This page relates to the year 1857 Gregorian Calendrier.
- April: El Hadj Omar moves towards south-west and devastates the Khasso , territory protected by France.
- April 20th: El Hadj Oumar Tall undertakes the seat of the fort of Médine, on High Senegal. For four months, the city, defended by the mulatto Paul Holle, seven soldiers European, 22 black soldiers, 36 Senegalese sailors and some auxiliaries autochtones, resists the attacks of 25 000 Toucouleurs .
- May 25th: Foundation of the town of Dakar to the Senegal.
- June: The French government authorizes the transport of free blacks “ ” in the mouth of the Fleuve Congo to go to work with in Guadeloupe and Martinique (1857 - 1862). The business is condemned by the British.
- July 18th: The seat of Médine is raised following the intervention of Louis Faidherbe which constrained the chief tidjanist El Hadj Omar to be beaten a retreat. France undertakes the occupation of the Mali.
- July 21st: Decree of Plombières-the-Baths. Louis Faidherbe creates a battalion of Senegalese Tirailleurs, in majority of the slaves repurchased with their Masters against an engagement from 12 to 14 years. They will be 1 200 in 1882, 2 400 in 1891, 6 000 in 1895, 8 500 in 1900, 12 000 in 1911,17 350 in 1914.
Foundation under the patronage of David Livingstone of the Universities Mission to Central Africa which gives itself for mission the establishment of “centers of Christendom and civilization by the promotion of the true religion, agriculture and the legitimate trade”.
- Zanzibar account 300 000 inhabitants, of which 200 000 slaves.
- Madagascar: The religious persecutions directed against the Christians reach a paroxysm: put at died and exiles at the island Maurice multiply. The queen Ranavalona, by her antichrétienne attitude, attracts herself the opposition of the European governments and enters in conflict with the French traders of Large Island, which it expels of the territory.
- April 8th: Napoleon III authorizes by decree the creation of a railway network in Algérie. The Childish father , adviser of the emperor, who accomplished a stay in Algeria in 1839, encourages the brothers Talabot, of the General society, to invest in the Colony.
- July 11th: With the tender of Large the Kabylie, France puts an end to resistance Algérie.
- July: Countryside of the Djurdjura and rendering of the woman of the marabout Lalla Fatma Soumer.
- September 10th: A fundamental pact is promulgated in Tunisia. This constitutional law (Al-qanûn el-asasi), inspired of the Othoman charters of 1839 and 1856, defines the rights of the Tunisians, abolishes the statute of Dhimmi (protected) of the Juifs which become full citizens. It authorizes the property right with the European residents. This dissatisfied charter population.
Revolt in the Tafilalet.
- November 26th: George-Etienne Cartier becomes Prime Minister with John A. Macdonald. He encourages the railway policy and contributes to the establishment of the Canadian Confederation.
- December 31st: Ottawa is selected like capital of the Canada by the queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
Bad harvests. The reopening of the Russian market at the end of the Crimean War involves the fall of the price of corn.
- the opposition gains many seats with legislative in the English section by denouncing the any power of the French and the catholics.
- the population of the colony of the River-Red increases quickly. From 2000 hearts in 1824, it passes to 7000 in 1857 and more 11 000 in 1870. The Canadian mongrels and Scot compose the element of it most. They carry out a seminomad lifestyle and practice mainly hunting for the bison. The sedentary farmers, mainly of the Scot, will be only 1600 in 1870. The Compagnie of Hudson Bay dominates the economic life and the government of the colony. Its monopoly is however beaten in breach as of 1849 by the organization of a clandestine traffic of furs, supported by the proximity of the American border.
The United States
- March 4th: Beginning of the democratic presidency of James Buchanan with the the United States (fine in 1861). Elected by 14 Slave states and 5 States abolitionists, he refuses to intervene on the question of the Esclavage.
- March 6th: The stop Dred Scott cancels the Compromis of Missouri. The Supreme court declares that the slave Dred Scott cannot be party to legal proceedings to defend his freedom because he is not a person but a good.
- September 11th: A conflict between Mormon colonists and not-Mormons involves the Guerre of Utah.
- October: Economic depression. Two hundred and thousand people find themselves without employment and of the thousands of recent immigrants try to set out again towards Europe.
- the American state of the Arkansas gives each other a slave constitution .
- The Impending Crisis off the South of Hinton Helper, which shows that the slave company is dedicated to the failure. The work is interdict of diffusion in the States of the South where G. Fitzhugh counteracts by a plea in favor of slavery, Cannibal All .
- February 5th: The Mexican federal constitution sets up a Parliament unicaméral.
- liberal Laws of reform to the Mexico (1857 - 1859). They lead to the suppression of the system of collective ownership of the grounds and to the secularization of the grounds of the clergy.
- April 1st: Mariano Ospina Rodríguez is elected president de Colombie. The conservatives return to the capacity in Colombia. Mariano Ospina Rodríguez drives out the liberal Jose María Mello and is pressed on the Catholic church to impose the centralism.
- May 1st: Rendering of William Walker. The Guatemala, the Honduras and the El Salvador form a coalition with the assistance of the Great Britain, to fight against the expansion of the “American phalange” of William Walker, an adventurer étasunien who tries to seize the Nicaragua. The geographical position of the country, for the construction of a channel in fact an object of desire.
- December: War of Reform to the Mexico (end in January 1861).
- December 18th: Benito Juárez becomes the first Mexican president of Indian origin. Liberal, it suspends the foreign debts contracted by the preceding governments. The France, the Great Britain and the Spain decide to act jointly to protect their investments.
Asia & Indian world
- Franco-English naval Operation on Canton, which is occupied. The Qing, overflowed by the revolt of the Taiping, are unable to resist the Western pressures.
Revolt of the Turks of the Tarim against the Chinese led by Wali khan.
- Indonesia: The district of Lampong (Sumatra) is placed under Dutch direct government.
- Revolt of Cipayes ( The Indian Mutiny ) in India against the British capacity (1857 - 1858).
- Cipayes are Indian soldiers with the service of the British, with the number of 190 000. Their revolt at summer started by the distribution of cartridges coated with grease of animals taboos, which they were to bite for the décapsuler.
- January: The first signs of revolt are repressed hard with Barrackpore and Berhampore, with the Bengal.
- May 9th: The soldiers of Meerut, to 50 km of Delhi, release their comrades locked up and massacre the European officers.
- May 11th: Revolted go on Delhi, massacring Europeans and proclaim Bahadur Shah II emperor. Insurrections burst with the Rajputana, in India Centrale, in the Principauté of Bénarès, with the Bihâr.
- July: The British are overcome by the chief Rajput Kunwar Singh with Arrah.
- August: The British, being based on the south of the country and the quotas Sikhs and Gurkhas, manage to take again Delhi from which they massacre the population.
- September 20th: The British army of the India S seizes Delhi, after a three month old seat. Bahadur Shah II is deposited and exiled with Rangoon. Its family is decimated by the lieutenant William Hodson. The British benefit from the revolt to eliminate the Indian aristocracy. The Indian population is massacred and tortured without distinction.
- November: Lucknow is taken by the insurrectionists.
The Middle East
- April 4th: The Peace of Paris puts an end to the war anglo - Persian. It envisages the nomination of a new governor with Herat which agrees to pronounce the sermon of Friday ( Khutba ) in the name of the shah. This last begins not to threaten the Afghan city and the Chah recognizes the independence of the Afghanistan.
Lebanon: The application of the hatt-i Hamayoun causes a popular reaction: The notable ones and the big families Druzes and Maronites, which challenges the equality between all the Othoman subjects (charter of 1839), take refuge under the protection of the French with Beirut. Tanous Chahine, which directs the revolt, proclaims a republic of the people which are maintained with Kesrouan until the end of the Années 1860.
- Abolition of slavery of the Blacks in Hedjaz.
- Series of good grape harvest in Rhenish vineyard of 1857 with 1865.
January: Secret committee for the study of a project of release of the serfs in Russia. Provincial committees of the nobility charged to work out proposals on the topic in December.
- May 26th: Frederic-Guillaume IV of Prussia gives up its suzerainty on the canton of Neufchâtel after the failure of the coup d'etat of 1856.
- June 25th - July 2nd: Forwarding lacked Carlo Pisacane in Sicily. It is made pursue and massacre with its troops by the sicilian population. Camillo Cavour opens then the Piedmont with disappointed Mazzini EMS and with the Italian political refugees, granting civic rights and political to them and enabling them to enter the administration.
- July 1st: Kolokol ( the Bell ), periodical published with London by Herzen and Ogarev, carries word of the Russian opposition.
- : Constitution of the “National company Italian”. Under the action of Daniele Manin, Giorgio Pallavicino and Giuseppe Farina, it decides in favor of a unit monarchy under the aegis of the Maison of Savoy as its currency testifies some: “Italy and Victor-Emmanuel”. It recruits in the moderate and liberal mediums of all the big cities, preparing the fulcrums of the Piedmontese projection.
- August 31st: the king Victor-Emmanuel II of Savoy-Sardinia orders the beginning of work of the Tunnel of Frejus (Mount-Cenis).
- September: Economic recession with the the United Kingdom: with the increase in the production of gold in the world continuation a reduction in the profits in the exploitation of the mines makes, then in that of the railroads. The bankruptcy of the banking system, which begins with the the United States, extends to the Great Britain.
- 25 - September 27th: Meet between Alexandre II of Russia and Napoleon III with Stuttgart. Franco-Russian bringing together against the Austria (1857 - 1862).
- October 29th: The general Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke directs the state Prussian major (or 7).
- December: A Earthquake made 12 000 victims with Naples and Salerno in Italy.
- December 25th: Demolitions of the fortifications of Vienna, which are replaced by a grand boulevard, the Ringarde .
- the Juifs are allowed with the British Parlement.
- Law on the freedom of teaching to the Netherlands.
- Portugal: At the time of the epidemic of Yellow fever, the government makes come from France the Sœurs of charity, which causes a strong reaction anticlerical.
See also: 1857 in France
- February - March: Formation with Iasi and electoral Bucharest of the “Committee of the Union” to prepare the elections of the ad hoc couches. They take place in July in Moldavie, but give place to disputes. The France, joined by the Russia, the Prussia and the Sardinia, protests near Constantinople.
- August: A new international crisis is isolated with the interview of Osborne between the queen Victoria and Napoleon III. The Porte is inclined and of new elections one place.
- September: Victoire of unionistic in the Rumanian provinces. Moldavians and Wallachians decide with one crushing majority for the union. This satisfied result Napoleon III, favorable to nationalities, but opposes the Door, which wished to exert a protectorate after the setting with the variation of the Russia, and worries the Austria, which always defies national aspirations, likely to destabilize it.
Chronologies sets of themes
Arts & culture
Economy & company
- the European crisis involves a price-cutting of the Café on the international market.
- industrial Exploitation of the Oil of the area of Cîpina-Ploieşti in Romania.
- Creation of the Company of Agriculture to Warsaw.
- Adoption of a liberal customs tariff in Russia.
Births in 1857
- February 26th: Emile Coué, inventor of the method which will bear its name
- March 31st: Edouard Rod, Swiss writer
- May 31st: Ambrogio Damiano Achilles Ratti, future pope Black and white XI
- June 6th: Alexandre Liapounov, Russian mathematician († November 3rd 1918)
- September 15th: William Howard Taft, future President of the United States
Death in 1857
- January 14th: Johann Ludwig Christian Carl Gravenhorst, German zoologist (° 1777).
- March 20th: Pierre-Armand Dufrénoy geologist and mineralogist French.
- May 2nd: Alfred de Musset (47 years), poet and playwright French, in Paris.
- June 21st: Louis Jacques Thénard; French chemist (° 1777).
- June 30th: Alcide Dessalines d' Orbigny, Naturalist, explorer and paleontologist French.
- July 16th: Pierre Jean de Béranger, poet and chansonnier.
- August 3rd: Eugene Sweats (53 years), French novelist, with Annecy-the-Old man.
- August 12th: William Conybeare geologist and British paleontologist .
- August 23rd: Carl Ludwig Koch German Naturalist (° 1778).
- September 5th Auguste Count (59 years), French philosopher and founder of the school positivist, in Paris.
- September 22nd: Józef Dwernicki, general Polish (° March 19th 1779)
- November 11th: Jacques Abbatucci (66 years), French statesman, Minister for Justice, in Paris.
- December 11th: Castil-Blaze, critical musical and type-setter.
Beats-smg: 1857 Be-X-old: 1857 Map-bms: 1857 Simple: 1857 Zh-yue: 1857 年
|Random links:||Park of Paris-Austerlitz | Laws of Kepler, demonstration | Marie-Joseph Chénier | Edmond Gondinet | Roman Centuriation|