This page relates to the year 1860 Gregorian Calendrier.
Foundation of the Alliance universal Jew or (AIU), by the will of Adolphe Crémieux, a Jew of a very former family of Provence which played a great part as a revolutionist in 1848. The AIU will become a vector of the cultural and spiritual values of republican France and an agent of influence and information of the Quay of Orsay (Ministry for Foreign Affairs).
- 5 - September 9th: Victoire of El Hadj Omar on the Bambara with Woitala.
- October: The British explorer John Hanning Speke share of Zanzibar to the head of a forwarding towards the source of the the Nile (fine in 1863).
- Importation of the first Indian coolies to the Native .
- France begins its expansion in Western Africa.
- the British take again Lagos, which is proclaimed Colonie of the crown in 1861.
- the catholic African Missions of Lyon establish with the Bénin the father Planque. He founds a vicariate there and creates of them another with the Dahomey, bases of radiation for the congregation. In less than one half-century, the Missions will affirm their religious influence on all the territories located between the Nigeria and the Liberia.
- Foundation of the '' True Whig Party '' with the Liberia.
- the Portuguese seize São El Salvador (Angola).
- American Intervention in Angola to ensure the safety of the citizens and the American goods Kissombo during an indigenous revolt.
- February 5th: Spanish takeover by force on Tétouan with the Morocco. The Spain asserts historical rights on the territory of the sultanate and requires a war indemnity in cash or a right of permanent occupation of Tétouan. The sultan of Morocco must choose between the presence of the foreign forces on his territory and the durable weakening of the economy of the country.
Of the 17 to the September 19th: Visit Napoleon III with Algiers. He receives a reserved reception on behalf of the French population, which had not voted in its favor at the time of its election in 1851. Moreover, it wishes to guarantee the protection of the Arab grounds against the greed of the colonists. Being wary of the civilians, he prefers to reinforce the prerogatives of the army.
November 24th: The ministry for Algeria and the Colonies is removed and the general governor position of the Algérie east restores. It is allotted to the marshal Pélissier (fine in 1864). Policy of the “Arab Kingdom”. The state education and the worships remain attached to Paris.
- Forwarding of Colonieu in the North of the the Sahara.
- Napoleon III, consulted by Ismaël Urbain, a Saint-Simonien converts with the Islam, professes levelling ideas which cause negative reactions on behalf of Pélissier, then of Mac-Mahon.
- Strike of the shoe-makers of Lynn (Massachusetts) with the beginning of the year, followed by the workmen and the workers of the leather of all the New England, is more 20 000 people. A demonstration with Lynn gathers ten thousand workers.
- April 3rd: The Pony Express connects Saint Joseph (Missouri) to Sacramento (California) in ten days until in 1861. Six lines of diligences cover in 26 days the same distance.
- May: Division within the Democrats on the question of slavery.
- November 6th: The republican Abraham Lincoln is elected President of the United States after having made countryside against slavery and for Union (end in 1865) maintains.
- December 24th: Secession of the South Carolina which cannot accept a president with the anti-slavery program.
- Died of 98 workmen during the collapse of the factory Pemberton with Lawrence (Massachusetts).
- Voyage of the prince de Galles with the Canada under the direction of the secretary of the Colonies, the Duke of Newcastle. He gives place to many demonstrations in favor of the federation.
- February 25th: Treaty of Mapasingue. End of the war enters the Peru and the Ecuador (1859-1860).
- April: Felipe Tovar succeeds Monagas like chair Republic of the Venezuela. Monagas, suspected of wanting to sell with a foreign power the Guyana vénézuélienne, was reversed by the general Castro, governor of Carabobo.
November 13rd: Ramón Castilla, president of Peru since 1855, benefits from its victory against Ecuador to amend the charter of 1856 - which limits the duration of the presidency to four years and obtains a new mandate.
November 17th: Antoine de Tounens, a lawyer of the Dordogne, benefits from the political upheavals of the Chile to be made elect king by the chiefs Araucans under the name of Orélie-Antoine Ist It gives to “its possessions”, of the Ground of Fire to the Bio Bio, a constitution and a legislation copied on those of the second Empire. The Chilean government the captive fact and to repatriate in France in 1862 at the request of the government of Napoleon III. Tounens will undertake in 1871 to reconquer its throne, before being again deposited and driven out by the Chilean ones.
- the Paraguay is closed with the external contacts and sets up more the large army of South America.
- With the Brazil, the commercial and agricultural Bank is in liquidation.
Oceania & the Pacific
- March 5th: First wars taranaki. Beginning of a conflict between colonists and Maori S in New Zealand (fine in 1864).
- the British colonies of Australia and New Zealand receive a broad autonomy.
- August 20th: Departure of Melbourne of Burke-Wills forwarding. The British explorers Robert O' Hara Burke and William J. Wills make a success of the crossing south-north the Australia (fine in 1861).
Australia: Multiplications of the missions (catholic, Lutherans, Anglicans…) to gather the populations indigenous S and to convert them with Christianity and éradiquer practices known as “primitive”, like the initiation of young people. The conversion of the adults proves to be difficult. One tries to isolate the children in boarding schools to inculcate the biblical precepts to them.
- Increase in the production of corn in Australia.
- January 1st: Abolition of the Slavery in Indonesia.
- October 19th: Died of Ang Duong. Beginning of the reign of Norodom Ier, king of Kampuchea (fine in 1904).
- November 14th: Foundation of the Russian city of Vladivostok.
- Korea: Choe Che-u proposes a new creed, Tonghak (to know of the East). The number of follower of this faith in a celestial Master who ensures immortality grows quickly. In spite of the execution of Choe Che-u (1864), this movement of refusal of the Occidental culture will be at the origin of disorders until the end of the century.
- Beginning of the reign of Muzaffer AD-DIN, khan of Bukhara (fine in 1885).
- First penal code in India.
- Famine in India (1860 - 1861).
- Indonesia: Creation of the NR. V. Billiton Maatschappij (exploitation of tin).
- Max Havelaar or the sales of coffee of the Company Dutchwoman , delivers published in Holland under the pseudonym of Multatuli by Edward Douwes Dekker. It made a violent satire of the colonial system there, denouncing the Dutch middle-class which grows rich in sugar and the coffee and tolerates the exactions of the “regents” on the Javanese population. Its book with a great repercussion on the opinion.
- March 24th: The Minister for the Shogun II Naosuke (1815 -1860) is assassinated with Edo by hostile Samurai S with his policy.
- August 3rd: Treaty enters the Portugal and the Japan.
- Japanese Embassy with the the United States.
- Movement anti-Westerner directed by the clans Satsuma, Choshu and Tosa, which preaches “the expulsion of the barbarians”. They join around the emperor with Kyōto and, thanks to the imperial support, take the initiative of military attacks on ground and sea, directed against the foreign ships which were in the Japanese ports.
- the Japanese build a ship of Western style which crosses the Pacifique with a Japanese crew.
- August 19th: New Franco-British forwarding which beats an army Taiping close to Shanghai
- August 21st: Franco-British forces seize strong Chinese of Dagu, close to Tianjin.
- August 24th: The Franco-British ones occupy Tianjin.
- September 21st: Battle of Baliqiao, at the time which the Franco-British troops of the general Cousin-Montauban put in rout 50 000 Chinese in the east of Beijing. This victory over the Manchu cavalry opens the doors of Beijing to them.
- October 6th: The Franco-British troops take the Chinese capital, Beijing.
- October 18th: Bag of the palate of summer of Beijing by the general Cousin-Montauban and Lord Elgin. It is burnt in reprisals of the atrocities made against Western prisoners.
- 24 - October 25th: Treaty of Beijing, opening China with the Westerners. The China must yield concessions to the British and open eleven ports with their trade. The United Kingdom annexes the peninsula of Kowloon while France becomes the guard of the catholic establishments. End of the Second war of opium.
- October 28th: Second Treated of Tianjin, which confirms the opening of the Chinese ports to the trade and the protection of the catholic missionaries.
- November 14th: The Russians tear off in China left bank of the Amour ( Heilong Jiang ), forming the Seaboard province and found Vladivostok.
The Middle East
May 17th: Creation in France of the Alliance universal Jew, which gives itself for goal regeneration of the Jewish populations of the East, by creating schools and establishments of professional training.
- August 30th: Unloading of a French forwarding in Syria and with the Lebanon, to protect the Christians Maronite S against the Druze S. the Maronites occupied the function of peasants farmers, and the Druzes, that of landowners (sheiks). Following a revolt of the peasants against their Masters, the lords Druzes counteract and carry it.
- One counts 22  on the whole; 000 victims, of which 6 000 Christians in Mount-Lebanon and almost twice more with Damas. This episode is interpreted thereafter, wrongly, like a massacre of Christians by the Druzes. If it acts at the beginning of a social conflict, it does not remain about it less than this massacre is the first to crystallize antagonisms Community (and, therefore, denominational) in Lebanon.
- the town of Jerusalem account approximately 15 000 people, of which the half of Jews, the quarter of Moslems, the quarter of Christians.
- January 19th: Encyclical of Black and white IX on the temporal power.
- January 23rd: Treaty of free trade and trade enters the France and the the United Kingdom. The customs duties will be fixed according to the value of the products.
- April: The orthodoxe Church of Bulgaria separates from the patriarchate of Constantinople. Under the action of the laic ones which insists to obtain national bishops, separatist tendencies within the orthodoxe Church against the absolute power of the Greek patriarchate developed.
October: The emperor François-Joseph Ier of Austria tries a federal solution by a constitutional diploma granting a broad autonomy to the old provinces. In front of the opposition of the German middle-class, bureaucracy and of the Hungarian nobility, it returns as of February 1861 to a government more centralized. The Hungarian Parliament, convened in 1860-1861, opposes the royal rescrits by a “petition with the king”. The sovereign rejects it and dissolves the Parliament.
- October 22nd: In Russia, the commissions of drafting, charged to examine provincial work of the committee (March 1859) propose at the principal committee a project of statute for the liberalization of the serfs.
- December: Liberal cabinet of Schmerling in Austria.
- Suppression of the export duties with the Netherlands.
- Reorganization of teaching in Romania. Foundation of the university of Iasi.
- Creation of the Bank of State in Russia.
- Abolition of last discriminations between new and former Christians by the the Cortes in Spain. Traces remain in the company ( chuetas of Majorque, held of registers of the families converted in certain parishes to avoid the marriages mix).
See also: 1860 in France
- March 24th: Fastening by referendum of the Savoy and Nice in France (treated of Turin between France and the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia).
- November 24th: Decree giving to the legislative Body and the Senate right of address (response of the Rooms to the annual speech of the Throne).
- March 24th: To the treated of Turin, Victor-Emmanuel II yields the Savoy and Nice to the France. In exchange, Napoleon III accepts that the populations of Toscane, Parma and Modena, agitated by revolts against the pontifical State, come to a conclusion by plebiscite about their fastening with the Piedmont. Only Venice remains under Austro-Hungarian control.
- April 4th: Insurrection in Sicily repressed by François II.
- May 11th: Forwarding of the Thousand, imagined by Francesco Crispi and sicilian refugees of Turin: Giuseppe Garibaldi and its red Chemises unloads with Marsala in Sicily and demolishes the Neapolitan troops with Calatafimi (May 15th).
- May 27th: The Thousand enter to Palermo
- July 20th: The Austrians with evacuate the Sicily.
- September 7th: The Thousand seize Naples. Cavour pretends to repudiate forwarding all while providing him weapons. Garibaldi, which joined again with his/her former democratic friends of 1848 (Cattaneo, Bertani, Sertori), announces that it will go on Rome to make there proclaim Victor-Emmanuel king d' Italie. Anxious of the international repercussions that forwarding could have, Cavour and Victor-Emmanuel send troops in the Papal States to defend the pope against “the democratic attack” which threatens it. The Piedmontese one invade the Marches.
- September 18th: Battle of Castelfidardo, at the time which the troops of Cavour of the Royaume of Piedmont-Sardinia beat the pontifical troops, without intervention of the French troops of Rome.
- the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia annexes the major part of the Papal States, the pope preserving the town of Rome. The Piedmontese troops go on Naples and lead Garibaldi to line up with their with dimensions.
- September 29th: Reinforcement of the French troops of Rome.
- October 21st: By plebiscite, the populations of Naples and Sicily decide for fastening with the Piedmont.
- October 26th: Garibaldi meets the king of Piedmont with Teano and title of “king d' Italie greets it”.
- November 9th: Garibaldi is withdrawn in its island of Caprera.
- November: The Ombrie, the Romagna and the Marches are joined together by plebiscite with the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.
- December 5th: The general Enrico Cialdini directs the seat of Gaète, last rampart of the resistance of the Bourbons (end in February 1861).
- Publication of the Penal code, civil procedure and penal procedure.
Malayan economic. The civil war in the South, the installation of a heavier administration, strike heavily the budget of the State which is continuously in deficit. The Minister for Finance Quintino Sella must increase direct taxes and indirect, restoring unpopular the macinato (tax on grindings). The brutal lifting of the tariff barriers causes the bankruptcy of many companies protected hitherto. The trade stagnates.
old the Royaume of Deux-Siciles worries the Piedmontese one, the danger which can come from the partisans of the Bourbons as well as of the radicals with which Garibaldi had had contacts during its forwarding. Piedmont there thus establishes a rigorous administrative centralization, sends civils servant come from North and gives to Piedmontese railway concessions. New taxes are raised, the restored conscription and organizes it reorganized, which increases the unpopularity of the mode. The traditional phenomenon of the armed robbery is reinforced. Former king de Naples, taken refuge in the States of the pope, subsidizes the brigands and asylum gives them when they are driven out. Turin sends 120  then; 000 men to fight the brigands estimated at 80 000. Secret societies, Maffia in Sicily and Camorra with Naples, supported by the great landowners, are essential by terror and the intimidation. The ideas of the Russian anarchist Bakounine, installed in Italy as of 1864, find an audience important near the hostile populations with centralization.
Chronologies sets of themes
Religion and Philosophy
- January 19th: Encyclical of Black and white IX on the temporal power.
- April 3rd: The orthodoxe Église of Bulgaria separates from the patriarchate of Constantinople. Under the action of the laic ones which insists to obtain national bishops, separatist tendencies within the orthodoxe Church against the absolute power of the Greek patriarchate developed.
Art & culture
Births in 1860
- January 17th: Anton Tchekhov, Russian writer († 1904).
- April 29th: Lorado Taft, American Sculptor . († October 30th 1936).
- August 16th: Jules Laforgue, Poet French († 1887).
- August 20th: Raymond Poincaré future President of the French Republic († 1934).
Death in 1860
- March 4th: Honore Reille (85 years), Marshal of France and Count d' Empire, in Paris.
- May 13rd: Christian Gmelin, German chemist (° 1792).
- June 24th: Jerome Bonaparte (76 years), younger brother of Napoleon i and uncle of Napoleon III, with the castle of Villegenis with Massy (the Essonne).
- August 14th: Andre Marie Constant Duméril, zoologist French (° 1774).
- September 21st: Arthur Schopenhauer in Francfort-sur-le-Main.
- December 26th: Jean-Marie de Lamennais, French priest (° 1780).
Beats-smg: 1860 Be-X-old: 1860 Map-bms: 1860 Simple: 1860 Zh-yue: 1860 年
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