This page relates to the year 1859 Gregorian Calendrier.
- Switzerland Jean Henri Dunant lance the idea of the the Red Cross.
- September 16th: The British explorer David Livingstone, during his great exploration to the Mozambique between 1858 and 1864 discovers the immense lake Nyassa (Lac Malawi) of a surface of 26 000 km ² (45 times the lake Léman).
- El Hadj Omar takes again the offensive towards south-west while trying to seize Malam, but beaten once again by the French troops, it decides to carry its efforts towards the east.
- Beginning of the reign of Madjid ibn Saïd, sultan of Zanzibar (fine in 1870).
- Epidemics of Cholera and Variola to the Meeting.
- Napoleon III takes measures against the Esclavage: the slave traders continue to practice the draft on the coast of the Mozambique in spite of its abolition by the French government in 1848. They recruit of number of the “free workers with contract of five years emigration”, free labor intended for the plantations of the Mascareignes and the the Comoros.
- March 24th: Jerome Napoleon is replaced with the head of the ministry for Algeria and the Colonies by the count of Chasseloup-Laubat which equips the Algérie with an important infrastructure (harbor installation of Algiers, Oran, Philippeville, construction of roads, railroads, electric cable Algiers - Toulon, etc).
- May 1st: Henri Duveyrier share of Paris for a forwarding near the Tuaregs (1859 - 1860).
- August 24th: Beginning of the reign of Sidi-Mohammed, sultan of the Morocco (fine in 1873).
- With the advent of Sidi-Mohammed, a French task force crosses the Moroccan border and, under the terms of the right of continuation granted to France, continues the Blessed-Snassen beyond the plain of the Angad.
- September 20th: Beginning of the reign of Sadok Bey, Bey de Tunis (fine in 1882).
- the great work undertaken by the sovereign is accompanied by heavier and more taxes and obliges the bey to claim appropriations which it cannot refund.
- October 29th: War of the Spain against the Morocco (fine in 1860). An army of 50 000 men passes to the Morocco.
- October 31st - November 6th: Defeats of the Arab tribes which had tackled the French positions in Algérie.
- January 15th: Fabre Geffrard drives out the emperor Faustin Ier in Haiti. It puts an end to twelve years of the ubuesque reign of the general Faustin Soulouque, who had proclaimed emperor at the end of a ceremony copied on the sacring of Napoleon and “had pacified” the island with brutality. Fabre Geffrard is elected president the January 23rd (fine in 1867).
- February 14th: The Oregon becomes the State thirty-third of the American Union.
- May 8th, Costa Rica: Mora, several times at the capacity since 1842 is elected president. He tries to join again with the policy of neutrality which had made of him the founding father of Costa Rica. He is reversed by the doctor Montealegre the August 14th and is shot in 1860.
- July: Construction of the Parliament of Quebec (end in February 1860) which shelters the government of the Canada-Plain until the autumn 1865, then becomes the seat of the legislative Assemblée of the news Province of Quebec starting from 1867.
- August 27th: Discovered oil with Titusville in Pennsylvania with the the United States by a railwayman, Edwin Drake, which traditionally marks the beginning of the age of the Pétrole. Oil will be initially used as fuel for the engines and the ships.
- September 7th: Gabriel García Moreno, indicated by the constituent Assembly like caudillo of the Ecuador (fine in 1875), imposes a catholic dictatorship in Ecuador.
- October 16th: Raid of the free trade militant John Brown against the arsenal of Harpers Ferry, in Virginia.
- November 11th: Buenos Aires must join the Confederation at the conclusion of a civil war in Argentine.
- November 28th: Treaty of Wyke-Cruz between the Honduras and the the United States. President Gardiola obtains the devolution, with the profit of the Honduras, the islands of Bahia, with the east of the gulf of Honduras.
- December 2nd: John Brown is hung by the State of Virginia with the complicity of the federal authorities to have tried to foment a general revolt of the slaves of the South.
- Agitation in the Canadian West in favor of fastening to the Dominion against the authority of the Company of Hudson Bay.
- Gold rush in the Colorado (100 000 people) and towards the money seam “Comstock” in the Nevada (Virginia City).
- Foundation of the Massachusetts Institute off Technology with Cambridge (charter in 1861). It will become famous in the whole world for the quality of its research under its initial MIT.
- the authoritative government of Manuel Montt involves a radical revolt with the Chile which is repressed hard.
- Laws of Reform in Mexico.
Oceania & the Pacific
- June 6th: The Queensland becomes a colony separated in Australia.
- April 20th: Agreement between the Portugal and the Netherlands which divide Timor and the islands neighbouring.
- June 26th: A new Franco-British offensive on Tianjin, in China, fails in front of the forts of Dagu.
- Foundation of the movement Tonghak in Korea.
- With the Japan, the minister II Naosuke starts repression against the Samurai S hostile xenophobes with the concessions granted to the Occident with. Their chief, Yoshida Sho' in, is stopped and carried out on July 1st.
- Intervention intended to protect the American interests with Shanghai.
- Creation of a “Dutch” medical school to the Japan.
- February 18th: The French Army occupies the town of Saigon to make pressure on the emperor of Annam after the murder of several European Christian missionaries. Beginning of the French installation in Cochinchine. The admiral Rigault de Genouilly bombards Tourane, settles in most of Cochinchine and takes the wearing of Saigon, essential to the supply of Huê.
- April 22nd: The French task force beats the army annamite (Vietnam).
- October 30th: The vice-admiral Rigault de Genouilly leaves his command in Annam under the acclamations of his men.
- Revolt of the Indigo. It bursts among the Bengali peasants exasperated by brutalities of the Britanniques growers. It will have as a consequence the development of the culture of the Jute, which will become one of the first activities of the Bengal.
- the army is reorganized: the artillery is entirely controlled by Europeans, the Indians cannot exceed the rank of warrant officers and the large one of the Indian troops is recruited among the Sikhs Pendjab and the Gurkhas of the Nepal.
The Middle East
- March 24th: Beginning of the boring of the Suez Canal by Ferdinand de Lesseps (fine in 1869). The pasha Mohammad Sa' id does not attend the ceremony, opposed by the European influence on the Egyptian political life. The Porte refuses to support the project.
- the Britanniques invade the Balouchistan encircle the Afghanistan of it.
- the shah of Persia Aldine Naser Chah tries to regulate the right of protection and asylum. This right makes it possible the religious foundations to accommodate the opponents and the criminals who, once placed under their protection, are withdrawn from the police force. It supports the constitution of an opposition which even the protection of the foreign powers receives.
- January: Alexandre Cuza is elected hospodar of Valachie the 5 January 17th and of Moldavie on January 24th/February 5th (fine in 1866).
- the Austria, which fears the foundation of Large a Romania gathering the Roumanians of Transylvania, of the Banat and Bucovine, then under its domination, is opposed to the union Valachie and Moldavie. Napoleon III then proposes with the two principalities to vote for the same governor. The election of Alexandre Cuza, like hospodar of Valachie and Moldavie, carries out the unit in fact of Romania, which will be officially recognized in 1861 by the European powers and the Turks. The capital is established with Bucharest.
- June 14th: The Prussia mobilizes on the the Rhine to come to assistance of the Austria.
- June: Beginning of the second liberal ministry of the Henry John Temple, Palmerston Viscount, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (fine in 1865).
- July 8th: Beginning of the reign of Charles XV, king of Sweden (fine in 1872).
- August 26th: Russian offensive with the Daghestan. Capitulation of the Imam Chamil, spiritual leader and military tchetchene, which is exiled in the area of Moscow. Russia undertakes the colonization of the territory tchetchene.
- September 15th: Deutsche Nationalverein (National association) in Germany founded with Frankfurt by the liberals and the democrats with an aim of sensitizing popular environments with the idea of a German fatherland above particularisms.
- the Netherlands abolish the Esclavage.
- the Russia control completely the the Caucasus. Continuation of the pacification of the Circassie (1859 - 1864). 400 000 Circassiens emigrate in Turkey.
- New form of country agitation in Russia: “temperance campaigns” against the abuses the employees of the bars.
- Constitution of an opposition party in Norway ( Venstre , “left”) directed by Johan Sverdrup, which receives the support of country elements of Christian inspiration. He works with the introduction of a really parliamentary mode.
- the Austrian Minister of Interior Department Bach is thanked. The emperor evolves to the idea of a constitutional monarchy.
See also: 1859 in France
January 26th: Treaty of Turin between the France and the Sardinia.
- March 3rd: The France reconciles Russian neutrality in the event of war with the Austria.
- April 23rd: The Austria lance an ultimatum with the Piedmont enjoignant it to disarm in three days.
- April 24th: The general of Mac-Mahon is put at the head of the 2nd army corps of Italy. The general Forey is named ordering the 1st division of the 1st army corps of Italy.
- April 29th: Austria attacks the Piedmont, combined France.
- May 3rd: Napoleon III assistance the Italian Camillo Cavour in its war against the Austria. France declares the war in Austria, which estimated that Napoleon III would not engage because of the force of his opposition. The Vaillant marshal orders as a chief the army of Italy.
- May 10th: Napoleon III takes the command of the army which must release Italy.
- May 20th: Battle of Montebello di Casteggio gained by the marshal Bararguey d' Hilliers.
- Of the 30 to the May 31st: Battle of Palestro in Lombardy, between the Sardinians of king Victor-Emmanuel II, assisted by the third French regiment zouaves of the colonel de Chabron, and Austrians of Guylay. Victoire of thePiedmontese one.
- June 3rd: Battle of Turbigo in Lombardy gained by the general of Mac-Mahon over the Austrians of Clam-Official receptions.
- June 4th: Battle of Magenta: gained by the Piedmont board of the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, and by the French Army of Italy, ordered by the general of Mac-Mahon and Napoleon III, against the Austrians ordered by Guylay.
- June 5th: The general Edme of Mac-Mahon is named Marshal of France, just as the general Auguste Regnaud of Midsummer's Day d' Angély (68 years), commander-in-chief of the imperial guard.
- June 6th: Napoleon III names the marshal of Mac-Mahon, duke of Magenta.
- June 8th:
- the emperor Napoleon III and the king Victor-Emmanuel II make a triumphal entry in Milan.
- Battle of Melegnano gained by the Forey general against the Austrians.
- June 24th: Battle of Solferino in Lombardy: French and Piedmontese victory against the Austrians. The victory was in particular played thanks to a movement of the marshal Canrobert.
- Henri Dunant, future founder of the the Red Cross, helps the casualties there.
- June 25th:
- the general Adolphe Niel (57 years) is named Marshal of France.
- Following an incident, part of the French cavalry is taken of panic.
- July 8th: Signature of the suspension of fighting between the Valiant marshal and the Austrian general Hesse.
- July 11th: Meet with Villafranca di Verona (Venezia) between the emperors of France and Austria. Napoleon III, fearing the formation of a hostile European coalition and too the great power of Piedmont-Sardinia, precipitately concludes the preliminaries from Villafranca where it releases Piedmont by fear of Prussia
- July 12th: Armistice of Villafranca. The armistice and the preliminaries of peaces which put an end to the countryside of Italy are signed in Villafranca Di Verona between the Austria, the France and the Royaume of Piedmont-Sardinia. The Habsbourg lose the Lombardy, Modena and the Toscane. Cavour resigns after the preliminaries.
- Modena, Parma and the Romagna is raised. The princes of Tuscan, Parma and Modena flee and Cavour sends police chiefs to take over temporarily the duties.
- August: Venice is taken again by the Austrians after five months of seat.
- October 23rd: Law Rattazzi in Piedmont. The communes are directed by municipal councils elected by the vote censitaire but the mayors are named by the government.
- Of the 10 to the November 11th: Negotiations and peace concluded with the Treated from Zurich following the victory from the troops free-Sardinians over the Austrians:
- Austria yields the Lombardy to France but preserves the Venezia.
- France reassigns the Lombardy with the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia but acquires the Comté of Nice and the Duché of Savoy.
- December 22nd: Napoleon III makes publish a booklet in which he advises with the pope Pie IX to contribute to the solution of the Italian national problem while granting the dismemberment of his States (the pope will condemn this booklet).
Chronologies sets of themes
See also: 1859 in science, 1859 in the railroads, 1859 in sport
Art & culture
See also: 1859 in music, 1859 in literature, 1859 with the theater
- Japanese art arrives in France.
- October 2nd: With Seville (Spain), alternative second of Jose María Sandpapers, Spanish Matador. He had taken of it a first with Madrid (Spain) the August 3rd 1856.
- 16 - December 17th: Set fire to Château of Frederiksborg (Denmark). It is restored mainly thanks to the patronage of the foundation Carlsberg and becomes a museum of the Histoire of Denmark.
Economy & Company
- the foreign trade of the Piedmont represents one the third of the Italian foreign trade. The railway network reaches 800 km and is the first of Italy. The traffic of the port of Genoa exceeds that of Venice and Naples. Piedmont becomes the most industrialized area of Italy.
- Congress of the economists of Frankfurt which claims the introduction of the freedom of trade.
- 5 000 with 6 000 Indians live with Zanzibar (200 in 1819; 350 in 1835, 700 in 1845). They have a central role in the international business and room and are the only bankers and financial of Eastern Africa. Richest of them occupy the coveted load of “Master of the customs”, like Jairam Sewji (1834 - 1853) or Taria Topan starting from 1876.
- Brazil: The wholesale prices of the vivres doubled since 1852 and the retail prices quadrupled.
- the British assume in fact 80% of the foreign trade of the Japan.
Births in 1859
- January 1st: Thibaw Min, last king of Burma (deposited in 1885, † in 1916).
- January 11th: George Nathaniel Curzon, British statesman .
- January 15th: Nathaniel Lord Britton, American Botanist, († 1934).
- January 27th: Guillaume II of Germany, last German emperor and last king of Prussia of 1888 with 1918 († 1941)
- February 5th: Louis-Joseph Maurin, Archbishop of Lyon, († 1936).
- February 10th: Alexandre Millerand, future president of the French Republic, († 1943).
- February 19th: Svante August Arrhenius, Chemist Swedish, († 1927).
- May 15th: Pierre Curie, Physicist French, († 1906).
- May 23rd: Arthur Conan Doyle, true inventor of the Romance police with its hero Sherlock Holmes, († 1930).
- June 9th: Doveton Sturdee, British admiral († May 7th 1925)
- June 23rd: Alfred William Alcock, British Naturalist , († 1933).
- July 3rd: Pierre Termier, Geologist French, († 1930).
- July 24th: Louis d' Iriart d' Etchepare, politician French, († 1945).
- August 4th: Knut Hamsun, Norwegian writer, († 1952).
- September 3rd: Jean Jaurès, politician French, († 1914).
- September 17th: Frank Dawson Adams, Canadian geologist.
- October 9th: Alfred Dreyfus (see the Business Dreyfus), († 1935).
- October 18th: Henri Bergson, Philosopher French, († 1941).
- October 29th: Ernst Hartert, German Ornithologist, († 1933).
- November 30th: Sergueï Liapounov, Russian Type-setter , († 1924).
- December 2nd Georges Seurat, painter French, († 1891).
- December 15th: Lejzer Ludwik Zamenhof, Doctor Ophtalmologist Polish, initiator of the Esperanto, († 1917).
Death in 1859
- January 28th: Carl Adolph Agardh, Botanist, Mathematician, economist and politician Swedish (° 1785)
- January 29th: William Cranch Jump, American astronomer
- February 26th: Carl Ludwig Doleschall (or Doleschal) Austrian Naturalist (° 1827)
- April 16th: Alexis de Tocqueville, French writer and politician visionary (54 years)
- May 6th: Alexander von Humboldt, naturalist and German traveller
- June 11th: Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, diplomat and an Austrian politician
- July 5th: Charles Cagniard de Latour, engineer and physicist French (° March 31st 1777)
- July 23rd: Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, French poetess (° 1786)
- September 15th: Isambard Kingdom Brunel, English engineer originator of the Great Eastern (° 1806)
- October 15th: Pedro Parraga, Spanish Matador (° November 5th 1818).
- November 22nd: Abdallah d' Asbonne, Mameluke of the imperial Guard and French Consul
- December 10th: Thomas Nuttall, botanist and American ornithologist (° 1786)
Muhammad ibn 'Ali Al-Sanusi
Beats-smg: 1859 Be-X-old: 1859 Map-bms: 1859 Simple: 1859 Zh-yue: 1859 年
|Random links:||Diane Dufresne | Helen Herron Taft | Alain-Dominique Perrin | Central consonant | Axel Duboul|