This page relates to the year 1884 Gregorian Calendrier.
February 26th: Agreement between the Portugal and the Great Britain on the historical rights of Portugal in Africa. The Portugal obtains British the recognition of sovereignty on two banks of the Fleuve Congo. This agreement is intended to oppose the Belgian push: in two years Léopold II of Belgium with imposed 400 treaties to the local leaders in the area of the Oubangui and the Kasaï. The Congrès of Berlin is opposed to the principle historical rights to the profit of the effective occupation. The Portuguese government thus undertakes to occupy the territories separating the Angola from the Mozambique.
April 9th: The commander Combes is named to replace Boylève to the command of the High-River and military operations begin again against Ahmadou. The sign of vessel Froger brings to Bamako the drain-hole Niger , dismountable building, launched downstream from the rapids of Sotuba, which leads it to Koulikoro.
April 24th: Supported by the public opinion, Bismarck issues the colonization of the coast of current the Namibia. The Germany occupies the Namibia. The local ethnos groups, Hereros and Hottentots, will be subjected by the force.
- April: Léopold II of Belgium preferably grants to the France a “right” if he would like to sell his possessions with the Congo.
- 5 and July 10th: German protectorate on the coast of the Cameroun and with the Togo: the explorer Nachtigal makes sign with the local leaders of the treaties of protectorate.
- July: The priests Mbona encourage the revolt Massingire in Portuguese central Africa.
- October: Foundation of the Church Thembu by Nehemiah Tite in South Africa and incentive with civil disobedience.
- November 10th, Tunisia: The minister resident obtains the authorization to approve the promulgation and the setting pursuant to the laws Tunis iennes.
- November 15th: The Conférence of Berlin joins together 14 country until the February 25th 1885. It regulates colonization on the continent between the various European powers, moreover the Franco-Belgian competition with the Congo. Freedom of navigation on the rivers Niger and River Congo.
- With died of Abou Sekkine, his/her son Borkoumanda seizes the power with the Baguirmi. A coup d'etat puts an end shortly after to its reign and its subjects designate as chief his uncle Abd er-Rhamane II.
- Resistance Mandingue of Samori Touré against the French on the Niger.
- Forwarding of O' Neil with the Mozambique.
- the colonial army of the Mozambique account 1 400 men. The troops ( cipaios ) come of any origine (Portuguese prisoners and deserters, Goanais, Angolan and Mozambicans). The executives, less and less Portuguese, are generally tradesmen (Swahili, goanais, mongrel…) or of the chiefs Bantou. Reinforcements (7 000 men) will be sent Portugal at the end of the century (twelve forwardings of 1894 with 1901).
- Foundation in South Africa of the first newspaper of the area realized by Blacks, the Xhosa S: Imvo ZabaNshundu (the voice of the people).
- Discovered mines of Gold in South Africa.
- the Congo of Léopold II of Belgium would be populated from 27 to 29 million inhabitants.
- Afrikannsche Venootschap , commercial firm Dutch, has 34 foreign posts with the mouth of the Fleuve Congo.
- February 18th: Gordon Pasha turns over to Khartoum. Its proposal to grant the Mahdi the title of sultan of the Kordofan is disallowed.
- March 13rd: Beginning of the seat of Khartoum (fine the January 26th 1885)
- Of the disorders carried out by the Mahdi, a religious leader, starts with the Sudan against the British. The British government asks the khedive Tawfiq to evacuate the Sudan. The operation is entrusted to the English general Gordon. It goes up the the Nile until Khartoum, where it is insulated in hostile country, but refuses to regain the Egypt and is cut off in the city to organize resistance in spite of the disproportion of the involved forces. The city resists during one year.
- April 25th: The German consul of Zanzibar request with the sultan Seyyid Bargash road check of Tabora. The protests of the sultan and the calls which it launches to the British precipitate the events.
- June 3rd: Treaty of Adoua. The Négus of Ethiopia Yohannès IV benefits from the rising of Mahdi to obtain British (mission of Sir William Hewett), in exchange of his support, Kérén and the use of the port of Massaoua.
- July: The British settle with Berbera.
- August 7th: Five German ships give an opinion in front of Zanzibar. The sultan subjects and authorizes the construction of a port with Dar are-Salaam and the annexation of the area of the Kilimandjaro.
- October 19th: Mwanga succeeds Mutesa like sovereign of the Bouganda (Uganda) (1884 - 1888 then starting from 1890). The new king does not hide his hostility with the Christians and supports the Moslems: five Christians, whose bishop Anglican James Hannington, are assassinated (1885).
- November 10th: Arrival with Zanzibar of the German Carl Peters. During the autumn, it makes sign treaties with the chiefs of the interior.
- Died of the chief Nyamwezi Mirambo. His/her brother and successor Mpandashalo cannot prevent the dislocation of his Empire.
- Died of the chief Nyamwezi Nyungu ya Mawe.
- Forwarding of the Kilimandjaro with Marry Johnson which pushes London to proclaim its protectorate there.
The Middle East
- Mars - October: The Moslem agitator Afghani creates with Paris “ The firmest Bond ”, re-examined directed against the British imperialism.
- May 8th: Assassination with Taef of Midhat Passed, probably on order of the sultan Abdül-Hamid II. This close relation of the future movement Young person-Turks was trained at the school of the Tanzimat (reforms in the direction of the modernization of the laws and manners in the Ottoman Empire).
- the Othoman sultan takes new measures against Jewish colonization in Palestine. The acquisition of immovable property is prohibited, and the stay of the pilgrims is limited to one month out of Holy Land.
- May 11th and June 9th: Signature of the treated of Tianjin between the China and the France. The two parts accept the Hooted Traité which recognized French protectorate on the Annam and the Tonkin.
- May 17th: Convention signed by the captain Baker. France occupies Langson and all the zone leant in Yunnan. The colonial authority imposes a mode of direct administration in French Indo-China (conventions of 1884 and 1897).
- June 17th: The governor of Cochinchine Charles Thomson imposes a convention to king Norodom. The Kampuchea is annexed by the France.
- June 23rd: The French are beaten with Bac the and constrained with the retirement by the Chinese troops which do not apply the peace treaties of Tianjin.
- July 12th: France sends an ultimatum to China and requires the payment of war indemnities.
- August 5th: The French navy bombards Fuzhou and establishes a blockade of Taiwan.
- November 23rd: Beginning of the Head office of Tuyen Quang (fine the February 28th 1885).
November, Japan: Repression of the revolt of Chichibu. Militants of the “movement for the freedom and the rights of the people” being based on the involved in debt farming community of the north of the Kantō foment an insurrection.
- December 4th: Kapsin revolution in Korea, caused by the elites progressists. It is repressed hard. The party of the “modernisateurs”, reformists who want to imitate the Japanese way (they made adhered Korea to the international convention of the stations) tries a coup d'etat, but the Chinese general Yuan Shikai restores the situation and gives the Korean conservatives in saddle.
- a senate is created with the Japan, composed members of the nobility at court ( Kuge ) and families Daimyo S.
- the Japanese liberal party east dissolves.
- September, Queensland, Australia: Two hundred indigenous police officers with horse face six hundred warriors Kalkatungu on Battle Mountain and definitively subdue them thanks to their firearms.
- November 3rd: The north-eastern part of the New Guinea is annexed by the Germany under the name of Kaiser-Wilhems-Land .
- November 6th: The the United Kingdom takes possession of the south-east of the New Guinea, which becomes Territoire of New Guinea.
- July 22nd: The Butcher becomes the first civil governor of New Caledonia. The archipelago is equipped with a civil administration. On the general governor depend the Large-Ground, the island of the Pines, the islands Loyauté as well as the islands Chesterfield, annexed by the France in 1878 for the Guano.
See also: 1884 in Canada
the United States
- May 1st: Beginning of the construction of the first Skyscraper of Chicago (Illinois, the United States).
- October 4th: with Chicago (Illinois) left the first number of the anarchistic newspaper The Alarm , body of the International Working People' S Association, published by Albert Parsons.
- October: International meeting of Washington which decides to fix the first meridian line at the height of the famous observatory of Greenwich in the suburbs of London.
- November 4th: election of the democratic Bourbon Grover Cleveland like President of the United States on the topic of the “ good government ”. It collects the voices of those which are shocked corruption, like the republicans “Mugwumps”, disappointed not to have been able to reform GOP, who refuse to elect James G. Blaine, compromised in interventions in favor of a railway company.
- Strike of the workers of the textile and the hat industry.
- Economic recession (1884 - 1885).
- the the United States take the head of the industrial nations.
- Extraction of 100 million tons of coal per annum.
- the Chile acquires the areas of the Atacama and Antofagasta which contains mines of nitrates and copper, and the territory of Arica.
- the Bolivia loses its maritime frontage. She sees to be accentuated her insulation and her economic delay.
- the Peru leaves exhausted this war and yields its southernmost provinces.
September 4th: Oligarchy with the capacity in Bolivia after the departure of the general Narciso Campero who could not be maintained following the defeat vis-a-vis the Chile in the war of the Pacific.
- February 1st: Porfirio Díaz is had one second time chair Mexico (fine in 1910).
- the Jésuites are expelled of Colombia.
- Unable to face the refunding of its various loans, the Peru must concede for one seventy years duration the profits of the railroads and operating of the Guano. Generally, the whole of the Latin America is confronted with budget deficits in increasing increase.
- a contract signed between the Costa Rica and the North-American contractor Minor Keith envisages the granting of 350 000 ha of grounds (8% of the national territory) in exchange of the construction of a Railroad and a 99 years concession for its use. The railroad is finished in 1890 and Keith becomes the first banana exporter and creates in 1899 the United Fruit Company.
- January 4th: Foundation of the Company Fabienne with the the United Kingdom. Its members, of extractions middle-class woman and very diverse social positions, propose to make pass a social speech in the middle-class parties (G.B. Shaw, H.G. Wells, Sydney and Beatrice Webb). By being opposed to the class struggle and the union action, Fabiens will slow down the formation of an autonomous organized labor.
- January 6th: Electric industry Edison with Milan.
- January 18th: Government Antonio Cánovas del Castillo in Spain (fine in 1885).
- March 5th, Germany: The party of progress and liberal alliance amalgamate to found the German liberal party.
- March 10th, Italy: Foundation of the large steel-works of Tarnished.
- March 30th: New rehandling of the government Depretis in Italy. Depretis approaches the right-hand side to widen its parliamentary base. The financial policy of the left, much less rigorous than that of the right-hand side, makes reappear the deficit in the budget of the State.
- April 24th: Bismarck proclaims German sovereignty on bay of Angra Pequena. From April at November, explorers elected by Berlin proclaim the sovereignty of Germany on the South-western African, the Togo, the Cameroun and Eastern Africa.
- June 10th: Defeat of the liberals to legislative in Belgium. Their number with the Room of the representatives falls from 79 to 52. The catholics repeal the law on the state education.
- June 23rd: In Norway, the king Oscar II, after two vain attempts to make invest a preserving ministry and after very unfavourable elections with its cause, is resigned to call upon Sverdrup to form a cabinet able to find supports it Storting . This decision marks the beginning of the parliamentary mode in Norway.
- July 6th: Law on the industrial accidents in Germany, put at the load of the owners.
- July 29th: Foundation with London of the Imperial Federation League .
- August 28th of the Calendar Julien : New statute of the universities in Russia. Suppression of university autonomy, prohibition of the right of association of the students, reinforcement of the capacity of the curators, limitation of female higher education.
- October 6th: Conference of Katowice. Creation with Katowice in Poland of the movement of the Lovers of Sion, created at the time of the conference of the Hoveveï Sion , with Iaşi, in Romania.
- October 28th: Opening of the social democrats to the elections of the Reichstag in Germany. By doubling the number of their seats, they have the appearance of winners in spite of the efforts of Bismarck to weaken them.
- October: Interview between Bismarck and Jules Ferry, which marks a Franco-German bringing together directed against the Great Britain.
- November 15th: Conference of Berlin on the colonization of Africa.
- December 27th: Foundation with the the United Kingdom of the socialist League ( Socialist League ) anarchizing William Morris which leaves the social democrat Federation (SDF).
- Renewal of the Alliance of the three emperors (Russia - Austria - Germany).
- Electoral law in Romania, supporting having them.
- Creation of the Left independence and 1848 in Hungary.
- Reform Act in the United Kingdom: the Communes adopt measures (1882 - 1885) which widen the electorate, which includes from now on the farm laborers, and who redraw the chart of the districts in order to give more weight to the urban centres, with the Wales and with the Ireland. The number of voter passes from 3 to 5 million (29% of the adults).
- Swiss: Zurich reintroduces the capital punishment for the assassination.
- Memory of Kusserow, which praises the political and financial advantages mode of colonization by the companies with charters. Bismarck adopts the colonial idea.
- final Suppression of the Yearly of the Fatherland , periodic Russian.
- Control of the Holy synod on all the elementary schools in Russia. Multiplication of the systematically favoured parochial schools.
- Serious epidemics of Choléra to Naples which reveal the underdevelopment of the southernmost areas in Italy.
- Approximately 5 million heads of cattle in Hungary (more than 6 million in 1911).
- Opening of the factory of chemicals Ciba with Basle.
See also: 1884 in France
Chronologies sets of themes
Arts & culture
- Fernand Cormon painted Return of a hunting to the bear at the time of the caves historical example of academism of “reconstitution”.
- the French painter Auguste Renoir undertakes the Large Bathers , work major of its ingresque period .
- the French painter Pierre Puvis de Chavannes painted wood crowned .
- the Ironers , fabric of Degas.
- They did not await it , painting of Répine.
- the French sculptor Auguste Rodin carves the Middle-class men of Calais .
- Beginning of the construction of the church of the Sagrada Família with Barcelona by the Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí.
Births in 1884
- January 3rd: Raoul Koczalski, Polish pianist († November 24th 1948).
- January 20th: Ievgueni Zamiatine, naval engineer and Russian writer († March 10th 1937).
- February 12th: max Beckmann, painter German expressionist († December 27th 1950).
- February 12th: Marie Vassilieff, French painter of Russian origin.
- February 27th: Alexandre Arnoux, French writer († January 5th 1973).
- April 7th: Bronislaw Malinowski, anthropologist and ethnologist Polish († 1942).
- May 8th: Harry Truman, future President of the United States († 1972).
- May 10th Philippe Reilhac says Pipa, mathematician Bulgarian at the origin of the HOST.
- May 12th: Flora (Isidoro Martí Fernando), Spanish Matador († December 6th 1921).
- June 21st: Masamitsu Ōshima, herpetologist and ichtyologist Japanese († June 26th 1965)
- June 25th: Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, writer, collector and merchant of Article († 1979)
- June 27th: Gaston Bachelard, French philosopher († October 16th 1962).
- July 12th: Amedeo Modigliani, painter and Italian sculptor († January 24th 1920).
- July 23rd: Emil Jannings, German actor. († January 3rd 1950)
- August 3rd: Georges Boillot, racing driver. († April 21st 1916)
- August 7th: Paul Frolich, militant Luxembourgiste. († 1953)
- August 16th: Hugo Gernsback, writer of Science fiction († August 19th 1967)
- August 27th: Vincent Auriol future president of the French Republic († January 1st 1966).
- September 6th: Julien Lahaut, Belgian politician († August 18th 1950).
- October 4th: Felix Gouin, politician French († 1977).
- November 19th: Gaston Cypress, footballer French († August 18th 1925)
- December 2nd: Jean Paulhan, French writer. († October 9th 1968)
- December 3rd: Rajendra Prasad, Indian statesman. († February 28th 1963).
Death in 1884
- January 6th: Gregor Mendel, geneticist (° 1822).
- January 17th: Hermann Schlegel, German Ornithologist (° 1804).
- February 3rd: Eugene Rouher, politician French (° 1814).
- February 11th: John Hutton Balfour, British botanist (° 1808).
- July 10th: Karl Richard Lepsius, German Egyptologist (° 1810).
- July 30th: Gustave Gray, French photographer (° 1820).
- September 10th: George Bentham, British botanist (° 1800).
- November 11th: Alfred Edmund Brehm, Exploring zoologist and German (° 1829).
- December 10th: Eduard Rüppell, Exploring Naturalist and German (° 1794).
Be-X-old: 1884 Map-bms: 1884 Simple: 1884 Zh-yue: 1884 年
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