This page relates to the year 1883 Gregorian Calendrier.
- March 20th: Convention of Paris for the protection of the industrial property. Realization of the Union for the international protection of the industrial property (system of the Patent S).
See also: 1883 in Canada
- October 20th: Peace of Ancón between the Peru and the Chile, which puts an end to the war of the Pacific. Victorious Chile annexes the provinces of Antofagasta, Taracapa and Tacna and becomes the country of nitrates and copper.
The United States
- January 12th: Completion of the Southern Pacific.
- January 15th: Completion of the Nothern Pacific .
- January 16th: The Room of the representatives votes the Pendleton Civil Service Act , which organizes the recruitment of the civils servant according to their qualification and either according to their political affiliation, the stations being usually allocated with the winners of the elections (system of the skins).
- April 10th: Prohibition of certain ritual dances in the Indian reserves by the federal government.
- May 24th: Inauguration of the Bridge of Brooklyn.
- 12 - October 14th: Anarchistic congress with Pittsburgh.
- November 15th: The Supreme court declares unconstitutional the Civil Rights Act of 1875 which aimed at preventing the segregation in the public places. The judges estimated that the Constitution authorizes only the Congress to fight against racial discrimination on the level of the States, but which it is inefficient when the case arose with the private law.
- November 18th: The Canada and the the United States adopt the universal Time following the Conference of Washington.
Completion of the Atchinson, Topeka and Santa Fe .
- the herd of Bison S is practically exterminated.
Oceania & the Pacific
- the New Guinea is annexed by the Australian Queensland in the name of Great Britain, in order to slow down the German claims.
- January 19th, Sudan: The Mahdi, seizes El-Obeid, the capital of the Kordofan.
- March 8th: The king of the Ashanti Mensa Bonsu is deposited. Political difficulties in Asante.
- March 12th: The lieutenant André Cordier negotiates a treaty of recognition for the France on the kingdom Loango (Congo).
- April 16th: Paul Kruger becomes the president of the republic of the Transvaal in South Africa. It rejects the British project of a confederation gathering in a South African Union the Colonie of the Cape, the Natal, the Transvaal and the Orange.
- May 12th, South-western African: The Germans settle with Angra Pequena which they rename Lüderitz Bucht.
- May 15th: Blockade of the island of Madagascar and occupation of Majunga by the navy of French war. The Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony refuses the ultimatum of the admiral Pierre. The French occupy several cities of the littoral (1883 - 1885).
- July 30th: The queen Ranavalona II dies and Rainilaiarivony wife a 22 year old young girl who becomes queen under the name of Ranavalona III.
- September 3rd: Borgnis-Desbordes, which one reproaches the consecutive human losses the three campaigns that it carried out (229 men including 194 Europeans) and the slowness of work of the railroad of Kayes towards Bamako (considerable mortality of the workers Moroccan and Chinese), is replaced by the lieutenant-colonel Boylève, and military operations are suspended. The December 18th, the Parliament refuses the vote of the appropriations required for the continuation of work and the construction of the railway line is stopped.
- October 11th: The trader of Bremen, Adolf Lüderitz, unloads with the South-western African. A German fleet brings to it soon missionaries.
- 3 - November 5th, Sudan: The Mahdi, which occupied the Kordofan, demolishes the Egyptian troops led by the British general Hicks Pasha to El Obeid, then occupies without difficulties the Darfur and the Bahr El-ghazal.
- November 22nd: Beginning of the reign of Ranavalona III, queen of Madagascar (fine in 1885).
- November: Samori Touré destroys the State animist of the Konyan and requires the conversion of overcome with the Islam.
In country Bamum (Cameroun), the sultan Njoya reaches the capacity. It succeeds in countering the attacks of the Peuls and introduced a syncretistic religion islamo-Christian woman (1916). It makes build the splendid royal palace with Foumban (1926) and invents a vernacular writing which it imposes in the schools. Njoya modernizes the metallurgy (blast furnaces), makes manufacture mills with corn and a printing works. An agrarian new legislation supports the plantations and model farm is built with Mantum.
- the Germans take foot with the Togo and the Cameroun.
- the French take foot in Ivory Coast.
- the the United Kingdom names four itinerant consuls in East Africa, charged to supervise the slave traders.
- Epizooty and epidemics in country Masaï (1883 - 1899).
- February 11th: Constitution of a general secretary of the government Tunisia N charged to control the Ministers for the Bey.
- June 8th: By the Conventions of Marsa, the France stands as guarantor of the debt of the Tunisia. In counterpart, the bey must give up raising any tax without authorization. The general governor (French) must be the Foreign Minister of the bey.
- June 25th: Beginning of the forwarding of De Foucauld with the Morocco (fine the May 23rd 1884).
the sultan of the Morocco appoints an official of the sherifs with Figuig, near to the Algerian border. It takes again sovereignty on the oasis become the hearth of one resistance to the French occupation (Sheik Bouamama).
Asia & Indian world
- February 2nd, India: Presentation of the law Ilbert ( Ilbert bill ) which gives to the Indian judges criminal courts the possibility of judging even Europeans. Supported by the liberal governor Lord Ripon, the law causes the resistance of the European Community ( White Mutiny ). The fine bill is however adopted in January 1884.
- August 25th: Treaty of Hooted. The empire of Annam recognizes the protectorate of the France. The Ass obtains a relative autonomy, while the Tonkin becomes a protectorate which is equivalent to an quasi-annexation. The ports of Which-Nhon, Tourane and Xuang-Day are opened with the trade. France especially sees in the occupation of the Ass an access to the Chinese market. The emperor of Ass Ham Nghi resists by the guerilla the French occupation with the assistance of China (1883 - 1888).
- the China rejects the treaty what causes the Guerre between China and France with the autumn (fine in 1885), whose exit leaves to the French the freehands in Indo-China.
- 26 - August 28th: Located between Java and Sumatra, the Krakatau, whose name means “quiet mount”, knows a very violent eruptive cycle from which the deflagrations extend until Singapore and in Australia; the plume of smoke reaches 15 km height and of dust are put into orbit with more than 70 km in the atmosphere. The collapse of the crater destroyed by the explosion causes an immense tidal wave, whose waves make it tower of the Earth and who makes nearly 36000 dead on the coasts of Java. With that of the Santorin in Antiquity, it is the greatest volcanic explosion of the history.
- December 28th, India: Opening of the conference of the party bengalais Bahrat Sabha. Its members claim an access more diversified to employment for the Indians and the possibility of taking part in a more significant way in the political life.
- Choeki Nyima becomes the ninth Panchen-lama (fine in 1937).
- Creation of the Royal Dutch to exploit an oil concession with Sumatra in the zone of Langkat to Telega Saïd. Then a small firm, it will constitute in 1890 with the Shell Transport and Trading Company the group of the Royal Dutch Shell , which has until in 1910 only oils indonésiens.
- Annexation of the oasis of Merv in Turkménistan by the Russia.
The Middle East
- Beginning of the activities of establishment of Jewish colonies in Palestine ( Eretz Israel ) by the baron Edmond de Rothschild.
- Died with Mecque of the Kurdish `Ubayd Allah. The sheik is regarded as the first great figure of Kurdish nationalism. He made an international question of it since he threatened the layout of the borders turco-Persians.
- Creation of the Control of the Othoman tobaccos, financed by Franco-German capital. All the executives are foreign. It will become the symbol of European capitalism in the Ottoman Empire.
- Foundation of the School of the fine arts with Istanbul, directed by the archeologist Osman Hamdi. Recruitment is largely not Moslem, the Armenians being majority in promotions of students.
- January 7th: The Great Britain évince the France and organizes the occupation of the Egypt, officially provisional. It plans to evacuate the country in 1884, date on which it wishes to have freed it from the Othoman supervision.
- September 11th: Lord Cromer is named general consul and diplomatic agent of the Great Britain in Egypt (1883 - 1907). It has an almost unlimited authority. The British presence causes to reinforce the national feeling Egyptien.
the British occupation is advantageous with the economy of Egypt: great irrigation work is undertaken (stoppings of Assiout and Assouan); the production of Coton is doubled; finances are cleansed and the partly deadened national debt. Certain tax measures are taken in favor of the fellahs .
- Sudan: Revolt Mahdistes, beginning of the British intervention.
- January 1st: Commercial code in Italy.
- May 25th: Rehandling of the government Depretis in Italy. The Depretis government decides to counter the rise of the socialist movement by instituting a National bank for the industrial accidents to which the employees can voluntarily adhere.
- June 15th:
- the Reichstag adopts the law on the health insurance, financed to the 2/3 by the working contributions and 1/3 by the owners.
- Adoption of the third linguistic law in Belgium. It imposes the employment of Flemish in average teaching in the Flemish part of the country.
- August 3rd, Hungary: Business of Tiszaeszlár. At the conclusion of a lawsuit for “ritual murder”, the marked Juifs are discharged.
- August: The first Rumanian minister Ion Brătianu returns visit to Bismarck.
- September: Victoire of the radicals, defenders of the small farming community, with the elections with the Skouptichina in Serbia.
- September 18th: The prince Alexandre Ier Battenberg restores the Constitution of 1879 in Bulgaria. He supports the formation of a national government (minority conservatives and majority liberals), thus affirming himself at the expense of the Russians.
- September 25th: Foundation with Geneva of the group Emancipation of work (with the old populist ones in exile Plekhanov, Axelrod, Zassoulitch), starting point of the Russian Marxism. The Russian Marxist party is formed involving disorders in the country. First Marxist circles in Russia, quickly dismantled by the police force.
- September 28th: Arrest of the Polish Socialist Ludwik Waryński, founder of the party Proletariat . This revolutionary party internationalist wants to be near to populist Russian, by preaching the recourse to the armed struggle in particular.
October 1st: Foundation with Mannheim of the company Benz & Co .
- October 30th
Dialog between Bismarck and Jules Ferry by people interposed on the colonial questions.
- Law Belcredi instituting the factory inspectorate in Austria.
- Law prohibiting electoral corruption with the the United Kingdom ( Corrupt Practices Act ).
- Law on the sects in Russia, giving the right of worship but limiting their activities strictly and pointing out the prohibition of conversions the orthodoxe ones.
- Beginning of the publication with Bakhchisaray (the Crimea) of the newspaper side-Turkish Terdjüman ( the Interpreter ) of İsmail Gasprinski.
See also: 1883 in France
- the Code of the obligations between into force.
- Geneva inaugurates a public telephone center.
- April 7th: set fire to with Vallorbe; 98 houses are destroyed.
Chronologies sets of themes
Arts & culture
- In Spain, the architect Antoni Gaudi begins the Sagrada Familia with Barcelona which will remain unfinished.
- Opening of the Rokumeikan to Tokyo. This building, intended to shelter the official ceremonies, represents the symbol of the surface occidentalization of the Japan and will be décrié per many intellectuals.
Births in 1883
- January 28th: Gustav-Adolf Mossa, painter Symbolist French († May 25th 1971)
- February 5th: Sax Rohmer, British novelist († June 1st 1959)
- February 8th: Joseph Schumpeter, theorist and economist austro - American († 1950)
- February 9th - Fritz August Breuhaus de Groot, architect, interior designer and German designer († 1960)
- February 16th: Marie Christmas, French poetess († December 23rd 1967)
- February 23rd: Victor Fleming, American realizer († 1949).
- February 26th: Pierre Mac Orlan, French writer. († June 27th 1970).
- March 5th: Marius Barbel, anthropologist, ethnologist, Canadian folklorist († 1969)
- March 9th: Umberto Sheba, writer and Italian poet († August 25th 1957)
- March 19th: Pepete (Jose Gallego Mateo), Spanish Matador († September 7th 1910).
- April 7th: Gino Severini, painter Italy N († February 26th 1966)
- April 24th: Jaroslav Hašek, Czech writer († 1923).
- May 18th: Walter Gropius, architect, designer and German town planner († 1969).
- May 26th: Granny Smith: American singer of Blues († 1946)
- June 5th: John Maynard Keynes, British economist († 1946).
- July 3rd: Franz Kafka, Czech writer († 1924).
- July 15th: the philosopher Louis Lavelle († September 1st 1951)
- July 25th: Louis Massignon, orientalizes French. († 1962).
- July 27th: Fernand Verhaegen, Belgian artist-painter († 1975).
- July 29th: Benito Mussolini with Predappio.
- August 12th: Marion Lorne, American actress († May 9th 1968).
- August 19th: Coco Chanel, Frenchwoman, founder of a house of haute couture († 1971).
- October 31st: Marie Laurencin, painter French († 1956).
- December 3rd: Anton von Webern, type-setter († 1945).
- December 14th: Morihei Ueshiba, Japan board, founder of the aikido († 1969).
- December 16th: max Linder, actor and realizer French († 1925).
- December 17th: Raimu, actor French († 1946).
- December 19th: Francis Barry Byrne, American architect. († December 17th 1967).
- December 21st: Serranito (Hilario González Delgado), Spanish Matador († October 13rd 1908).
- December 22nd: Edgar Varèse, American type-setter of French origin († 1965).
- December 25th:
Death in 1883
- January 23rd: Gustave Gilded, draftsman, engraver and sculptor French (° 1832).
- February 13rd: Richard Wagner, German type-setter (° 1813).
- March 14th: Karl Marx, philosopher and theorist (° 1818).
- April 18th: Edouard Rock, French astronomer (° 1820).
- April 20th: Wilhelm Peters, zoologist and an Exploring German (° 1815).
- April 30th: Edouard Manet, French painter (° 1832).
- May 24th: The emir Abd El-Kader, politician, writer and humanistic born in the Regency of Algiers (° 1808).
- August 24th: Henri d' Artois (62 years), count de Chambord, elder of the Capétiens and chief of the House of France (° 1820).
- September 3rd: Ivan Tourgueniev, Russian writer (° 1818).
- September 27th: Oswald Heer, geologist and Swiss naturalist (° 1809).
- October 5th: Joachim Barrande, geologist and paleontologist French (° 1799).
Beats-smg: 1883 Be-X-old: 1883 Map-bms: 1883 Simple: 1883 Zh-yue: 1883 年
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