This page relates to the year 1855 Gregorian Calendrier.
- May 5th: Beginning of the reign of Théodoros II, modern first Négus of Ethiopia (fine in 1868).
- May 15th: The Portuguese seize the port of Ambriz to the Congo.
- May 30th: Beginning of the reign of Mohammed Bey, Bey de Tunis (fine in 1859). It continues the policy of reform undertaken under Ahmed I Bey, taking as a starting point the policies led to Constantinople and the Cairo. Part of its troops fights with dimensions Othomans in the Crimean War. It continues to waste the Treasury in extravagant expenditure.
- September: Faidherbe, Governor of Senegal, makes build a fort with Médine to install there 1300 soldiers come from Saint-Louis of Senegal.
- November 17th: The British explorer David Livingstone discovers the Chutes Victoria in southernmost Africa.
- the chief Nyamwezi Ngelengwa, future Msiri, come from current Tanzania, carries out a military forwarding in the Katanga (1855 - 1856). It mixes with the local quarrels, playing the part of condottiere, which enables him to accumulate spoils, to enlarge his troops and to seem the inevitable recourse. While revealing with the Kazembe, of which the Katanga was tributary, the secrecy of vaccination against the Variole (inoculation), Msiri acquires a reputation of healer chief. It cuts an empire katangais 1860 with 1880.
- Madagascar: Lambert is received with Tananarive. It obtains from Rakoto, claiming with the throne, the signature of a secret pact which grants to the France protectorate on Madagascar. Napoleon III refuses to hold account of it not to dissatisfy the Great Britain.
- January 1st: Ottawa becomes a city.
- May - June: First council of Walla Walla enters the government of the United States and the Amerindian tribes of the North-West (Cayuse, Pierced-nose Indians, Umatilla, Walla Walla and Yakama).
- June 11th: Treaty enters the Pierced-nose Indians and the government of the United States.
- August 7th: Creation of the colony fourierist of the Texas under the name of Company of the Meeting , organized on the initiative of the French Victor and Clarisse Considering, after having left France like good number of republicans after the Coup d'etat of December 2nd, 1851.
- August 9th, Mexico: Santa Anna is reversed by the liberals led by Benito Juárez Garcia ( Revolución de Ayutla ).
- Liberal reform with the Mexico (1855 - 1857). The collective ownership is removed, the Church must sell its goods, the Indians are seen prohibiting the communal property.
- September 1st, Nicaragua: Victoire of the mercenaries of William Walker with Virgen. It controls the capital Granada later one month.
- the liberals Nicaragua yens call upon a mercenary of the South of the United States, William Walker, to help them with évincer the conservatives of the capacity. The war between liberals and conservatives is not long in being transformed into national war and even regional when it becomes obvious that Walker has hegemonic aimings on all the Central America and is made proclaim president of Nicaragua.
December 15th: The abolitionists of the Kansas obtain a new Constitution. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 left the choice between maintains or the abolition of slavery. The opposition between the two camps degenerates into civil war as of the November 21st ( Wakarusa War ).
- December: Third war Séminole (fine in 1858).
- April 7th: Supported by the king Georges of Tonga, Cakobau gains a final victory over the other tribes at the time of the battle of Kaba and becomes the chief of the islands Fiji.
Asia & Indian world
- February 7th: Signature of the Treated of Shimoda between the Russia and the Japan. Sakhaline is declared undivided. The Kouriles are divided between Russians and Japanese.
- April 1st: The king of the Siam Rowed IV sign a trade agreement with the the United Kingdom.
- March 30th: Treaty of Peshawar between the the United Kingdom, the Persian and Dost Mohammad, king of Afghanistan. Dost Mohammad concluded an peace agreement with the Indian government. Persia recognizes the independence of the Afghanistan but asserts Herat.
- September: Failure of the revolt armed with the Sandals, minorities aboriginals of the north of the Bengal, against the British.
- Apogee of the Siam: suzerain of the kingdoms of the Lan Na, Luang Prabang and Campassak, of the sultanates of the north of the Malaysia, it has the septentrional provinces of the Kampuchea and shares with the Vietnam suzerainty on the Kampuchea.
- the Gurkhas of the Nepal, directed by the powerful minister Jung Bahadur Rana, occupy the frontier districts in the south of the Tibet; this invasion involves engagements with the troops Tibetans. A complex treaty will reconsider the relations between the two countries in 1856.
- Tenpai Wangchuk becomes the eighth Panchen-lama (fine in 1882).
- First Russian penetration with the Khanat de Kokand.
- War between Hakka S and Canton board (fine in 1857).
- Shanghai becomes an international city directed by foreigners profiting from the extraterritoriality. The foreign consuls can maintain the armed forces.
- February 5th: Beginning of the first liberal ministry of the Henry John Temple, Palmerston Viscount, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (fine in 1858). Palmerston, with the head of the new liberal party, takes again the heritage of the whig S inside by following a preserving and liberal policy outside.
- March 2nd: Beginning of the reign of Alexandre II, Tsar of Russia (fine in 1881). He undertakes a reform program.
- August 18th: Legal settlement between the the Vatican and the Austria signed by the Minister for the state education and the worships Leo von Thun-Hohenstein. The Church sees recognized its competence on the matrimonial right and the courts and obtains the seizure on teaching.
- November 21st: Treaty of Stockholm between the France, the the United Kingdom and the Sweden.
January 10th: The general Aimable Pélissier succeeds the general François Certain of Canrobert in the command of the 1st army corps of the East.
- January 26th: Camillo Cavour engages the Piedmont in Franco-British alliance. He wants to reinforce the bond with France to obtain his assistance in the payment of the Italian question and to regild the blazon of his army which made poor figure vis-a-vis the Austrians in 1849. The Sardinian troops take part in the forwarding of the Crimea, in spite of an unfavourable public opinion. They lose 2600 men. Cavour can raise in a memorandum the Italian question in front of the Congress of Paris.
- February 15th: Shipwreck of the Bright in the Mouths of Bonifacio to broad of the Islands Lavezzi. It left bound for the Crimea to bring vivres and reinforcements to the French troops.
- February 17th: Turkish Victoire with the Battle of Eupatoria.
- Mars - June: Negotiation of Vienna, broken by the Russia in front of the requirements of the allies.
- May 16th: Criticized to Paris and in dissension with the British general Lord Raglan, the Canrobert general gives the command as a chief of the French Army of the East to the Pélissier general.
- June 7th: Catch of the Green Nipple with Sébastopol.
- July: Beginning of the Head office of Kars in Turkey by the Russians (end the November 26th).
- August 6th: A Franco-British fleet drops anchor with broad Russian fortress of Sveaborg (Finland). 9 with the August 11th, the fleet will bombard Sveaborg, causing important destruction, in particular on the quays and with the arsenal.
- August 16th: An army of 50 000 Russians ordered by the prince Alexandre Gortchakov attacks the lines combined on the Tchernaya river, in the Crimea. The two regiments of the French general D' Herbillon push back the attack: 3 300 Russians are killed, 1 650 wounded and 600 captive facts. Allied losses establishment with 1 200 including 200 members of the Sardinian quota. The generals Russian Read and Sardinian Montevecchio are killed.
- September 7th: Battle of Malakoff.
- September 8th: MacMahon removes the work of Malakoff (point central of the defense of Sébastopol). The general Bosquet is seriously wounded by a glare of shell at the time of the final attack.
- September 10th: Catch of Sébastopol in the Crimea. The Russians evacuate Sébastopol after 332 days of seat. The Pelissier general seizes the city.
- September 11th: Victoire free-Sardinian with the Battle of Chernaya.
- September 12th: The general Aimable Pélissier is named Marshal of France, and senator the September 15th.
- September 22nd: The Brigadier general François Achille Bazaine is named higher commander of the place of Sébastopol, with the Major general rank of .
- November 26th: Russian successes in the the Caucasus, capitulation of Kars.
- December 29th: Austrian ultimatum with the Russia in favor of peace.
- country Agitation in Ukraine, caused by the calls of militiamans for the Crimea.
See also: 1855 in France
Chronologies sets of themes
Art & culture
- the French architect Eugene Purple-the-Duke publishes his Dictionnaire Architecture.
- the French painter Gustave Courbet painted the workshop and publishes the proclamation of realism .
- Franz Xaver Winterhalter painted the Eugenie Empress among her lady-in-waitings .
Economy & Company
Beginning of the industrialization of the Japan.
- Austria: the Rhenish economist Bruck is in charge of finances in order to reduce the budget deficit.
- the United Kingdom: Abolition of the rights on the newspapers and imported paper (1855 and 1861).
- durable Depreciation of the paper money in Russia.
- Buda and Pest counts 100 000 inhabitants.
Births in 1855
- January 20th: Ernest Slipper, French type-setter.
- January 28th: William Evans Hoyle, British malacologist († February 7th 1926)
- February 13rd: Paul Deschanel, future president of the French Republic.
- March 13rd: Percival Lowell, American astronomer.
- May 16th: Jean-Victor Augagneur, French politician.
- May 21st: Emile Verhaeren, Belgian poet of French language.
- May 26th: Vittoria Aganoor, Italian poetess. († April 9th 1910).
- July 16th: Georges Rodenbach, Belgian poet Symbolist of French-speaking expression. († December 25th 1898).
- September 10th: Robert Johann Koldewey, architect and German archeologist, discoverer of Babylon.
- October 12th: Arthur Nikisch, leader, pedagog, Hungarian.
Death in 1855
- January 26th: Gerard de Nerval (47 years), French poet, found hung with a grid.
- February 23rd: Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician
- March 2nd: Nicolas I, Tsar of Russia
- March 31st: Charlotte Brontë, British novelist.
- April 13rd: Henry Of the Spade, British geologist
- April 18th: Jean-Baptiste Isabey, French painter
- May 26th: Jean Isidore Harispe (87 years), Marshal of France and count d' Empire, with Lacarre.
- November 3rd: Hard François, French sculptor
- November 11th: Søren Kierkegaard, Danish philosopher
- November 26th: Adam Mickiewicz, poête Polish (° December 24th 1798)
- December 15th: Charles Sturm, mathematician French.
Beats-smg: 1855 Be-X-old: 1855 Map-bms: 1855 Simple: 1855 Zh-yue: 1855 年
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