This page relates to the year 1872 Gregorian Calendrier.
- January 12th: The short-nap cloth of the Tigré Cassa is crowned with Aksoum, Négus of Ethiopia (fine in 1889) after four years of quarrels of succession under the name of Yohannès IV. It is made build a palate with Macallé, on the plate of the Striped one.
- Yohannès opposes to the policy centralization Théodoros II a broad decentralization administrative and policy who recognizes a great autonomy with the aristocracy, in particular with the short-nap cloth Ménélik of the Choa and to the short-nap cloth Adal of Godjam.
- April 6th: Elmina is yielded to the the United Kingdom by the Dutch.
- April 15th: A hurricane devastates Zanzibar. The price of the nails of Girofle increases brutally.
- May 14th, Big lakes: Defeat of the armies of the Khedive directed by Samuel Baker against the Bounyoro.
- : Beginning of the reign of the king of the Zulu Chettiwayo, wire of Mpandé. It gathers a powerful army, trained according to the methods of Tchaka (fine in 1879).
- February 1st: For the first time, the Colonie of the Cape is equipped with a responsible local government. John Charles Molteno becomes Prime Minister (fine in 1878)
- the Sarakollé Samori Touré seizes Sanankoro where it is made proclaim almani (king) Ouassoulou. It establishes its capital with Bissandougou, on the territory of old the Empire of Mali. This Moslem Dyula left the row conquers the small States of the area. It is made initially main of the Toron, of the countries of the Milo and the top Niger, then Madina.
- Forwarding of Nachtigal to the Baguirmi (fine in 1875).
- Dahomey: annual usual festivals, organized by the court in homage to the ancestors, marked by ritual human sacrifices, unchain the protests of Europeans.
- Appearance of the religious movement Kiyoka (Fire) with the Kongo.
- Sudan: Muhammad Al-Bulalawi is overcome and killed by the commercial prince Zubeir Pasha. The Khedive must recognize his capacity and appoints it governor of the Bahr el-Ghazal in 1873.
- the khedive of Egypt installs as governor with Massaoua a Swiss adventurer named Werner Münzinger, which occupies Asmara quickly, Kérén and the north of the Ethiopia which he proclaims province of Egypt. He will be massacred with his Egyptian troops by the Afars in 1875.
- the Tripolitaine and the Cyrénaïque are joined together under the single government of `Ali Riza Pasha.
- the town of Khums, in Libya, becomes the principal production center of Alfa (fiber plant, spontaneous in the Mediterranean region, used to manufacture cords).
- massive Surge French colonists in Algeria: Alsatian and Lorraine refugees, deportees of the Common of Paris. The seizure of the grounds and the goods of the insurgent natives involves the foundation of new villages.
See also: 1872 in Canada
The United States
- May 22nd, Rebuilding: the Amnesty Act returns the civil laws with confederated.
- November 9th: Set fire to Boston.
- November 15th: Re-election of Ulysses S. Grant (R) like President of the United States. He continues the reinforcement of industrial capitalism. Its second mandate is marked by a very rigorous policy at the expense of the States of the South.
- November 29th: Beginning of the war of Modocs. The Indians Modocs raise themselves when the army want to push back them in their reserve of Klamath in the Oregon. The chiefs of the rebellion will be hung.
- Cochise takes part in a conference of peace at the end which a reserve Chiricahua was to be established in the south of the Arizona.
- Brought into service of the first pipeline, built out of wood and 40 km length, intended to convey natural gas. Work is completed with Rochester, in the State of New York.
- 35 000 Miles of railways have summers brought into service since 1865 (as much as before the civil war).
- January 9th, War of Triple Alliance: Peace between the Brazil and the Paraguay, which specifies, with the advantage of Brazil, the layout of the common border. The Argentine claims to be betrayed. Brazil is exhausted by the war.
- June 18th: Died of Benito Juárez, president of the Republic of the Mexico. Its successor, the liberal Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada does not manage to assert himself (fine in 1876). Benefitting from his difficulties, the general Porfirio Díaz, who had failed in his attempt to reverse Juárez in 1871, starts again to foment a new rebellion.
- August 2nd: Manuel Pardo is elected president of the Republic Peru after the assassination of its predecessor Balta (fine in 1876). Its election puts a term at a series of military coups d'etat. For the first time, a civilian has to control Peru. The “common lawyers” inherit a catastrophic economic situation.
- the Guano, natural manure, ensures the main wealth of the Peru until in the Années 1870 (more than 1100 million gold franc in 25 years). But while living only on this resource and the perception of the customs duties, the State is heavily involved in debt when Manuel Pardo arrives at the capacity (35 million books). The exhaustion of the reserves of guano and the entry in war of Peru against the Chile will cause the asphyxiation of the country.
- Beginning of the plantations of banana trees with the Costa Rica. The Banane will become in the majority of the small Republics of Central America the single one produced importation, in general bound for only the the United States.
- November 23rd: Inauguration of the first telegraph line transaustralienne, which will be connected thereafter with the Indonesia (Java), the India, and later the Europe.
- January 20th: Mutiny of the arsenal of Cavie to the Filipino , which gives place to a violent repression of the revolutionary movement. Many Filipinos are influenced by the republican and humane ideas through the masonry.
- February 17th: Execution with the Filipino , after a three liberal priest, sham trial - of which the Spanish missionary Jose Burgos, which was done carries it word of the Filipino natives at the time of the first anti-colonial revolution in 1864 - shown to have fomented a mutiny with Cavie causes a popular revolt.
- February 18th: Assassination of Lord Mayo, viceroy of the Indies, by Sher Ali, an former prisoner Wahhabite who justifies his gesture while protesting against the imprisonment of the chief of the sect, Emir Khan.
- April 5th: Creation of a system of state education in Japan. Obligatory primary school education for the children of the two sexes. The controlling work contracts are officially removed.
- October 23rd: The Chinese imperial police chief presents his excuses to the president Adolphe Thiers for the massacre of the French with Tianjin in 1870.
- December 26th, China:
- Capture of the chief of the revolt of the Miao, Zhang Xiumei.
- Of Wenxiu, chief of the Moslem rebellion of the Yunnan, is carried out.
- the First forwarding of the Russian colonel Nikolai Prejevalsky in the north of the Tibet.
- Modernization of the Japanese state on the European model. Tax reform. Pension withdrawal to the nobility.
- Li Hongzhang, one of the leaders of the “occidentalists”, creates the Chinese Company of the steamers to fight against the influence of the Anglo-American conveyers on the Chinese domestic trade.
- Indian Christian Marriage Act : In India, the indigenous marriage is authorized (civil wedding). The law authorizes the interreligieuses unions and intercastes.
The Middle East & Arab world
- Othoman Intervention with the Yemen in front of the British presence with Aden. The Othoman troops establish a protectorate on the imanat of San' has and force with the escape the iman Al-Mutawakkil. An estimate of the agricultural resources and capacity tax are carried out.
- the Bulgarian interior revolutionary Organization, joined together with Bucharest, adopts its program of fight: “to release the Bulgaria by a moral revolution and the weapons”.
- Anticipated legislative elections in Spain, which open a political crisis: convinced of fraud, Sagasta must resign and yield the place to Serrano the May 26th, then with Ruis Zorilla the June 13rd.
- April 21st: Beginning of the Third war carlist (fine in 1876): rising of provinces of the north led by Charles VII, duke of Madrid (1848 - 1909), grandson of gift Carlos, which proclaims king the May 2nd.
September 7th: Interview of the three emperors (Austria, Germany, Russia) with Berlin. They get along on the principle of a mutual assistance in the event of aggression by a third power. Bismarck, which fears that France does not constitute an alliance antiprussienne with some other countries of Europe with called this meeting.
- September 10th: With the synod of Constantinople, the patriarch of the orthodoxe Church declares schismatic the Bulgarian Church (for philétysme). This decision is supported by the Greece which fears the Russian influence in the area.
- September: Scission between Bakouninistes and Marxists with the Congress of the International association of the workers to $the Hague.
- federalistic and anarchistic Agitation in the Mediterranean regions in Spain. Repression. Scission of the regional federation between Bakouninistes and Marxists. Paul Lafargue, son-in-law of Marx founds with Madrid the Nouvelle Federation inhabitant of Madrid .
- Russia: Right given to the ministry for the interior to prohibit any publication considered to be harmful. Aggravation continues taking away on the farming community: of 1861 at 1872, capitation with increased of 80%.
- Foundation of the General association of all the workers of Romania, following the strikes of 1868 in the port of the Black Sea and workshops of Temesvar and Bucharest.
- Austria: bringing together enters the liberal party, signatory of the compromise of 1867 and the party of independence.
- Removal of the corporations in Slovakia.
- University Babeş-Bolyai of Koloszvár in Hungary.
- Kulturkampf , in Germany: Between 1872 and 1875, Bismarck makes adopt series of measure legislative which lead to the expulsion of the Jesuits and the closing of their establishments, a control of the authorities on the formation and the nomination of the clergy, with a limitation of the capacity of the bishops, with the laicization of the civil statue. These measurements cause a strong reaction of faithful, Zentrum (left catholic) and of the pope Pie IX.
- March 11th: a school law removes all its attributions with the Catholic church teaching culture and the catholic department within the ministry for the Worships of Prussia is removed.
- July 4th: Prohibition about the Jesuits in Germany. (Kulturkampf)
- October 26th: The Reichstag decides the germanisation of the Posnanie, slavophone. The employment of the German becomes obligatory at the university.
- Creation of the German Mark.
The United Kingdom
- February: Attempted murder against the queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
June 24th: Speech of Disraeli to the Palate of Crystal, stating the program of the Preserving in three points: to defend the institutions of the country, to work with the imperial size, and to improve the condition of the people. Disraeli intends to create the imperial Federation, by making colonies the autonomous units of an Empire forming a customs union. The nonoccupied grounds of the colonies must be reserved to the English, a central body in London ensuring the coordination of the operations. The safeguarding of the Empire passes by its expansion.
- July 18th: Bundle act . The secret of the vote is introduced for the legislative elections.
- July 31st: Licensing Act on the consumption of alcohol.
See also: 1872 in France
Chronologies sets of themes
Arts & culture
- the Hearth of the dance of Degas.
- Impression rising sun of Monet.
- Portrait of Dostoïevski by Vasily Perov.
Births in 1872
- March 7th: Piet Mondrian, painter Dutch († 1944)
- March 19th: Serge Diaghilev, the inventor (Russian), the organizer and the director of the troop of the Russian Ballets († 1929)
- March 28th: Jose Sanjurjo, military Spanish († July 20th 1936, 64 years)
- April 9th: Leon Blum, politician French († 1950)
- May 10th: Marcel Mauss, ethnologe French († 1950)
- May 18th: Bertrand Russell, Mathematician, Philosopher and moralist, Nobel Prize of literature 1950 († February 2nd 1970)
- May 31st: Charles Greeley Abbot, American astronomer
- July 1st: Louis Blériot, manufacturer of planes and pilot French († 1936)
- July 4th: Calvin Coolidge, old President of the United States († 1933)
- July 9th: Montéhus, chansonnier, author of the Red Hillock.
- July 16th: Roald Amundsen, exploring Norwegian
- August 18th: Rene Auberjonois, Swiss painter († 1957)
- August 21st: Aubrey Beardsley, engraver and British draftsman († 1898)
- October 20th: Hassine Bouhageb, doctor, teacher and promoter of the sport Tunisia N († March 13rd 1946)
- October 21st: Ralph Vaughan Williams, British type-setter († 1958)
- December 28th: Pío Baroja, Spanish writer († 1956)
- Marcel Renault, manufacturer of cars French († 1903)
Death in 1872
- February 17th: Jose Burgos, Spanish missionary with the Filipino . (° February 9th 1837).
- April 2nd: Samuel Morse, inventor of the telegraph (° 1791).
- April 20th: Ljudevit Gaj, writer and Croatian politician.
- March 10th: Giuseppe Mazzini, with Pisa where he lived under an English name.
- May 6th:
- George Robert Gray, zoologist and British writer (° 1808).
- Johann Nepomuk Reithoffer, Austrian industrialist , which manufactured in 1811 the first products in rubber. (° April 13rd 1781).
- June 4th: Stanislaw Moniuszko, type-setter and theater director Polish (° May 5th 1819)
- July 14th: Jose María Sandpapers, Spanish Matador (° March 31st 1830).
- August 5th: Charles-Eugene Delaunay, astronomer and mathematician French.
- August 11th: Andrew Smith, Doctor - Military and British zoologist (° 1797).
- October 21st: Théophile Gautier, poet, novelist and French critic art (° 1811).
Be-X-old: 1872 Map-bms: 1872 Simple: 1872 Zh-yue: 1872 年
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