This page relates to the year 1878 Gregorian Calendrier.
- January: Forwarding of Crespel and Arnold Maes in Eastern Africa for the African International association. Maes and Crespel find death there.
- January 24th: With died of Crespel, Ernest Cambier takes the head of forwarding. It reaches the Lac Tanganyika in September (fine in 1879).
- March 12th: Walvis Bay becomes British colony.
- the Germans occupy the coast of the South-western African.
- May: With the World Fair of Paris, the Khedive Isma' it states that its country would present a chart where the African Empire of the Egypt would extend until the Lac Chad, with the project to open a way until the Atlantique.
- December 11th: The governor of the the Cape Province, to sir Bartle Brother, sends an ultimatum to the king of the Zoulous Chettiwayo, enjoignant it to demobilize his army in thirty days. This one hastens to gather 30.000 warriors.
- December 27th: Died of Jean Laborde with Madagascar. Seizure of its buildings and occupation by the Madagascans of the coast of Sambirano, theoretically French protectorate. Failure of the negotiations. In 1883, the Malagasy ports of Tamatave and Majunga are bombarded by the French navy, in answer to measurements taken by the queen Ranavalona II at the expense of the grounds had by the French consul.
- the Loi for the safeguarding of Peace ( Cape Peace Safeguarding Act ) voted with the Cape obliges all the Africans to return their weapons. The Sotho refuse to be carried out, and the “war of rifles” bursts (1879 - 1881). The governor takes pretext of it to declare part of the Basutoland opened with white colonization, which starts a joint insurrection of Sotho, people of the Transkei and Grikaland. The British army must resign to a compromise in 1881: Sotho preserve their institutions, their grounds and their weapons, these last on the condition of requiring a license and to pour a compensation with the government of the Cape.
- the congregation of the white Pères of the cardinal Lavigerie accommodates with Bagamoyo (today in Tanzania) a hundred missionaries, who unite with the two hundred others already installed.
- Madagascar: Institution of courts of justice. Demobilization of the old soldiers whose majority are built-in the administration as will sokaizambohitra (friendly villages) or like antily (vigils).
- Prohibition of the draft of the blacks in the Portuguese possessions. It clandestinely continues towards the Brésil until in 1888.
- victorious Countryside of Samori Touré to extend its empire (current Guinea) to the sea. Powerful the Cissé demolished, only the town of Kankan seems to be opposed to the irresistible expansion of Samori Touré.
Accompanied by only one African, the French explorer Paul Soleillet goes Saint-Louis of Senegal to Ségou where he concludes a friendship and commercial treaty with the sultan Ahmadou, wire of El Hadj Omar, at which he remains of October 1878 at January 1879.
- June: With the Congress of Berlin, the British representative states more to oppose the French presence in Tunisia with the great irritation of the Italian government which consequently will endeavor to obtain for him only the protectorate of Tunisia.
- At the time of the Congress of Berlin, an Italian consul tries to break the monopoly of France on the construction of telegraph lines in Tunisia while seeking to obtain the construction of a connection between Tunis and the Sicily.
- In 1879,500 of the 633 vessels entered the port of Goulette are Italian.
- a school of the Alliance universal Jew is founded with Tunis with the financial aid of anglo-Jewish Association. It opens one period of religious tolerance, the bey Muhammed Al-Saduq making gift of grounds for the construction of a synagog.
See also: 1878 in Canada
The United States
- January 31st: Shipwreck of the Metropolis . A transporting boat of the workers fleeing the crisis, leaves New York for South America and runs with broad with its passengers.
- February 13rd: treaty of friendship with Tutuila and Aunu' U. The navy installs a naval base with the Samoa.
- February 28th: The Congrès adopts the Bland-Allison Act which obliges the government to buy and to strike two to four million silver dollars each month.
- July 11th: Hayes attacks the system of the “skins” ( Spoils System ) which consists in granting to very new elected official a right of patronage on certain civil service posts. It returns one protected from the Republican Roscoe Conkling, Chester Alan Arthur, then director of the Office of collector of customs of the port of New York, suspected of diversion.
- November: The Greenback Labor Party obtains fourteen elected officials with the Congrès. The farmers who constitute this party militate for the free striking of the money, for the prolongation of the course of the dollars (the greenbacks ), for the restriction of Chinese immigration and the reduction in the schedule of work.
- December 26th: First store lit with electricity ( Wanamaker' S with Philadelphia).
- Second boom of the farmers on the Dakota (1878 - 1885).
- January 5th, Mexico: First number of the newspaper Libertad . Justo Sierra and a group of intellectuals develops the concept of scientific policy to with it (1878 - 1884). They propose, to put an end to the disorders, to adopt constitutional reforms aiming reinforcing the prerogatives and at prolonging the mandate of the president in order to bring closer the mode to a dictatorship.
- February 8th: The general Jose María Medina, with the capacity with the Honduras of 1864 with 1872, shown plot, is shot.
- February 10th: Peace of Zanjón between the cuban Spain and rebels. The Spain grants a certain autonomy to Cuba.
- Mars: Prince Lucien Napoleon-Bonaparte Wyse obtains Colombian government a concession for the construction of the Canal of Panamá, on which the engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps, takes an option of 10 franc million. Hundreds of thousands of French, modest savers for the majority, will buy shares, on the faith of the leaflets and the confidence which inspires the driller of the Suez Canal.
- November 16th, Peru: Manual Pardo, chief of the party common lawyer, is assassinated with Lima. The country is then in chaos. The government plans to take the control of the exploitation of the Nitrate in the Région of Tarapacá.
- Costa Rica: the Head of the State, the general Guardia Gutiérrez Tomás, grants Minor Keith the first concession for the exploitation of banana plantations on the coast of the Pacific.
- 85% of the population of the Brésil is illiterate (even without taking account of the slaves). The schools exist practically only in the cities. Rio de Janeiro holds a place with share (academies, bookstores, National library).
- February 13rd: Treated friendship between the Samoa and the the United States which obtain the transfer of the port of Pago Pago. Stake of the competition which opposes Britanniques, German and American, the Samoa are controlled by a monarchy unable to overcome the chaos created by the competition of the imperialisms.
- June 25th: War of Ataï. Indigenous rising (Kanaks) in New Caledonia against the French colonists. Grouped in reserves, subjected to a brutal mode of exploitation, the Canaques revolt and will be subjected only at the end of one year of countryside.
- August 18th: Arrival of reinforcements in New Caledonia.
- September 1st: the chief kanak Ataï is killed by a traitor at the time of a combat with Fonimoulou. The revolt continues.
- Australia: Creation of a new battalion of the assembled Police force to make hunting for the gangster Ned Kelly.
Asia & Indian world
- May 14th, Japan: Assassination of the Foreign Minister Okubo Toshimichi (1830 -1878) who had ordered the setting with the step of Takamori Saigō by six samurais Satsuma.
- May 15th, Japan: opening of the Stock Exchange of Tōkyō.
- May 15th, India: The youngest members of the Brahmo Samaj make dissidence and create a new group, the Sdharar Brahmo Samaj, under the control of Sisnath Shastri and Anada Mohan Bose.
- October 1st, Burma: After the massacre of the other applicants, Thibaw Min succeeds his/her father Mindon Min like king de Birmanie (détrôné in 1885).
- November 21st: Beginning of the second war enters the Britanniques and the Afghan (fine in 1880).
- Shir Ali Khan, third wire and successor of Dost Mohammed Khan, causes the hostility of the British while being benevolent with regard to the Russia. A Russian mission is received in June with Kabul and the two parts agree on a treaty of military aid. Pretexting refusal to receive an English mission, the British, who do not intend to concede in Russia the least advantage in the area, take the initiative of the conflict. In November, the armed forces anglo-Indians invade once again Afghanistan by the Passe of Khyber.
- China: The general Zuo Zongtang reconquers the Tarim and subdue the Moslem insurrection of the Xinjiang poked by the Russians. Chinese immigration is tolerated in Mandchourie.
- the West Indies: The district of Benkoulen (Sumatra) is placed under direct government by Dutch. Creation of “advisers for the indigenous businesses” with the the Indies Dutchwomen.
- Indian Association organizes the first agitation panindiennes campaigns.
- Opening of a Japanese commercial counter with Paris.
The Middle East
- February: The Othoman Parliament is extended and the constitution suspended by Abdül-Hamid II which restores an autocratic mode until in 1909.
- June 4th: Convention of Cyprus. Secret agreement between the Othomans and the United Kingdom: the sultan authorizes the military occupation of Cyprus by the British in exchange of their support at the time of the future International Conference.
- July: During talks of Berlin, British the Prime Minister Disraeli obtains the restitution with the Turkey of the area of Bayazid, the Russians preserving only Batoum, Kars and Ardahan in Arménie.
- August 28th, Egypt: Under the pressure of his creditors, the khedive Isma' it names Nubar Pasha with the head of a government in which a French and an English, Members of the Commission of the debt, are general inspectors.
- Flow of Moslem refugees of Europe towards the Minor Asia. More than one million Moslems leave the Balkans, the Anatolia occupied and the the Caucasus to disperse through the Ottoman Empire. In order to control this exodus, Istanbul creates a Commission of the immigrants.
- Palestine: foundation of a colony of Jewish immigrants from Europe with Petah Tikva (hope carries).
- Persian: After a series of British missions, Frenchwoman, Italian and Austrian, a team of Russian instructors is charged to form the army. A regiment, created on the model of the units cossacks and framed by Russian officers, will become the most effective element of the army Persian.
- 5 - January 9th: Russian Victoire on the Turkey with the fourth Battle of the master key of Chipka in Bulgaria. The Turks capitulate require a Armistice.
- January 24th: Attack of Véra Zassoulitch against the general Trepov, chief of the police force of Saint-Pétersbourg. Discharged by the jury the March 31st, it escapes the police force at the conclusion of the lawsuit thanks to complicity of crowd.
- January 17th: Russian Victoire with the battle of Plovdiv, in Bulgaria.
- January 20th: Catch of Turkey-red cotton by Russian.
- January 31st: armistice Russo-Turkish with Turkey-red cotton.
- February 20th: Bismarck benefits from the election of the pope Leon XIII to make peace with the catholics. The majority of anticlericals measurements are suspended as of 1880.
- March 3rd: Treaty of San Stefano putting an end to war-Russo Turkish in connection with Balkans. Independence of the Romania, the Montenegro and the Serbia. Creation of a principality of Large autonomous Bulgaria within the framework of the Ottoman Empire, but subjected to the direct influence of Russia. Annexation by the Russia of the Dobroudja and the delta of the the Danube.
- March 18th: The Reichstag of the German Empire vote the law against the Socialists.
- March 24th: Resignation of Depretis. Benedetto Cairoli becomes president of the Italian Council.
- May 1st - November 10th: World Fair of Paris.
- June 11th: Victoire of the liberals to the elections in Belgium. The June 18th, the ministry Brother-Orban names a person in charge with the state education charged to start again the policy of laicization of primary school education stopped by the catholics.
- June 13rd - July 13rd: Congress of the Nations of Berlin. The western powers recognize the total independence of the Serbia, the Montenegro and the Romania. The Juifs are authorized to turn over in their country.
- the western powers reduce the territory allotted by the Russia to the Bulgaria. The Eastern Roumélie remains under the political authority and soldier of the sultan but obtains the administrative autonomy.
- the Russians take again the southernmost Bessarabia with the Romania (1878 - 1918) which obtains the Dobroudja and the Delta of the Danube.
- the Turkish provinces of Bosnia and Herzégovine are placed under Austrian administration. The Serb ones of Bosnia resist. Gyula Andrássy, criticized to have accepted Bosnia, prefers to resign.
- the Italy takes part in the congress of Berlin and pleads without success for the acquisition of the province of Thirty. Plenipotentiary Italian returns “the clean hands”.
- August 16th, Russia: Assassination by Kravtchinski of the general Nikolay Mezentsev, chief of the political police. In front of the multiplication of the attacks, the government reinforces the repressive means.
- October 21st, Germany: Bismarck seizes the pretext of attacks against the emperor to impose on the Reichstag a law of exception (known as of the “small state of siege”) against the Socialists, who prohibits the socialist groupings, any public demonstration, any propaganda. The newspapers are seized, a hundred militants are condemned to sorrows of imprisonment (1878 - 1890).
- November 13rd: First republican deputy with the Portugal (Rodrigues de Freitas).
- November 17th: Assassination attempt against the king Humbert Ier of Italy to Florence by a young anarchist, Giovanni Passannante. It will provide the pretext to repressive actions against the militants internationalists.
- December 19th, Italy: Resignation of Benedetto Cairoli. It forms a new government with Depretis inside.
- Léo Fränkel founds the party of the private citizens of right to vote in Hungary.
- Russia: Fall of rouble-paper, due to the war (66% of rouble-metal).
- Foundation of the septentrional Union of the Russian workmen with Saint-Pétersbourg.
- Vague of strikes to Saint-Pétersbourg (1878-1879).
See also: 1878 in France
Chronologies sets of themes
- February 20th: Beginning of the Pontificate of Leon XIII (fine in 1903).
- the pope condemns socialism. He asks Bismarck to open the negotiations to put a term at the policy of the Kulturkampf committed in March 1872.
- the British evangelist William Booth founds the Salvation Army.
Arts & culture
- the viceroy of Egypt Ismaïl Pasha offers an obelisk to the the United Kingdom.
- Skobelev in front of Chipka , painting of Vassili Verechtchaguine.
- Ferdinand Buisson is named General inspector of the state education in France.
- the Université of London becomes the first university with the the United Kingdom to admit women.
- Foundation with Saint-Pétersbourg of the Bestoujev courses, female higher education.
Births in 1878
- January 1st: Agner Krarup Erlang, Danish mathematician († February 3rd 1929)
- January 13rd: Lionel Groulx, Québécois historian
- February 5th: Andre Citroen, founder of the mark Citroen.
- February 11th: Kasimir Malevitch, painter and Russian writer
- February 16th: Paul Delaunay, doctor, botanist and historian French.
- February 18th: Fernando Magalhães, Doctor - Obstétricien Brazil IEN, creator of the Brazilian school of Obstetric († January 10th 1944).
- February 24th: Abd Al-Aziz Ibn Al-Hassan, Sultan of Morocco (or 1881).
- March 4th: Arishima Takeo, writer Japan board († June 9th, 1923)
- March 10th: Karel van of Woestijne, Belgian writer († August 24th, 1929)
- March 12th: Gemmated Galgani, Saint E catholic Italy († April 11th 1903).
- April 24th: Jean Crotti, Swiss painter
- April 28th: Lionel Barrymore, American actor
- May 10th: Gustav Stresemann, German politician
- May 28th: Paul Pelliot, sinologist and adventurer French, († 1945)
- August 9th: Eileen Gray, the Irish conceptrice of furniture
- August: Ladislav Klíma, Philosopher and Czech writer († April 19th 1928)
- November 7th: Dye stick Meitner, Austrian physician
- November 14th: Louis Marcoussis, painter and engraver Polish French naturalized († October 22nd 1941)
- December 18th: Joseph Stalin, Soviet Politician ;
- December 21st: Jan Łukasiewicz, philosopher and logician Polish († February 13rd 1956)
- December 25th: Louis Chevrolet, runner/Swiss car manufacturer of origin
Death in 1878
- January 7th: François-Vincent Raspail, chemist, doctor and politician French (° 1794)
- January 9th: Victor-Emmanuel II of Savoy.
- February 7th: Black and white IX, pope, born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti (° May 13rd 1792)
- February 10th: Claude Bernard, Doctor and physiologist French.
- February 19th: Charles-François Daubigny, painter (° 1817).
- June 29th: Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen, Viscount of Oporto Seguro (1816-1878), author of a Historia Geral C Brasil .
- : Hermann Lebert, Doctor and German Naturalist (° 1813).
- September 17th: Antoine de Tounens, adventurous French, transitory king of Patagonie (° May 12th 1825)
- September 22nd: Richard Griffith, geologist Irish.
- October 1st: Mindon Min, king of Burma (° 1808)
- October 19th: Agostino Perini, 75 years, Naturalist Italy N. (° December 2nd 1802).
- November 18th: Narcisse Virgilio Diaz (known as Narcisse Diaz of Pena), painter and lithographer (° 1808).
- November 28th:
Beats-smg: 1878 Be-X-old: 1878 Map-bms: 1878 Simple: 1878 Zh-yue: 1878 年
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