This page relates to the year 1874 Gregorian Calendrier.
- October 8th: Realization of the international Postal Union, collaboration of the Station S of the world, at the time of a International Conference with Bern.
- January 31st: The Ashanti are beaten by the British with Amoafo.
- February 4th: set fire to Kumasi by the British.
- March 14th: Treaty of Foména signed to Cape Coast.
- Decline of the kingdom of the Ashanti (Ghana). Their traditional rivals, the Fanti, are replaced by the British who neutralized them and repurchased with the Dutchmen the forts disseminated along the coast. Refusing to pay a tribute with the Ashanti, the British (to sir Garnet Wolseley) set fire to their capital, Kumasi. They their impose the Traité of Foména, by which the Ashanti yield their rights on the coast and give up the draft and slavery, their independent sources of incomes.
- Kofi Karikari is détrôné. Beginning of the reign of Mensa Bonsu, asantehene of the Ashanti (deposited in 1883).
- July 24th: The Côte of Gold becomes colony of the British Crown.
- the Khedive of Egypt Ismaïl Pasha makes occupy all the Ethiopian ports of the Red Sea and launches four forwardings towards the interior (1875). Only one will achieve its goal, the occupation of Harrar where the Egyptians will remain ten years.
the Egyptian commercial prince Zubeir Pasha seizes the Darfur on behalf of the khedive d' Égypte. He plans to do without the Egyptian intermediaries and to use a direct connection with Benghazi by El Giof. Its influence worries the Egyptians, who imprison it at the time of his visit to the Cairo. His/her son, Soliman bey, joins together an army to release it, but is beaten and killed by the Egyptian troops in 1879.
- One of its lieutenants, Rabah Fadlallah (v. 1840 - 1900), refuses to give up the fight. He is established with the Dar Kouti and devastates the countries of the south. Then to the head of an army of former slaves, it leaves to the conquest the kingdoms North. In 1879, it conquers the Rougna; in 1880, it subjects the tribes bandaged and will nzakara; in 1882, it reaches the area of the Gribingui which it devastates. Until 1885, it does not meet any serious resistance, because it avoided direct confrontation with the well organized States.
- Ismaïl Pasha ambitionne to conquer the Borkou (Ouadaï) and the Bornou and to annex them to the Darfur.
Beginning of the reign of Yousouf, brother of Ali, sultan of the Ouadaï (fine in 1898). It cannot maintain its authority on its neighbors (Baguirmi). Its borders are threatened by Rabah and the Mahdistes, but it resists.
Abou Sekkine (death in 1884) takes again the capacity with the Baguirmi, a State located at the south-east of the Lac Chad. It is freed from the supervision of Ouadaï, but its independence is threatened by Rabah (Chad) and the French.
- Creation of the great rabbinate of Tripoli by the Othoman authorities. The function falls to Eliahu Bekkor Hassan, old Rabbin of Tunis.
- the general Chanzy declares the commune of Algiers in state of siege. Municipalities and prefects refuse the presence of the commissions the notable ones within the mixed communes.
- Forwarding of Paul Soleillet towards the oasis of In Salah.
See also: 1874 in Canada
The United States
- January: Demonstration with New York repressed violently by the assembled police force. Strikes in the spinning mills of Fall To rivet (Massachusetts). “Great Strike” of the anthracite mines of Pennsylvania, during which of the syndicated Irishmen, the “ Molly Maguires ”, are shown acts of violence on the testimony of an infiltrated and condemned investigator. Nineteen of them are carried out.
- January with March: 90 000 workers with the unemployment, of which about half are women, must sleep in the police stations of New York during the first three months of the year.
- April 22nd: The president Grant puts his veto at the Legal Tender Act , law which envisaged the emission of 18 million dollars in paper money.
- June 27th: The Comanches, the Kiowas and other tribes Amerindian directed by the chief Quanah Parker attack Adobe Walls with the Texas. Beginning of the War against the Indians Red To rivet it in Oklahoma (1874 - 1875).
- July 2nd: Forwarding carried out by custer in the Black Hills, territory of the Sioux (South Dakota). Discovered important gold bearing layers in the Black Hills.
- November 4th: The democratic take again the majority with the Congrès.
- November 24th: Invention by Joseph F. Glidden of a particularly resistant model of barbed Wire, which will contribute to the agricultural colonization of the meadow.
- November 25th: Creation of the Greenback Party which gathers especially inflationary farmers of the West.
- The Gilded Old (Old of the Fake), novel of Mark Twain, written in collaboration with C.D. Warner, who describes the power of corruption in civil America of the post-war period. It gives its name to the period of the history of the United States between 1865 and 1901.
- January 2nd: The general Ignacio María González becomes president of the Dominican Republic. Between 1874 and 1887, the Dominican Republic will change eleven times of president.
- October 12th: Nicolás Avellaneda is elected president of the Republic Argentine (fine in 1880). It fails in its attempt at national reconciliation. It must fight against the former president Bartolomé Miter, then against the province of Buenos Aires which refuses the defeat of its governor to the presidential elections.
- the Argentine is divided. On a side Buenos Aires, where liberalism gains the middle-classes, leans in favor of a national State: the city is with the hands of an oligarchy which is tired of the domination of the rural caudillos; other, the great landowners of the campaigns support the secessions in order to escape control from a State. Nevertheless, the latter would be ready to accept the Union insofar as their interests would be guaranteed.
- Insurrection of Porfirio Diaz with the Mexico.
- the religious instruction at the school is prohibited with the Mexico.
- Electoral law with the Chile. It extends the right to vote with all the men of more than 25 years (21 years for the married men) knowing to read and write.
- January 20th: Treaty of Pangkor between the the United Kingdom and the sultanate of Perak in Malaysia.
- January, Japan:
- Rise of the Movement for the freedom and the rights of the people which, with other parties, claim under the direction of Itagaki Taisuke the creation of an National Assembly.
- Creation with Osaka of the Company of the patriots ( Aikoku Kōtō ), at the origin of the democratic movement constitutionnalist.
- February, Japan: Creation of an influential club of liberal intellectuals, the “ company of year 6 of Meiji ”, which theorizes the movement of modernization of the social structures.
- Spring: Japanese military forwarding with Formosa. The Japanese pretext a massacre by the natives of Japanese shipwrecked men coming from the Ryukyu, three years earlier. Beijing pay of the allowances and the Japanese forces is withdrawn in October. Tokyo measurement the weakness of the China.
- June 5th: Treaty of Saigon between the emperor of Ass, You Duke and France, negotiated by Paul-Louis-Felix Philastre. The Vietnam recognizes French sovereignty on the provinces of the West of the Nam-Ky occupied by the admiral of Grandière since 1867. The Annam (Vietnam) opens with the French trade.
- June 10th: The Assam is separated from the Bengal and is transformed into province of Office of the High Commission.
- Great famine with the Bengal.
- Press: The large Japanese newspapers are private public financial support and seek private supports.
The Middle East
- Radif Pasa succeeds Midhat Pasa with the governorship of Baghdad. The Porte does not intend to slacken its control on the Mésopotamie. The sultan wishes the status quo with regard to the common borders with the Perse and fears the increasing influence of the British.
- the emirate of the Kuwait is attached to the Othoman administration of Bassora. Mésopotamie is divided into three vilayets (Mosul, Baghdad, Bassora). Othoman control on the coasts of the Gulf does not extend beyond Bahrain, subjected since 1867.
- January 10th: Retreat of the national-liberals to the elections with the Reichstag in Germany. The catholic party of the center becomes the first party with 27,9% of the votes, the social democrat party obtains 6,8%. Reichsland of Alsace-Lorraine can elect 15 deputies with the Reichstag.
- January 13rd: Reform military Milioutine in Russia: obligatory service for all (6 years instead of 25), call by drawing lot of part of the quota, reduction of the duration of the service according to the studies carried out.
- February 22nd: Victoire of the conservatives to legislative to the the United Kingdom. End of the liberal ministry of William Gladstone, beginning of the preserving ministry of Benjamin Disraeli, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, which knew to give a popular base to its party (fine in 1880). The Irish nationalists see their representation with the Communes passing from 5 to 59 deputies. Two candidates of the Labor Representation League are elected.
- April 19th: the cantons Suisse S adopt a democratic federal Constitution. It integrates the measurements preached by the radicals, the democrats and the laymen and guarantees a democratic exercise of the capacity. The two legislative authorities (the National council and the Councils of the States) elect the federal court, the general-in-chief in the event of conflict, and the Federal council.
- May 15th: A law prohibits the Travail of the old children of less than 13 years and regulates the work of the women in France.
- Russia: Apogee of the “movement towards the people” launched by the populist ones in spring and in summer. Thousands of students will vainly try to raise the campaigns. Many arrests.
- July 13rd: Bismarck escapes an attack. This gesture, perpetrated by a young catholic, is a sign of the opposition increasing to the Kulturkampf.
- : The Suisse issues the general mobilization.
- August 6th: The day before the legislative ones in Italy, the conservative government Marco Minghetti makes adopt the leaders of socialist Alliance and the partisans of the Internationale who prepared a plot.
- August 30th: Factory Act which limits the work period in the factories to the the United Kingdom.
- October 9th: Creation of the General union of the stations, with Bern, charged to harmonize the postal relations between 21 country signatories.
- October 10th, Italy: The pope prohibited faithful from taking part in the elections and like voters and candidates ( document not expedit ). Several organizations catholic constitute the Opera dei Congressi which disputes the legitimacy of the Italian State and preaches the re-establishment of the temporal power of papacy.
- November: The results of the legislative elections in Italy mark certain turning left caused by the financial policy of the government.
- In Norway, the party venstre wants to make admit the principle which the ministers are authorized to take part in the debates of the Storting , so that the Parliament can exert a political control on the government action. The text, voted three times by the Storting, is refused by three times by the king Oscar II (1874, 1877, 1880). Storting ends up considering that the text is promulgated, but the members of the government then in place are quoted before the High court, are condemned and raised of their functions.
Foundation of the Left national liberal in Bohemia.
- restrictive Electoral law in Hungary.
- Removal of three Slovak colleges due “to agitation panslave” (1874 - 1875).
- First congress of the owners of mines of the Russia of the South with Taganrog.
- Crisis of agriculture to the the United Kingdom (1874 - 1896): the land elites compensate for the fall of the incomes of the tenant farming by diversifying their activities, in particular in the financial field.
- January 3rd: The general captain Manual Pavía shift the president Emilio Castelar.
- January 12th: Pavia constitutes a strong government with old progressists and liberals.
- January 16th: Pavia names Francisco Serrano Domínguez with the presidency of the Republic, but the instability of the republican mode catalyzes the formation of a face monarchist.
- February 1st: Ensured of the support of the mediums of business of Barcelona and of the army, the conservative Cánovas del Castillo lance a call to the insurrection.
- December 28th: Pronunciamiento of the general Arsenio Martínez Campos with Sagonte. monarchy, only hope to find a pretense of order, is restored.
- December 29th: Beginning of the reign of Alfonso XII (Alphonse XII) in Spain (fine in 1885). End of the First Spanish Republic.
- Francisco Serrano dissolves the Internationale.
See also: 1874 in France
Chronologies sets of themes
Arts & cultures
- April 15th: First impressionist exposure to Paris in the photographer Nadar. Impression rising sun , a table of Monet is exposed there. Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Degas, Cézanne and Sisley raises an outcry of criticism.
- September 24th: With Seville (Spain), alternate of Jose Sánchez del Campo known as “Cara Ancha”, Spanish Matador
- the French painter Edgar Degas painted the school of dance .
- the French painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir painted the cabin and Regattas in Argenteuil .
- Snow with Louveciennes , fabric of Alfred Sisley.
- Landscape close to Pontoise of Pissarro.
- Pierre Puvis de Chavannes paints the Fresques of the the Pantheon of Paris .
Births in 1874
- January 4th: Josef Suk : Violonist and Czech type-setter
- February 9th: Vsevolod Emilievitch Meyerhold, Russian director of Theater
- February 12th: Auguste Perret, French architect
- March 18th: Jerome Tharaud, French writer
- March 26th: Robert Lee Frost, American poet
- April 15th: Johannes Stark, German physicist, Nobel Prize of physics in 1919, († 1957)
- April 25th: Guglielmo Marconi, Italian physicist
- May 2nd: Jeanne Darlays, born Ziegler, professional singer († September 5th 1958)
- May 9th: Howard Casing, archeologist and British Egyptologist († March 2nd 1939)
- July 14th: Abbas II Hilmi, Khedive Egypt, with Alexandria.
- August 9th: Charles Strong Hoy, American writer and researcher paranormal († May 3rd 1932)
- August 10th: Herbert Hoover, future President of the United States
- September 13rd: Arnold Schönberg, type-setter
- September 3rd: Carl Stormer: Norwegian physicist
- September 21st: Gustav Holst, British type-setter
- October 20th: Charles Ives, American type-setter
- November 3rd: Lucie Delarue-Mardrus, novelist, auteure and French historian († 1945)
- November 27th: Chaim Weizmann, first president of the State of Israel.
- November 28th: Bombita (Emilio Torres Reina), Spanish Matador († January 19th 1947).
- November 30th: Winston Churchill, British politician
Death in 1874
- January 13rd: Victor Baltard, French architect.
- February 9th: Sophie Rostopchine, countess of Ségur, French novelist
- February 17th: Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quételet, Belgian mathematician (° February 7th 1796)
- March 8th: Millard Fillmore, old President of the United States.
- April 24th: John Phillips, British geologist .
- June 9th: Cochise, chief apache Chiricahua.
- June 21st: Anders Jonas Ångström, Astronomer and Physicist Swedish.
- September 21st: Jean-Baptiste Élie de Beaumont, geologist French
- October 31st: Emile Jacques Gilbert, French architect.
- November 15th: Giuseppe Gabriel Balsamo-Crivelli, Italian Naturalist (° September 1st 1800)
- November 21st: Sir William Gardens, seventh baron d' Applegirth, British Naturaliste (° 1800).
Beats-smg: 1874 Be-X-old: 1874 Map-bms: 1874 Simple: 1874 Zh-yue: 1874 年
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