This page relates to the year 1882 Gregorian Calendrier.
- : Borgnis-Desbordes founds the strengthened station of Bamako intended to face the attacks of Ahmadou in north and Samori Touré in the south.
- Left the Senegal, the French advance towards the Lac Chad and the Niger: The empire of Ahmadou is cut in two parts. This one protests against these territorial encroachments, but as the threat is specified, he prefers to give up Ségou with his son and to make himself main of Nioro, in spite of the resistance of his brother Mountaga, who refuses to accommodate it in the city that he controls. The French then cut the communications between Ségou and Nioro (1885).
- 11 and February 12th: Delivery of the first two lines of Railroad of the Meeting.
- April 14th: Re-establishment of French protectorate with Porto-Novo (Toffa Ier).
- June 7th, Sudan: The Mahdistes destroy a body of armed Egyptian with 40.000 men to the djebel Qadir.
- July 5th: The Italy, which recently instituted the naval academy of Leghorn, establishes a African colony on bay of Assab, in Red Sea, bought by the government with the Rubattino ship-owner by a signed convention on March 1st.
- November 22nd: Savorgnan de Brazza makes ratify by the Parliament the treaty which it signed two years before with Maloko, the king of the Batékés, according to which France granting the control of Right Bank of the Fleuve Congo. It founds the station which one will call Brazzaville. This ratification causes the emotion of Léopold II of Belgium, the Great Britain and the Portugal.
- Treated of Paris: the France and the the United Kingdom guarantee the integrity of the States of Zanzibar and Mascate and Oman.
- the négus of Ethiopia Johannes IV sign the agreement with its vassal most powerful, Ménélik, short-nap cloth of the Choa.
- Failure of a Malagasy embassy in Europe and with the the United States (1882 - 1883).
- has Gumbu (Mali), the slaves, products of the draft managed by the merchants Arab and released recently, are massively assigned to the weaving of the fabrics.
- Formation of the National African Company , resulting from the United African Company , created in 1879.
- April 22nd: When Paul Cambon replaces Roustan as minister resident with Tunis, a decree specifies the functions of the new minister resident who can consequently collaborate with the Tunisian ministers. Services depending on the representative of France are set up: Public works and finances (1882), Teaching (1883), Agriculture and Trade (1890), Antiquities (1896), Interior (1922).
- November: Annexation of the Mzab by France, which occupies several oases of the the Sahara.
- the financial position of the Tunisia is rectified in a few years and the country is emphasized. An important infrastructure (Railroad and roads) is created. Until 1891, Colonization is especially private and takes place apart from any administrative intervention.
- the brotherhood of the Senousis develops in the urban centres in Libya. Hitherto located the withdrawn zones of the desert, the brotherhood founds a news Zawiya with Tripoli. Contacts are established with the Egyptian patriotic party.
See also: 1882 in Canada
the United States
- January 2nd: John Rockefeller founds the Standard Oil Trust . From now on, American oil industry rests between the hands of nine people. The Standard Oil Trust will be used as model with the concentration of many companies.
- May 6th: The Congress votes the Loi of exclusion of the Chinese, which suspends during ten years any Chinese immigration under the pressure of the Californian party of the workers (many workmen estimate that the Chinese steal the work of the Americans).
- August 2nd: The Congress adopts the Rivers and Harbors Act , law which makes it possible to resolve 18 million dollars in order to complete work of equipment of the ports and to arrange rivers and rivers, supporting the commercial exchanges by inland waterway and maritime.
- August 3rd: Immigration Act
- September 4th: Starting of the first powerplant built by Edison. First electric public lighting system with New York.
- May: The general Ignacio de Veintemilla proclaims dictator of the Ecuador. Deprived of any political support, it must face at the same time with the liberal governor of Guayaquil and with the preserving governor of Manabi. It is reversed in 1883: conservatives and liberals will cohabit without clashes until in 1894.
- July 20th: Return to the democracy with the Costa Rica (liberal Republic, 1882 - 1940). Succeeding the general Guardia, the president Próspero Fernández Oreamuno expels the Jésuites (1884), prohibited the establishment of religious communities and issues the secularity of public education. He dies in 1885, leaving with gift Bernardo Soto Alfaro the care to finish his mandate (1889).
Oceania & the Pacific
- February: Departure of New Zealand of the sailing ship Dunedin towards London with a meat cargo.
- Of the cold rooms equips the transoceanic vapors; From now on, the sheep of New Zealand will be also high for the meat.
- the Tonkin is raised against the French presence.
- the statesman Japan board Shigenobu Ōkuma founds the Kaishinto, left progressist.
- May 22nd: Treaty enters the Korea and the the United States supported by the China to neutralize the Japan. Korea endeavors to modernize and reform the country, but these efforts are blocked by the influence of the foreign powers with which it signs commercial treaties.
- July 23rd: The Korea passes under the political influence of the China. An officer instructor is assassinated and the legation of the Japan to Seoul is set fire to by nationalist elements. The queen Min escapes from little from an assassination, but must flee. China sends warships in the roads of In Cho. The general Yuan Shikai directs in fact the government and restores the Min. queen China grants damages to Japan as well as the authorization to maintain a small garrison.
- August 25th, Tonkin: The commander Rivière finds death by defending the fortress of Hanoi, besieged by the troops Vietnameses since the April 25th. He is then decapitated.
- October 10th: Creation of the Bank of Japan.
- November: Agitation in favor of the adoption of a constitutional mode to the Japan. Several thousands of peasants and liberal militants clash with the police force of Fukushima.
- Filipino: Partly yielding vis-a-vis the rise liberal opposition, the Spanish colonial administration proceeds to tax reforms and administrative which reduce the drudgeries. However the leaders of the opposition as Del Pilal are constrained with the exile with HongKong or in Spain.
The Middle East
- May: The Othoman government puts an end to the emigration in Palestine. The Juifs enter the country illegally.
- June 11th: Beginning of the revolt of Arabi Pasha in Egypt.
- Since January, the nationalist disorders and antieuropéens started in September 1881 extended until causing the escape of the Khedive, whose capacity is proclaimed illegitimate by a Fatwa .
- June: Stay of a German military mission with Istanbul, charged to form a modern army.
- July - September: The British decide the unilateral occupation of the Egypt, repressing nationalist risings against Tawfiq Pasha. Forwarding of Egypt has for goal to avoid that the Egyptian leaders cannot with impunity not refund their debts, which would create a precedent, like guaranteeing the access to the Indies by Suez. The Italian government declines the invitation addressed by the United Kingdom for a common forwarding in Egypt.
- 11 - July 13rd: Bombardment of Alexandria by the British fleet.
- July 14th: The Britanniques troops occupy Alexandria. The nationalist chief Arabi Pasha engages the fight against the British.
- July 31st: Foundation of Rishon LeZion by 10 members of the group Zionist of the Lovers of Sion , originating in Kharkov (currently in Ukraine).
- After beginnings difficult, Edmond de Rothschild supports the rise of a Jewish colonization for one seven years duration, while investing more than 1,5 million £.
- September 13rd: The nationalist troops of Arabi Pasha are beaten by the British with Such to el-Kébir. The British troops occupy Cairo. Arabi Pasha must be exiled.
- London supports the Armenian and Bulgarian nationalists. While being pressed on elements nonTurkish of the Ottoman Empire, the Great Britain intends to guarantee the safety of its accesses to the Indies, by controlling the ports of the Eastern Mediterranean, the Suez Canal and the coasts of Arabia.
- Opening of the Jewish school boys of Jerusalem.
- January 1st: Opening of the railway Tunnel of Saint-Gothard.
- January 6th: Milan Obrenovic proclaims king and sets up the Serbia in independent kingdom. It must however give up any autonomy with regard to the Austria as regards foreign politics.
- May 6th: Attack of Phoenix Park, with Dublin, against British persons in charge. Assassination of the representative of the British capacity Lord Frederick Cavendish by members of republican Fraternity. The moderate leader Parnell vigorously condemns the attack while tackling the policy of oppression of the British government.
- May 20th: Triplice or Triple Alliance between the Germany, the Austria and the Italy. The Franco-Italian competition in Tunisia and the disagreement of the Roman question push the king of Italy to be adhered to the defensive system which binds Germany and Austria since 1879. In the event of not caused French aggression, Italy will receive supports it its allies. The insulation of the France on the continent of Europe is total.
- 22 and May 23rd: The railway line of the Gothard is inaugurated. Work lasted ten years and makes 177 victims.
- August 18th, the United Kingdom:
- the colonial Company becomes the Royal Colonial Institute .
- Law on the marriage with the the United Kingdom ( Married Women' S Property Act ): the woman preserves the whole property of her goods, even after the marriage.
- September 1st: Development of the program of Linz, work of the Austrian pangermanists directed by Georg von Schönerer, which calls its wishes the training of Large Allemande.
- November 20th: Electoral law in Italy increasing the number of voters of 500 000 to 2 million approximately.
- November: Legislative elections in Italy. Andrea Costa is the first Italian socialist deputy.
- December 20th: Guglielmo Oberdan, a young Triestian which projected the assassination of the emperor François-Joseph Ier of Austria, is condemned to died by the Austrian magistrature. Its execution causes sharp movements in the irredentists mediums and embarrassment the Italian government after its alliance with the central empires.
- Widening of the vote censitaire in Austria by the minister Taaffe. The electorate is extended to the easy peasants and the small middle-class men.
- Reorganization of the police force of Budapest.
- Italy: Origin of the scandal of the Banca romana (it bursts in 1893).
- 46 strikes in 1882 in Italy. 8054 strikers (5854 in industry, 2200 in agriculture).
- First phone conversation between Zurich and Winterthour.
- the horse-drawn first Tramway makes its appearance with Zurich.
See also: 1882 in France
Worsen RussianDates of the Calendar Julien
- May 3rd (May 15th of the Gregorian calendar): New statute of the Jewish , bringing back them in the boroughs of the zone of residence and prohibiting to them to have grounds.
- May 30th: The nomination of the count Dimitri Tostoï as Minister of Interior Department marks the one long period beginning of reaction dominated by figures of Pobiedonostsev, the prosecutor of the Saint-Synode, and Katlov, writer of the Nouvelles of Moscow .
- August 27th: Any periodical informed three times is subjected to the preliminary censure. Disappearance of the majority of the liberal periodicals.
- Foundation with Warsaw of the socialist group Proletariat of Ludwik Waryński. Arrests.
- Foundation of the organization Bilou ( Beith Israel Lekhou Vena' ale ), first movement haloutsic (pioneer) in Ukraine.
- Creation of a bank of the peasants to facilitate the acquisition of grounds with in an individual capacity or collective to them. It benefits the rich peasants especially.
- Factory inspectorate: prohibition to employ children of less than 12 years. Limitation at 8 o'clock in day's work between 12 and 15 years.
- Phone lines with Saint-Pétersbourg, Moscow, Odessa and Rīga.
Chronologies sets of themes
Arts & culture
- the Spanish Architecte Antoni Gaudí begins the church Sagrada Família with Barcelona.
- the Architecte French Charles Garnier builds the observatory of Nice.
- Construction of the Church of Resurrection (style neonationalist) to Saint-Pétersbourg.
- Art schools
Births in 1882
- January 30th: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, future President of the United States
- : Louis SAINT LAURENT, future Prime Minister of Canada
- February 2nd: James Joyce, writer Irish
- March 14th: Waclaw Sierpinski, Polish mathematician († 1969)
- March 20th: Rene Coty, future president of the French Republic
- May 13rd: Georges Directs, painter French
- June 17th: Igor Stravinski, Russian type-setter (naturalized French then American)
- July 18th: El Gallo (Rafael Gómez Ortega), Spanish Matador († May 25th 1960)
- July 22nd: Edward Hopper, painter and American engraver
- October 5th: Robert Goddard, engineer and American physicist
- October 6th: Karol Szymanowski, type-setter Polish († March 28th 1937)
- October 10th: Corchaito (Fermín Muñoz Corchado there González), Spanish Matador († August 9th 1914).
- October 29th: Jean Giraudoux, French playwright
- November 12th: Giuseppe Antonio Borgese, critical and Italian writer
- December 16th: Zoltán Kodály, Hungarian type-setter
- December 28th: Sir Arthur Eddington, astronomer and British physicist
- Abdelkrim El Khattabi, military chief Rif Ain and icon of the resistance movements Morocco ains
- Abd Allah ibn Hussein, king of Jordan (1949 - 1951)
Death in 1882
- March 1st: Theodor Kullak, pianist, type-setter and professor of music Polish (° September 12th 1818)
- April 3rd: Jesse James, American outlaw (° 1847).
- April 9th: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, poet, writer and British painter (° 1828).
- April 10th: Ewelina Hańska, Polish Countess (° January 6th 1801)
- May 17th: François Chabas, French Egyptologist (° January 2nd 1817).
- June 29th: Giuseppe Garibaldi .
- July 10th: Domingos Jose Gonçalves de Magalhães, doctor, professor, diplomat, politician, writer and Brazilian poet (° August 13rd 1811).
- July 15th: Jacques Dehaene, man of the church and politician French (° September 16th 1809)
- July 29th: Andrew Leith Adams, Doctor, Naturalist and geologist (° 1827).
- November 20th: Henry To drape, American astronomer, pioneer of astronomical photography.
- December 6th: White Louis, historian and socialist politician French (born with Madrid in 1811).
- December 31st: Leon Gambetta, French statesman (° April 2nd 1838)
Beats-smg: 1882 Be-X-old: 1882 Map-bms: 1882 Simple: 1882 Zh-yue: 1882 年
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