This page relates to the year 1866 Gregorian Calendrier.
- January: Beginning of the exploration of the hydrographic network of central Africa by the British explorer David Livingstone (fine in 1873).
- February 11th: The sultan of Oman Thuwaini ibn Sultan is assassinated by his son. The sultan of Zanzibar Madjid refuses to pay the annual tribute with the new sultan of Mascate and Oman, Sélim. He undertakes the construction of Dar are-Salaam, of which he wants to make his capital. Encouraged by his/her friend the Scottish tradesman Mac Kinnon, it grants European traders the authorization of a regular mail between Zanzibar and Aden. In exchange, it receives a material support for the construction of the city and, more discrete, a support of the consul British Kirk, anxious to maintain the preponderance English in the area.
- December: In Ethiopia, the Négus Théodoros II decides the total examination of the old capital Gondar, already dilapidated. It makes withdraw their treasures of 44 churches. Last nine hundred invaluable manuscripts are carried with Magdala, and the city is delivered to the fire.
- Beginning of the reign of Tiéba, king of the Kenedugu (fine in 1893). Under Tiéba, Kenedugu becomes the greatest State on Right Bank of the Niger between Ségou and the country Mossi. The capital Sikasso is strengthened with walls from 8 to 9 km, high from 3 to 5 meters and is flanked turns.
- the brother of the bey de Tunis, Sidi-el-Abel, takes the head of the revolt of the Kroumirs. The authorities of Tunis capture it, but cannot put a term at the anarchy which reigns in all the countries.
- With the Cape Verde, final abolition of the draft of the slaves.
- Forwarding of Rohlfs to the the Sahara and the central Sudan (1866-1867).
- Foundation of the house Lasnier, Daumas and Co . The house Régis loses its quasi commercial monopoly with the Dahomey.
- Anjouan becomes Protectorat French
- Invasion of grasshoppers in Algérie, which devastates harvests.
- August 2nd: The Colombia-British is attached to the Vancouver Island.
- June 2nd: Battle of Ridgeway
- December 4th: The conclusions of the conference of Quebec are adopted by the conference of London.
- December 6th: With the Hotel Westminster De luxe hotel of London, Alexander Tilloch Galt makes adopt article 93 so that the school rights of the minorities are guaranteed to the Bas and with the High-Canada.
- Coding of the civil law.
the United States
March 27th: “Presidential” rebuilding. Andrew Johnson successfully puts her veto at the bill aiming at reinforcing the Office of Freed, federal body in charge with the protection and the instruction of the émancipés slaves.
- April 9th: The Congress vote a law giving the civic equality to the Blacks in spite of the veto of the president.
- Johnson invites old Confédérés to reject the XIVe amendment April 16th (granting of the civic rights to the Blacks, prohibition of any political office to the Southerners). Tennessee will be the only State of the South to ratify it (July 24th).
- Johnson launches out in a polemic degrading against its adversaries at the time of the partial ones, alienating the majority of the moderate ones. The country reacts by granting the majority to the radicals.
- July 24th: The Tennessee is réadmis in Union.
- July 27th: First transatlantic cable connecting the United States to Europe posed by the American industrialist Cyrus W. Field.
- July 28th: The Congrès authorizes (but does not order) the use of the metric system.
- August 20th: The congress of the National Labor Union claims the eight hours day.
- Johnson declares the end of the American Civil War; the engagements actually ceased more than one year before. It puts its veto at a law allotting to the former slaves a ground and a mule.
- December 21st: Massacre Fetterman, or Battle off has Hundred Slain . Attracted by a trick of the Sioux, Fetterman and his detachment are massacred; there are 81 died.
- Entered of the Nebraska the Union.
- Riots against the Blacks: with Memphis (Tennessee), 46 white Blacks and two sympathizers are assassinated, five women violated and of the dwellings, the schools and the burnt churches (May); in New-Orleans, 35 Blacks and three White are killed (be).
- Birth of the “ National Labor Union ”, first national federation of trade unions, near of the First International. He will not survive the crisis of 1873.
- January 4th: Battle of Baghdad (Mexico).
- February 7th: Combat of Abtao in the hispano-south-American War.
- February 12th: American ultimatum with the France: the Secretary of State William Seward orders with Napoleon III to withdraw his troops of the Mexico. End of the American Civil War constrained France to evacuate Mexico, delivering Maximilien to the troops of Benito Juárez.
- March 31st: a Spanish fleet bombards Valparaiso with the Chile.
- May 31st: Napoleon III announces the withdrawal of the troops Frenchwoman of the Mexico.
- August 10th: Signature of a frontier agreement between the Chile and the Bolivia, which fixes the border common to the 24° parallel south and allows the common exploitation of the money and copper, nitrate layers in an area hitherto badly delimited.
- October 18th: Victoire of Porfirio Diaz on the French with the Battle of Carbonera.
- With the Mexico, between 1866 and 1883, 3 182 documents of title are distributed, bearing on 4 300 000 ha.
Asia & Indian world
- March 7th: Signature of a secret alliance of the pro-imperial and xenophobe strongholds Satsuma - Chôshù - Tosa to cut down the mode Shogun Al and to modernize the structures of the country.
- June 5th, Indo-China: The French explorers Ernest Doudart de Lagrée and Francis Garnier begin their recognition of the valley of the Mekong until in China.
- June: Signature of a secret agreement of division of influence in Central Asia between the Russia and the Persian . The shah engages by reacting in the event of Russian projection in the valleys of the Araxe and the Oxus. N the other hand, the Russians promise to support the Persian armies for the resumption of Herat.
- October 16th: Plundering of the monastery of the island Korea of Kanghwa by the French forwarding of the admiral Roze, in reprisals of the massacre of nine French missionaries.
- November 11th: bombardment of Seoul by the forwarding of the admiral Roze.
- Incidental between American sailors who seek to trade and of the Korean civils servant. The American ship is set fire to and the crew carried out. The government decides to put at death 8000 Christians, including 9 French missionaries. France dispatches war buildings to threaten the mouth of the river Han. The French troops take Kanghwa but essuient heavy losses with Chongjok and must evacuate.
- the China obtains a built naval arsenal with Fuzhou with the assistance of the French. It is able to build two modern vessels per annum.
- Indonesia: The Cultuurstelsel is abandoned for the cultures of Tabac.
- Transfer of the Kampuchean capital of Oudong to Phnom Penh.
- the Khanat of Bukhara is vassal Russian.
the Middle East & world arabo-Moslem
- January 22nd: An agreement signed with the Cairo between the pasha Ismaïl and the universal Company of the ship canal of Suez stipulates that this one is an Egyptian company , therefore governed by the Egyptian right.
- Lebanon: rising against the Othoman occupation. Whereas the partisans of Joseph Karam face the soldiers of the Porte, the arrival of Othoman reinforcements quickly gives a national character to rising. But fault of supports aristocracy, faithful to Da' ud, and of the French, the movement becomes exhausted and Da' ud Pasha restores the order.
Egypt: a decree of the sultan of Istanbul grants to the descendants Isma' it Pasha the direct heredity of wire father according to the rule of primogeniture and the title of Khedive. In addition, the first House of Commons, or the Council of notable of Egypt, is inaugurated. This Consultative Assembly elected with the second degree ensures the representation of the various districts of the country.
- February 23rd: The prince of Moldavie and Valachie Cuza must abdicate following a conspiracy of agrarian hostile with the land reform of 1864. He leaves for Vienna and Florence then dies in 1873 with Heidelberg.
- April 16th: Assassination attempt of Karakozov against the Tsar Alexandre II, followed repressions: suppression of the Contemporary and the Russian Word . Stop of the reforms with the come to power of conservatives.
- May 22nd: Cuza is replaced in Moldavie-Valachie by the prince Karl de Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, 27 years old, imposed by Bismarck and Napoleon III.
- June 26th: Beginning of the preserving ministry of the count de Derby, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (fine in 1868). His/her son Lord Stanley, conservative, becomes Foreign Minister.
- July 28th: New Constitution with the Denmark: twelve members of the Upper House are named by the king, the twenty-seven others are elected by the vote censitaire. The Conservatives, favorable to the royal capacity, keep the capacity until in 1901.
- September: The Othoman repress a revolt in Crete: Christians having required a tax reduction, the Door dispatches troops to protect the Moslems.
- October 23rd, Romania: Invested hereditary title of prince by the Othoman sultan, Karl de Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen takes its functions of prince under the name of Carol Ier of Romania and promulgates a liberal constitution immediately (July 13rd). A parliamentary mode with two rooms elected by the vote censitaire ensures fundamental freedoms (press, meetings, equality of the citizens). The orthodoxe religion becomes religion of State. The Christians alone can obtain the quality of Roumanian (article 7), which poses the problem of the Juifs and the Moslems of the Dobroudja.
- the dominant conservatives benefit from the interregnum to make vote a law on the contracts agricultural favorable to the owners, which causes a sharp agitation in the Rumanian campaigns in spring.
- the Jews, excluded from the property right of the ground, gather in the cities where they represent at the end of the century 19% of the population.
- October 30th: Beust becomes chancellor of Austria.
- November 8th: Drama of the Monastery of Arkadi in Crete.
- December 6th: New statute of the peasants of State in Russia: confirmed perpetual usufruct, theoretical possibility of repurchase.
- the British thinker John Stuart Mill claims the right to vote for the women.
- Creation with the the United Kingdom of the Company for the organization of charity to coordinate the action of many charity associations to the national scales.
- D. Tostoï, Minister for the State education in Russia.
- the April 9th, Bismarck presents to the Diet a constitution project of a Confédération of Germany of North, with a Parliament elected by the vote for all. The Austria cannot accept its exclusion of Germany. It borrows 60 million guilders on the place of Paris to remilitarize the Bohemia and the Moravie.
- May 12th: Decree of general mobilization in Prussia. Napoleon III proposes an International Conference to lead to general disarmament.
- June 7th: Beginning of the war enters the Austria and the Prussia for the control of the the Schleswig-Holstein.
- June 12th: The Prussia invades the the Schleswig-Holstein to answer the denunciation of the Convention of Gastein. The Germanic confederation answers the June 14th by issuing a procedure of general execution against the Prussia.
- Napoleon III lets beat Austria, while not intervening, it leaves the open door to the birth of the German unit under the Prussian authority.
- secret Convention of the June 13rd: François-Joseph Ier of Austria obtains French neutrality in Italy by secretly yielding the Venezia to Napoleon III so that it reassigns it with the kingdom of Italy.
- June 15th:
- the Prussians invade the Saxony without meeting resistance then go towards the Bohemia.
- the Prussian general Von Falkenstein invades the Hanover which capitulates the June 27th. Falkenstein invades the Hesse and demolishes the Bavarian ones with Bad Kissingen.
- June 20th: The Italy declares the war in Austria.
- 27 - June 28th: Battle of Langensalza.
- July 3rd: Battle of Sadowa (Königgrätz). Victoire Prussian of von Moltke on the Austria (Benedek), but also demolished small combined German States of Prussia.
- After the Austrian defeat with Sadowa against Prussia, first Franco-German tension. The compensations required by France not to be not intervened in the conflict are refused to him.
- July 13rd: Napoleon III refuses the mediation armed with France (Beust).
- July 22nd: Armistice of Nikolsburg, putting fine at the hostilities between Prussia and the Austria.
- François-Joseph Ier of Austria, whereas nothing was still played (neither Austria, nor Prussia do not have the means of continuing the war), thorough by Napoleon III, sign the armistice of Nikolsburg (Mikulov), followed peace of Prague the August 23rd. The territorial integrity of Austria-Hungary is respected (except Venezia). Austria must leave the Germanic confederation and must pour 20 million guilders of war indemnities in Prussia. Bismarck draws aside Habsbourg of the German businesses definitively and can organize a Confederation of Germany of North (1867). Prussia annexes the Hanover, the Hesse-Cassel, Nassau, Frankfurt, the Schleswig and the Holstein.
August 18th: August-Bündnis . Following the War austro-Prussian, gained by Prussia of Bismarck, creation of the confederation of the States of Germany of North, under the authority of Prussia.
- January 1st: Civil code.
- May 5th: It Secolo , newspaper of the radicals lombards. It will quadruple its diffusion in thirty years, passing from 40 000 with 160 000 specimens.
- June 19th: Bettino Ricasoli becomes president of the Council.
- June 20th: Third war of Independence: The Italy, allied with the Prussia, declares the war with the Austria.
- June 24th: The army Italian of the general Marmora, chief of staff, however higher of number, is beaten by the Austrians of the Albert archduke to the Bataille of Custoza (June 25th).
- July 20th:
- the Italian fleet of the admiral Carlo Persano is beaten with Lissa by the Austrians. Persano will be judged by the Senate joins together in High Court of justice.
- Garibaldi and its volunteers is victorious Austrians with Bezzecca, in the Trentin.
- August 12th: Armistice of Cormons. The king stops Garibaldi which went towards Thirty.
- September: Riots with Palermo and in Sicily against the rise of the prices.
- October 3rd: to the peace of Vienna, the Austria gives the Venezia to the France which gives it to the Italy, following the War between the Austria and the Italy. Austria keeps Thirty and Trieste.
- October 21st: The Venezia and the territory of Mantoue decide by plebiscite for the annexation with the kingdom of Italy.
- During the war, Italy has 220 000 men against 115 000 Austrians.
See also: 1866 in France
Chronologies sets of themes
- Art & culture:
Births in 1866
- January 1st: Ernest Seilliere, academician French († 1955)
- January 6th: Eugenio Ruspoli, explorer and Italian naturalist († December 4th 1893)
- January 25th: Emile Vandervelde in Ixelles, Belgian politician († 1938)
- January 29th: Romain Roland, writer French (Nobel Prize in 1916) († 1944)
- April 14th: Joseph-Dominique Guay, business man Quebec, Saguenay (city) († 1925)
- May 10th: Leon Bakst, Russian painter († 1924)
- May 17th: Erik Satie, type-setter French († 1925)
- June 26th: Lord Carnarvon, British Egyptologist
- July 5th: Paul Goat, sculptor French († 1914)
- September 7th: Tristan Bernard, writer French († 1947)
- October 20th: Kazimierz Twardowski, philosopher Polish († February 11th 1938)
- October 26th: Ignacy Daszynski, politician Polish († October 31st 1936)
- November 1st: Fabrilo (Julio Aparici there Pascual), Spanish Matador († May 30th 1897).
- November 11th: Antoine Meillet, linguist French († 1936)
- November 12th: Sun Yat-SEN, statesman Chinese († 1925)
- December 12th: Alfred Werner, chemist French († 1919)
- December 16th (December 4th of the Calendar Julien): Wassily Kandinsky, French painter of Russian origin († 1944)
- December 21st: Maud Gonne, actress and revolutionary Irish (° 1953)
Death in 1866
- June 18th: Ka Naung, royal prince and Burmese modernisator (° 1829)
- July 20th: Bernhard Riemann, German mathematician
- September 25th: Karl Ludwig Hencke, Astronomer German amateur .
- October 13rd: William Hopkins, geologist and British Mathematician
- November 20th: Joseph d' Ortigue, critical musical and historian of the French music (° 1802)
Beats-smg: 1866 Be-X-old: 1866 Map-bms: 1866 Simple: 1866 Zh-yue: 1866 年
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