This page relates to the year 1879 Gregorian Calendrier.
- January 11th: Beginning of the War of the Zulus in South Africa.
- January 22nd: The British task force (15 000 men) is put in parts by the troops of the chief Zoulou Chettiwayo at the Bataille of Isandhlwana. The confrontation made 1 600 died among the British troops which lose more officers than with Waterloo.
- February 17th: The congregation of the white Fathers, catholic, settles with the Bouganda.
- March 29th, War of the Zulus: Demolished Zulus with the Battle of Kambula.
- July 4th, War of the Zulus: A few months, helped later by the internal dissensions and the treason of certain chiefs, the 20 000 English soldiers of Sir Wolseley enter Ulundi, the capital Zulu. The city is burnt, the king Chettiwayo taken along in captivity and the Zulu State parcelled out in several small chefferies, directed by men named and paid by the British, of which the Scot John Dunn. The only son of Napoleon III dies in this countryside.
- July 15th: Rendering of Soliman bey, wire of the trafficker of Sudanese slaves Zubeir Pasha, beaten by Romolo Gessi, governor of the Bahr el-Ghazal. It is carried out.
- Rabah Fadlallah, former lieutenant of Soliman bey, cuts an empire in the Central African and Chadian countries of 1879 to 1893. It occupies successively the Darfur (1881), the Dar Ruma (1887), the Dar Fertit (1890) and the Baguirmi (1892 - 1893).
- August: The king of the Belgians Léopold II finance forwarding with the Congo of Henry Morton Stanley end in June 1884).
- On order of Léopold II, Stanley leads the local ethnos groups gradually to be constituted in independent States under the aegis of the Belgium which thus intends to exploit with its only profit the great richnesses of low Congo in rubber and in Ivoire.
- September 10th: Lat Dyor Diop, Damel (king) of the Cayol (Senegal) under French protectorate and firmly opposed to colonization, signs with regret the treaty of construction of the railway line Dakar-Saint-Louis of Senegal, in which it has a presentiment of, rightly, end of its autonomy.
- Jean Jauréguiberry, former governor of the Senegal appointed Minister for the marine in February, makes adopt the project of railroad Senegal-Niger. The House of Commons votes the appropriations intended to finance the preliminary studies relative to the Trans-Saharan one. The new president of the French Council Freycinet, named in December, is in favor of construction of Trans-Saharan and the “peaceful conquest” of Africa by the railroads and other means of transport modern.
- September: Mutesa, kabaka (king) of the Bouganda request with the white Fathers to baptize it. One month later, it makes openings to the Moslems, then finally returns to the traditional religion.
- September - October: The governor of Senegal Brière of Isle sends the captain Joseph Simon Gallieni to Ségou to negotiate there a new treaty with the sultan Ahmadou. He creates with the end of the year the station of Bafoulabé, with the confluence of the Bakoy and the Bafing, first link of a chain intended to connect to high Senegal to the central delta native of Niger.
- December 23rd: Mutesa prohibits the foreign religions in Bouganda. The following year, he proclaims the Islam official religion, while recognizing with the Ganda the religious liberty. In 1885 - 1886, the Christians will be persecuted, which will degenerate into civil war (1888 - 1890).
- With the Bouganda, the traditional religion enjoys the favor of greatest number: composed of médiums, priests and healers, the religious class ( Semakula Kiwanuka ) is powerful and rich and controls immense fields which the king does not have the right to confiscate. For the capacity, the foreign religions seem the promise of increased resources political and alliance diplomatic multiples, which explains the many reversals of the king and his successors.
- Extension of the British domination in Gold Coast (1879 - 1890).
- Forwarding of Josuah Zwiefel and Moustier with the sources of the Niger.
- Institution of the obligatory military service with Madagascar.
- March 15th: Albert Grévy is named general governor of the Algérie (fine in 1881).
- Antoine Chanzy, in conflict with the representatives of Europeans, must yield the place. Albert Grévy, few with the fact colonial businesses, lets himself dominate by the colonists members of the National Assembly who seek to extend the civil capacity to the detriment of, soldiers in load of the administration since the conquest. He fights for the assimilation, but, taxed with improvidence, he is replaced by Tirman.
the Cyrénaïque finds its autonomy: the regency of Libya, reunified in 1871, is again divided into two distinct administrations. Mahmud Pasha, named by Istanbul governor of Cyrénaïque, undertakes reforms of education and army.
Forwarding of Rohlfs in Cyrénaïque. It reaches the oasis of Koufra.
- Forwarding of François Élie Roudaire in Chotts Tunisian.
See also: 1879 in Canada
- May: Movements antichinois in California. The development of the west coast, then the discovery of gold bearing layers, attracted approximately 120 000 Chinese in the ten years space. They must take into account terrible work conditions and are in hillock with the racial hate.
- 5600 km of New York to San Francisco are traversed in 7 days by the northern transnational railway new line.
- Return of prosperity to the the United States.
- Apogee of the Empire of the cattle in the Large Plains of the West (1879-1886).
- Holding House Act : Law on housing with the the United States (Dumb-beautiful, air duct vertical without natural light).
- the streets of Cleveland, Ohio, are lit by standard lamps with carbon arc.
- Thomas Edison creates the General Electric Company
- Beginning of the war of the Pacific of the Chile against the Peru and the Bolivia for the control of the layers of Nitrate of the desert of Atacama. Bolivia and Peru, bound by a secret pact, and believing to impose itself easily by the weapons, refuse the international arbitration. End in 1883 by the victory of the Chile which conquers the provinces of Antofagasta on the Bolivia and of Tarapac over the Peru and becomes the principal power of the Pacifique coast.
- February 14th: The Chiliennes armed forces are the first to be put in action and take the port of Antofagasta then Bolivian.
- February 16th: Chile takes the mining center of Caracoles.
- April 5th: The Chile declares the war with the Peru.
- April 12th: Combat of Chipana
- May 21st: naval Action of Iquique between Peru and Chile.
- October 8th: Naval action of Angamos.
- November 27th: Peruvian Victoire on Chile with the Battle of Tarapacá.
April, Conquest of the Desert: The Argentine conquers the south of the Pampa. Victorious the Indians and their allies gauchos, the general Julio Argentino Roca seizes their grounds. The sale of these last to the officers and the rich person owners makes move back the border of the estancieros until the Patagonie.
- August 24th: Cuba knows a new insurrection, the “ Guerra Chiquita ”. It ruins a little more one already bloodless economy which falls to the hands from the North-Americans.
- Constitution with the Guatemala instituted by the president of the Republic Justo Rufino Barrios, which reaffirms the federal principle, guiding line of the liberal party.
Oceania & the Pacific
- May: Beginning of the Year of the Plow . Passive resistance of the Te Whiti in New Zealand (1879 - 1886).
- August 23rd: Portuguese immigrants arrive at Hawaii on board Ravenscrag with Cavaquinho S which will be at the origin of the Ukulélé.
- October: Organization of the first congress of the working trade unions in Australia ( Intercolonial Trade Union Congress , Sydney). The trade unions, which have existed for several years, had already claimed the establishment of the eight hours day's work.
- Fiji: the British introduce into the plantations of Canne to sugar of the Indian days laborer to mitigate the shortage of manpower. They will be numerous to settle in a permanent way in margin of the indigenous populations.
- February 16th: Arrived in India of Mrs. Helena Blavatsky and the American colonel Henry Steel Olcott of the theosophic company, which recognizes the religion, the rites and the Hindu institutions like one of the highest form of wisdom and human thought.
- May 26th: Treaty of Gandamak which puts an end to the second anglo-Afghan war. The Afghanistan becomes a British protectorate. The British control the foreign politics, manage the area of Pichin to the outlet of the Kandahar and obtain the outlet of Khyber, in the mounts Sulaïman, with the doors of India.
- June: Failure in India of an attempt at rising against the British organized by the revolutionist Marathe Basudev Balwan Phadke. Captive fact, it will be condemned to the life imprisonment.
- July 7th: Arrival with the Tibet of the Pandit Sarat Chandra Das, sent as spy by the British (end in 1881). It writes a dictionary Tibetan-English which remains a reference.
- September 3rd: Assassination of the British envoy in Afghanistan, Pierre Cavagnari which calls into question the treaty of Gandamak.
- October 6th: British Victoire with Charasiab. Kabul is occupied by the forces anglo-Indians. Yakoub Khan, wire of Shir Ali Khan, which had taken the succession, is constrained to abdicate.
- October 20th: Signature of the treaty sino-Russian of Livadia by the Chonghou ambassador, who will be repudiated on his return to Beijing and will be condemned to death. Russia occupies part of the valley of the Ili.
- 15 - December 23rd: failure of the seat of the British quartering of Sherpur by Afghan. End of the rebellion.
- India: An ordinance requires that a proportion less 1/6e of the uses of the administration be reserved to the Indians.
- the first Chinese embassies are open in the principal Western capitals.
- Creation of the brigade Cossack, military instrument of the Russian penetration in Central Asia, in particular with the Turkestan.
- Forwarding of the Russian colonel Nikolai Prejevalsky in Mongolia and in Tibet of North. It is stopped to 250 km in the north of Lhassa. He will die in 1883 at the edge of the lake Issik Kol, in the mounts Tien Shan, again on the way of Lhassa.
The Middle East
- June 25th: By a decree of the sultan, the Khedive of Egypt Ismaïl Pasha is deposited with the profit of his/her son Tawfiq Pasha (fine in 1892). Ismaïl, which named in April a government without European ministers, is obliged to resign following the Western pressures on the sultan.
- the British deputy Laurence Oliphant after a voyage in Transjordanie, sought to persuade the Sultan to grant grounds to the Jews under a charter of colonization.
- Arabia: Annexation of the Dhofar by the sultan of Oman. The capacity ibadite, repatriated Zanzibar since 1856, founds its new capital with Salalah, port city of Dhofar of population sunnite. The back country, the desert of Rub el-Khalil, is partly controlled by the Omanis and constitutes a natural border with the Othoman Yemen.
- Arménie : Approached during the negotiations of the Treated of San Stefano of 1878, the situation of the Armenians moves the European public opinion. The nationalists claim the granting of a statute similar to that founded with the Lebanon in 1861.
January 21st, Belgium: The Belgian liberal ministry files in a bill which places primary school education, until now at the hands of the Catholic church, under the control of the State. Beginning of the school war.
- February 22nd: Publication with Geneva of the Revolted , anarchistic newspaper founded by Pierre Kropotkine, François Dumartheray and Herzig.
- April 3rd, Netherlands: Foundation of the left antirévolutionnaire by the orthodoxe Protestant Abraham Kuyper.
- April 16th: Constitution of Tarnovo. The new Bulgarian principality of Roumélie obtains a Constitution which envisages a single Parliament elected for five years by the vote for all.
- April 19th: Alexandre Ier de Battenberg becomes prince of Bulgaria.
- April 21st, Italy: Vis-a-vis a left which controls the country within the framework them institutions and without achieving the reforms registered in its electoral program, some deputies gather in a Lega della Democrazia which constitutes the core of a new parliamentary opposition.
- May 2nd: Pablo Iglesias clandestinely founds in Madrid the working socialist party (PSOE) and its body, El Socialista , resulting from the New Federation.
- May 22nd: Modification of the law of 1868 on the state education in Hungary: the teaching of Hungarian becomes obligatory in all the elementary schools and the teacher training schools.
- August 4th: The Reichstag of Germany grants a constitution the occupied territories of Alsace-Lorraine. They have a certain autonomy under the authority of a governor ( Statthalter ) named by the emperor.
- August 12th, Austria: Preserving cabinet Taaffe (fine in 1894). He studies a new legislation of work.
- October 7th: Duplice. Confirmation of alliance austro-allemande, defensive alliance against the Russia. This treaty of military aid devotes the end of the league of the three emperors following the Russo-Turkish war in the Balkans, which showed that the strategic interests of Russia were opposed to those Vienna. Two axes emergent, one Franco-Russian, other austro-German.
- October 21st: Foundation of the Irish agrarian League, directed by the fenian Michael Davitt, it is intended to protect the peasants against the ushers and the tax collectors from rents. Charles Parnell directs the group of the Irish nationalist deputies to the Communes.
- October: In front of the pressure of the western powers, the Rumanian ministry of Bratianu agrees to revise article 7 of the constitution which draws aside the Juifs of the citizenship. The Jews can become Rumanian citizens, but remain excluded from the ground possession.
- Vote of a protectionist customs tariff in Germany (import duty on the cereal and industrial products). Worsened in 1885 and 1887 for cereals, it serves the interests of the land aristocracy and the industrial upper middle class which are linked to defend the social order and policy against the Socialists and the liberals of left (alliance of rye and steel). The industrial production finds its level of 1873.
the Suisse carries out its first phone conversations.
See also: 1879 in France
RussiaDates of the Calendar Julien.
- systematic Development of terrorism by unquestionable members of Zemlia I Volia: assassination of the general governor of Kharkov, prince Kropotkine the February 9th. Assassination attempt of Soloviev against the tsar the April 2nd.
- June - July: Congress of Zemlia I Volia with Lipietsk and Voronej: divergences on terrorism, involving the scission between terrorists (group Narodnaïa Volia, Will of the people) and propagandists (group Tchernyï Peredel, the black Division), which will evolve to the Marxisme.
- August 26th: The group Narodnaïa Volia condemns the tsar to death.
- November 19th: Failure of an attack against the imperial train.
- electric Lighting with Saint-Pétersbourg.
Chronologies sets of themes
Arts & culture
- a Spanish young person fortuitously discovers the first cave paintings allotted to the man of Cro-Magnon in a cave located at Altamira in the Spanish Pyrenees.
- the judgment of Pougatchev , painting of Perov.
Births in 1879
- January 1st:
- Edward Morgan Forster, English writer († June 7th 1970)
- William Fox, producing American of cinema, founder of the Fox Corp Film. († May 8th 1952)
- January 28th: Francis Picabia, French painter.
- : Christian Henri, inventive French of the Cinemascope.
- February 6th: Emile Othon Friesz, French painter.
- February 20th: Bombita (Ricardo Torres Reina), Spanish Matador († November 29th 1936).
- February 22nd: Joannes Bronsted, Danish chemist.
- February 26th: Franck Bridge, British type-setter . († January 10th 1941).
- March 8th: Otto Hahn, German chemist, Nobel Prize in 1944 († 1918).
- March 14th: Albert Einstein, physicist († April 18th 1955).
- April 11th: Bernhard Schmidt, astronomer and Estonian optician.
- June 21st: Umberto Brunelleschi, painter, illustrator and Italian poster artist. († February 16th 1949).
- July 3rd: Alfred Korzybski, multi-field and expert scientist of the American information († 1950)
- August 15th: Albert Hazen Wright, American zoologist († July 4th 1970).
- August 31st: Alma Mahler, born Schindler, artist, compositrice and painter of Austrian origin († December 11th 1964).
- September 29th: Alexandre Marius Jacob, anarchist, idealist, burglar, French, († August 28th 1954).
- October 26th: Leon Trotsky, revolutionary Soviet.
- November 14th: Henry de Monfreid, writer and navigator.
- November 21st: Joaquim Claret, with Camprodon (Catalonia), sculptor († December 25th 1964).
- December 18th: Paul Klee, Swiss painter.
- December 21st: Joseph Stalin, Soviet statesman.
- December 29th: Witold Wojtkiewicz, Polish painter († June 14th 1909)
Death in 1879
- February 4th: Michael Echter, German painter (° March 5th 1812).
- February 10th: Honore Daumier, sculptor, lithographer and painter French.
- March 30th: Thomas Seams, painter French.
- April 16th: Bernadette Soubirous, holy Christian woman
- June 1st: Eugene-Louis Bonaparte, crown prince to Bonaparte at the time of the war against the Zulus.
- September 17th: Eugene Purple-the-Duke, architect, engineer and writer French
- December 7th: Jón Sigurðsson, chief of the pacifist movement Icelandic. (° June 17th 1811).
Beats-smg: 1879 Be-X-old: 1879 Map-bms: 1879 Simple: 1879 Zh-yue: 1879 年
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