the movement of the Hintchak by Arménie NS in exile with Geneva. They claim, like the party Armenakan, the suppression of the Othoman supervision on the Armenians of the Empire.
- the budget of the Egypt is balanced for the first time since the bankruptcy of the State. Although recovering healthy finances, Egypt, considered to be still not very solvent, remains under international control and the British troops continue to occupy the country.
- the Deutsche Bank takes part in the management of the debt of the Ottoman Empire. A group of industrialist German obtains the concession of a railway line in Anatolia.
February 21st, Germany: The Reichstag is dissolved on the question of the military appropriations. The conservatives, who will gain the elections the February 21st, will vote the law of programming of Bismarck the March 12th.
- February 23rd: Earthquake of the ligure Alps.
- February - March and December: Mediterranean agreements between the Austria-Hungary, the Italy, the the United Kingdom and the Spain (May) concluded to resist the intentions of the Russians and the French in the Mediterranean and in the Straits.
- March 13rd: Bomb attack against the tsar Alexandre III of Russia. Józef Piłsudski and a score of militants is stopped.
- April 20th: Business of espionage Schnaebelé, French police chief attracted in a trap by his/her German colleague. Bismarck agrees to release Schnaebelé.
- April 30th, Switzerland: with Sils im Domleschg, a fire destroys 125 houses.
- April, Italy: Depretis, shaken by the failure of Dogali (Ethiopia, January 26th), must proceed to a vast cabinet reshuffle. After having accepted the resignation of the Foreign Minister and the Minister for the War, it calls with the government Francesco Crispi, leader of the antigovernment left.
- May 23rd: The conflict between the German State and the Catholic church is considered closed by the pope Leon XIII, satisfied of measurements which since 1880 put an end to the Kulturkampf.
- June 17th: The Spanish liberal government of Sagasta adopts a law authorizing the constitution of associations, offering to the Spain a framework of public freedom without precedent.
- June 18th: secret Treaty of “reinsurance” between the Germany and the Russia (fine in 1890). It ensures Bismarck Russian neutrality in the event of French attack against the Germany. In exchange, the chancellor promises his diplomatic support in the Bulgarian question and the business of the Détroits. But in November, at the time of the alarm clock of the Bulgarian question, Bismarck puts an end to the financial facilities granted by the Reichsbank to the Russians.
- 20 - June 21st: Gold Jubilée of the queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
- June 25th: In spite of the Russia, election of Ferdinand of Saxony-Cobourg, protected from the Austria, on the throne of Bulgaria.
- July 5th: part of the suburbs of Zoug are inserted in the lake. One deplores 15 victims and 38 houses are destroyed.
- July 29th, Italy: The death of Depretis sounds the end of a parliamentary strategy which had seen the left trying to approach the right-hand side within the framework of cabinets of coalition. The president of the Council Francesco Crispi, former republican, exerts the power in a quasi-dictatorial way (fine in 1896). He keeps the ministries for the War and the Foreign affairs.
- August 6th: The Communes adopt the Local Government Act , which founds local councils in the cities and the counties of more than 50 000 inhabitants and the Council of the County of London.
- October 1st: The president of the Italian Council Francesco Crispi returns visit to Bismarck in his property of Friedrichsruh.
- November 6th: Revision of the Constitution to the Netherlands: abolition of the Vote censitaire while excluding the Vote for all (showing right to vote with the citizens of the signs of capacity and prosperity).
- November 13rd: “Sunday strapping” with London where two Irish independence demonstrators find death in confrontations with the police force.
- November: Bismarck increases the customs duties on the Russian corn export then puts an end to the loans of Russia to the purse of Berlin intended to finance a strategic armament and railways. The German-Russian relations worsen. The tsar refuses to renew the Alliance of the Three emperors.
- colonial Conference of London joining together the Secretary of State to the Colonies Chamberlain and the Prime Ministers for the Dominion S. Of others follows in 1894, 1897, 1902, 1907 and 1911.
- Russia: Circular of the Minister for the State education Delianov limiting the access to the gymnasia (exclusion of wire of coachmen, maidservants, washing machines and cookers). Numerus clausus limiting the access of the Jewish to the university: 10% of the students in the zone of residence, 3% with Saint-Pétersbourg and Moscow, 5% in the remainder of the Empire.
- Russia: Raising of the customs tariffs. Permanent congress of the ironmasters.
- Foundation with Vienna of the Union social-Christian woman.
- Law on the industrial accidents in Austria
- Foundation with Geneva of the Polish National league .
- Prohibition of the use of Polish in the German schools (3 million people, majority in Posnanie and High-Silesia).
- Law encouraging the industrial companies and supporting the overseas investments in Romania.
- protectionist Tariff rigorous bench in Italy to try to support the emergent industry. It marks the beginning of a tariff war with the France which led to the crisis of the years 1888 - 1894.
- 215 665 Italians leave the country.
- Swiss: Following a banking scandal, the Canton of Soleure obtains a new constitution.
- Article of the Constitution on the Swiss protection of inventions in .
See also: 1887 in France
- April 20th: Business Schnaebelé
- April 30th: Resignation of the General Baker.
- October 7th: Scandal of decorations.
Chronologies sets of themes
Arts & culture
- January 8th: Beginning of the construction of the Eiffel Tower with Paris.
- July 26th: Polish Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof publishes Internacia Lingvo under the pseudonym of D Esperanto : this epic marks the birth of the Esperanto, language international by vocation.
- September 29th: With Madrid (Spain), alternate of Rafael Guerra Bejarano known as “Guerrita”, Spanish Matador.
Painting and visual arts
- November: Vincent Van Gogh meets Paul Gauguin, of return of the Martinique, in the art gallery of his/her Théo brother. Admiring one for the other the two painters agree on an exchange of tables: two studies of the Sunflowers against a scene inhabitant of Martinique.
- December: Paul Gauguin settles with Bridge-Swallow-hole in Brittany.
- the French painter Auguste Renoir which has just completed the Large Bathers exposes work during the international exhibition, which is held in the prestigious gallery of Georges Petit. The reception rather mitigated which was reserved by the public and the critic with this masterly work, the great number of criticisms negative that it accepted, encouraged Renoir to put an end to the ingresque period .
- Russia: Paintings of Sourikov ( Boïarine Morozova ) and of Serov ( Young girl with fishings ).
- With the Japan, beginning of the activity of the painter Kawamura Monshû.
- Beginning of the revival of decorative arts by Galle and Daum in their workshop of glassmaking.
Births in 1887
- January 28th: Arthur Rubinstein, pianist Polish († December 20th 1982)
- March 23rd: Juan Gris, (Jose Victoriano Gonzalez) Spanish painter († May 11th 1927)
- May 30th: Alexandre Archipenko, American sculptor originating in Russia († 1964)
- May 31st: Persian Saint-John (Alexis Saint-Leger Leger) French poet and diplomat († September 20th 1975)
- June 20th: Kurt Schwitters, German painter († 1948)
- July 28th: Marcel Duchamp, artist († October 2nd 1968)
- August 17th
- October 6th: Le Corbusier (Charles-Edouard Jeanneret-Gray), architect, Swiss painter of origin († August 27th 1965)
- October 11th: Pierre Jean Jouve, poet and novelist French († 1976)
- October 31st: Tchang Kaï-chek, Chinese political personality († April 5th 1975)
Death in 1887
- March 2nd: August Wilhelm Eichler, German Botanist (° 1839).
- March 15th: William Collingwood Smith, painter of marines and landscapes.
- April 30th: Jacob Christian Jacobsen (° 1811), industrial Danish founder of the breweries Carlsberg.
- May 2nd: Bernhard Studer, Swiss geologist (° 1794).
- May 11th: Jean-Baptiste Boussingault, father of agricultural chemistry (° 1802).
- May 14th: Hippolyte Bayard, inventor of photography (° 1801).
- July 16th: Laurent-Guillaume de Koninck, paleontologist and Belgian chemist (° 1809).
- August 19th: Spencer Fullerton Baird, ornithologist and American ichtyologist (° 1823).
- August 20th: Jules Laforgue, French poet.
- November 6th: Eugene Pottier, poet and revolutionist.
- November 18th: the prince Jean de Bourbon (65 years), count de Montizón, elder of the Capétiens and chief of the House of France.
- Eugene Mascara: French perfumer and business man (° 1820)
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